Our Changing Environment El Nino, Ozone, and Climate
Our Changing Environment El Nino, Ozone, and Climate ATOC 1060
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Date Created: 10/30/15
ATOC 1060002 OUR CHANGING ENVIRONMENT Class 15 Chp 5 Objectives of Today s Class 1 2 3 Surface Winds and ocean circulation Ocean circulation and sea surface temperature SST Boundary currents 1 Ocean Circulation Observations Tropical Atmosphere A Ocean Array TAO r jWestern Pacific Moorings Figure 1 Atlantic Measuring CrossEquatorial Western boundary flow Figure 2 Surface winds and currents Solar heating Atmosphere circulation Oceanic circulation of wind acting on the L an N surface Trade Winds Westerlies 4 Wind stress the force l 39 Lquot Surface mixed layer 50m100m Coriolis force deflection 2040O Ocean currenls Why not 90 Wl ds STG SubTropi aI Gyre magmmm pwnpmeual m Blue Land mass Observed surface circulation and major currents How is the STG formed a Ekman convergence b Geostrophic component Observations Norwegian explorer Nansen shipice drift at 2040 angle with the winds Swedish physicist Ekman connect the winddriven currents with Earth s rotation mathematical explanation for Nansen s observation Ekmari spiral Coupled layers v Friction draggt I Surface rent Energy Dissipatedgt 1 slower motion 5 below i 3321335833 3 I wind direction EEE WLE Coriolis effect a de ec ongt Ekman spiral Figure 53a Ekman s theory Reality Ekman spiral rarely observed due to turbulence Ekman spiral assumes laminar organized flow we do observe surface curents are in about 45 angle or less Ekman transport Ekman transport the net movement of water in the entire layer is at the right angle 90 to the wind direction Northern Hemisphere to the right and southern Hemisphere to the left When add up all layers in the spiral the net direction of transport within the water column is at right angle to the wind direction Formation oflhe STG a Surface Ekman convergence b Geoslrophic component Westerlies I Wmdrdnven gyre Ekman ltransport CONVERGENCE STG Ekman Tiransporx Winddriven gyre Northeast trades b souyngmmw Peavsnn Frame New mo Fiaure 53b Geostrophic component Geostrop ic curre n A Low sea level pressure n Hi sea level PGF R high pressure Northern Hemisphere Red arrows Total flow that forms the STG 2 Sea surface temperature SST ANNUAL MEAN GLOBAL SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES r I 39 o 4 a 12 m an 24 as 32 Temperature 0C Figure 3 Observations Eastern Pacific Color SST arrows surface winds 30 11 15quotN O 39 Figure 2 Equator igi upwelling 30 S 140quot IBD W BD39W GD39W IGO39W Coastal up elling PM 91 1 Ekman Divergence equatorial Pacific or Atlantic 5 N a Ekman transport surface wind equator w surface wind Ekman trans ort p 503 Fi ure 3 9 Surface Upwelling and downwelling Geostrophic current Geostrophic current Surface layer Mass F convergence Mass a convergence Upwelling Convergence zone a Mass Surface layer thins Mass divergence n divergence Figure 5 4 Divergence zone b Upwelling colder deeper water moves up to the surface supply nutrients marine life 3 Boundary currents w Warmnurmms M cunenl mm n M W mu m mm m w IMng 5 Hduw W mm p r mM39 NonthuW 1 L N mumunnamemyuagg r mm Mnh lah ufu 39 spamsquaM l I gamma A 7 lr gum nnunlamumnr 1 hum r r V lt mms39wna a m mnd I wequot 7 r r 7 r mmjmmmwm u um w 12mm 5g K w 2 n 1 w y 2 w 12a 1g gm Copyrng a 2004 Pearsun Pvermce Ham lm North Ayangicwyestern boulndalry cu rrent 4135 er Narroantgnsg3 iv J 394 v Wldelsprefad slow ir f iiiLAth quot 5121131 T 1 lN hEquatorlal Cu ent Fig 52 39v C y Westward intensification western boundary current WBC aAsymmetw between east and west Western boundary intesification Gulf stream 5075km wide as fast as 12ms12km deep Eastern boundary 1000km slow 500m deep 2 Exist in Atlantic Pacific and Indian Oceans 3 Dynamics due to changes of Coriolis force with latitude westward propagating Rossby waves