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Weather and the Atmosphere

by: Jon Johns

Weather and the Atmosphere ATOC 1050

Jon Johns

GPA 3.95


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Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jon Johns on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATOC 1050 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/232066/atoc-1050-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Marine Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Mexico Signs Agreement to Drastically Cut Fuel Emissions Improve Air Quality February 0 2006 7 By Julie Watson Associated Press MEXICO CITY Mexico has launched an ambitious plan to drastically cut fuel emissions and improve air quality the environment secretary said Tuesday Jose Luis Luege Tamargo told a news conference his department has signed an agreement with the environment and finance departments to reduce sulfur emissions by 50 percent before 2020 The restrictions on sulfur emissions and small particles will go into effect in July and will be gradually expanded each year until 2009 Luege said He said that the limits are among quotthe strictest in the worldquot Mexico City is among the world39s most polluted cities The metropolis of 18 million failed to meet acceptable air quality standards for ozone limits 284 days last year Luege said though earlier environmental measures have led to major improvements in other pollutants such as lead Cars and trucks especially those that run on diesel fuel are the biggest polluters An estimated 6 million cars clog the capital39s streets each day and that number is expected to double in 15 years Luege said According to a study by Mexico39s 1995 Nobel chemistry prize winner Mario Molina who is coordinating a 10year project to improve air quality in Mexico City the city39s residents lose 25 million working days every year due to health problems caused by particle matter such as soot Luege said Mexico39s governmentowned oil company Petroleos Mexicanos will have to reduce the sulfur content of its diesel and unleaded gasoline by more than 84 percent by 2008 A Quick Recap of What We Have Done So Far 3 Lecture 1 Thinking of Earth as a System Chapter 1 5 Lecture 2 Positive and negative feedbacks Chapter 2 7 Lecture 3 Light basics Chapter 3 9 Lecture 4 Blackbody radiation Chapter 3 11Lecture 5 Radiation Earth s temperature demos Chapter 3 13Lecture 6 Earth s temperature greenhouse gases Chapter 3 Short Question 6 Clouds are important for Earth s climate because c They re ect radiation back to space cooling the earth b They trap radiation from the surface warming the earth c They serve as a way to store energy and transport it from one place to another d All of the above e None of the above What about clouds Altitude 4 UThigh Cold absorb IR radiation from below not very bright don t re ect Visible light High thin clouds Warm emit thermal radiation re ect incoming light back to space 4 U Tlow iiiiii Low thick clouds 7high 039 T54 7lOW Temperature Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc m l Fig 318 Short Question 6 Clouds are important for Earth s climate because c They re ect radiation back to space cooling the earth b They trap radiation from the surface warming the earth c They serve as a way to store energy and transport it from one place to another d All of the above e None of the above Flg 310 A schematic of Earth s energy budget a bit more complex model Reflected solar radiaLlon 30 Outgoing lnfrared radlation 70 Reflected by atmosphere 2 5 Emitted by atmosphere 1 2 65 Incoming solar radiation 100 Absorbed by atmosphere 25 f 100 E Thermals 5 f a 39 Radiated by Reflected by surface 104 surface 5 Evaporation Z4 Absorbed by surface 45 Copyrighl 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Temperature rises Temperature drops 1 Outgoing ux drops Temperature rises Outgoing ux rises Surface Outgoing temperature IR flux Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Negative feedback Fig 3 22 Temperature rises snowice melts Temperature rises SnowIce melts T5 0 Snow and ice cover L Planetary ower a e 0 Lower albedo albedo Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 321 Short Question 7 Water vapor a greenhouse gas represents What kind of feedback in the Earth System 0 Positive b Negative 0 Neutral d No feedback e Don t know Atmospheric H20 TS gt A Greenhouse effect Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 320 Surface area receiving insolation un39s rays Arrive parallel at Ea Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 41 Earth s General Circulation Review of ATOC 1050 Energy Net radiation deficit I I 10 10 Latitude North South Absorbed solar energy Emitted infrared energy Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 42 gt lt gt lt II I I I I I I Hadley cell A A Hadley cell I I l I 39 I I Subsidence Subsidence 12 km Y Y I I I I I I I I A I xix u gt u y iTCZ Divergence Convergence Divergence i i i I 45 30 O 30 45 North Latitude 0 South High Low High pressure pressure pressure Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc


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