Energy and the Environment
Energy and the Environment PHYS 3070
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Reminder no homework due next week Please register your clicker ID online by next Wednesday Exam 1 on Wednesday in class Exam details and a practice exam are available on the web page in addition to HW13 solutions and all lecture notes httpwwwsciencedebate2008comwwwlindexphpid42 SciencedabaleZUUB mummy i mum Io m x mm Han funIE and In em Ama Read the responses on questions related to issues including energy policy 39 OPEC Web Pag Frequently asked questions Is the world running out of oil Oil is a limited resource so it may eventually run out although not for many years to come Att e rate of production in 2005 OPEC39s oil reserves are suf cient to last more than 80 years while nonOPEC oil producers39 reserves might last less than ars The worldwide demand for oil is rising and OPEC is expected to be an increasingly important source ofthat oil lfwe manage our resources well use oil ef ciently and develop new elds then our oil reserves should last for mu me many re generations to co US oil consumption production amp imports millions ol barrels per day source US DOEIEIA mm W u Rufw39uuw I mu m IMPORTS m 7 III Iv mum Ru mm production Law all p m 21 v Consumption a mm 1951 1mm 2mm 20 0 217212 mm mummy mum m n Mean Faun4 5mm mum om Mu Darlin wp ma m u g mm m i l in V l n ownr l i quotquot quot 4 n w a m m um m m m umu RIP Reserves either proven or estimated Production Rate Naiver if Pconstant then RP of years lelt However quot 39 I 2 Eu wma cammm nu Prudlx lm 5mmquot Numnunuvnnimvm m 2 4 am 2112 m M quotmu m New n we E mmme nquot c L m u E n m M 1 m l l Mm 106 m an 15 2 ms m u m mmuVWiwmImmmlm Price of Gasoline Overall the price of gasoline in current year dollars has remained relatively constant over the last 20 years lfUS oil supply is steeply decreasing and the global supply is close to the peak why isn t the price rising Oil production is primary income for many counties with good supply US taxes on gasoline are 5 10times lower than much ofthe rest ofthe world obbies oil industry car industry highway construction land developers etc urouuction 7 Dw ward leaders response fa Peak Oil Other Fossil Fuels Natural Gas Natural Gas is mostly method CH4 and a bit of ethane plus contaminants H H H I I HCH HCCH It has been used for a long time in small amounts for example for gas street lights in Europe and elsewhere Main stream production is a relatively recent phenomena 1950 sjust starting Recall that natural gas is almost always present when there is oil Burning Methane CH4 202 gtCo2 2H20 Provides 45000 55000 Btukg when you oxidize Chemical energy is released when burning Less pollution that other fuels less 802 less particulates less 02 per Joule of energy released Switch to using methane starting in 1940s and 1950s Methane thrown away before a Historically it has been inexpensive but the price has been rising very fast due to very fast increase in usage Cwmmycmlcullnmug w Us I u induslll l uxlnm 35 w l39laninrmmlon r n w elldenllal Cuilomers as Dan in must for Wm m a mom n Flz lm712 w mun Cheker Questan Whydun t we use rnpre naturat gasfurtranspurtatmn7 p Expenswe e use rt s waytuu dan er 0 rstne pestanswer Naturat gas rs a gas yuu need a arge vu ume tn untamthe energy yuu need furtranspunatmn Lrguetyrng rt he ps put eyen tnen rt duesn t nayetne energy densrtyprgaspune sn 1 ptrnpre d ngerpustnan ptnerruets tt s nutsrneuyasraras t knpw 1 51M qmte abundanu m kO cprnpressed Naturat Gas SUM m gas rprrn Nate tnat surnetrrnes rt rs named mm hqmd rurrn fur tran nnnannn n e Huw duestnrs wurk Dut7 Gasuhne nas an energy untentu 3 X mwputesgaupn aturat gas nast 1x m dputesrta at standard ternperature and pressure STF cpst cprnpanspn ZgaHun gasptne r 1EI1EIEIEI 3naturamas Gasuhne DE Juue Naturat Gas an ax mE Juue eneaperpyraetpr2 Tnese ms yatues are a rew years u d put pptn naye rpugnty gpne up tne sarne Npte m ga natura gas A1 rwe want tn be ab e tn dnye as far sarne arnuu er c Tu get as tar wtn naturat gas reqmres a tank wrtn a yu umEZWZDD l m xturtxmrtt cprnpressed gas mu atrn un tne nrgn Esumate gets pne m tnengntrangetpretpse7 Cheker Questan Hun ufgasuhne 9yuturne1 34 n3 E the nt pren gy npw arge a tank at atSTF dd we n ed7 RecaH rrprn tne prevmus shde tnat naturat gas Energyn3 m in X gasuhne EnergygaHun a 5 rt3 C nu rt3 E m uuu ft Tnatrsatank J Furtne CMC Ggtlt pr any ptner CNG autumub e nnd put tne Specmcatmns Spect caHy wnat rs tne natura gas pressurte wnat rs tne vu ume urtne natura gastankl 4 w atrstne dnvmg range urtne Ear Du a gurek eateutatrpnstp see tr tnese nurnpers nang tpgetner7 f naturat gas purns eteaner and cheaper wnat rnrgnt be same prppterns rrwe epnyerted aH ears tp natura gas nterstate Naturat Gas Prpetrnes nttp vvvvvv naturatgas urgnaturatgastranspurt asp nttg NWWWIransuceangas um Nutetnat kessrgnrrreantenergy tn en tta p dpwn tp 462 umtne naturat gas aH tne way tp hqmd rprrn US Annual consumption ofnatural gas is 20gtlt10l2 alyear Proven reserves 189X1012 3 Undiscovered reserves 682gtlt1012 a Proven reserves will last 9 years Undiscovered reserves will last another 34 years Domestic natural gas will run out before domestic oil at current production level Unlike oil exploration is still primitive It may be early for a full Hubbert analysis to be accurate We may nd lots more eg seabeds Reminders Evaluations FCQ today last 15 minutes of class Research Project 2 due on Monday in class 9 don t forget 6 references sentences 2 calculations Make sure to check your scores on CULearn Lecture on Monday on global warming data No lecture on Wednesday next week Last lecture next Friday Decem 9 iinis ber 12 h global warming implications 9 perspective on course material IR Camera Demo Wm 7 2w m Greenhouse Even though there is a lot a whole lot more going on we have enough to understand the greenhouse effectquot Greenhouse S ort wavelength radiation visible and some UW from the s h sun goes mostly through the glas Long wav length radiation IR inside the e is re ected and trapped greenhouse by the glass T balance Is cha ged d the greenhouse heats up to a new equilibrium balanced temperature hus the equilibrium h an Greenhouse Glass 9 Earth s Atmosphere Radiation Transmitted by the Atmosphere Percent Plan monor Spreaomg 5M 39 9n mud n Greenhouse Gases Which of the following is the largest contributor to the greenhouse effect Gases that absorb light In the IR range are called A 02 ms Snurmu cu greenhouse gases 3 CH4 Absorption Concentration Relative Impact c Noquot D CFC C02 1 373 ppm 373 E None ofthe M CH 4 2 1 1 397 ppm 3 5 above wwwmmmuu ENE Nox 3 o o o 3 ppm 90 mannunnmmm i I CFC 2000 0003 ppm 6 Each gases impact depends on its quantity ppm and how much IR it absorbs n w u lt 5 mannuLInn n5 snmnammpmammnmnmmm ltns i u i r v r r i n 25 sq 75 mo 125 Isl us mum m Annunl Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector lmluwul 6 a quotmason 5 Earth Tam Without any greenhouse gases T 21 ElC With current greenhouse gases T 15 ElC lumpcrurmn w u 0 Wurtowwul and mtno 3 w Amman m m uvvrodmn l M blouuu burning 25s an Mars Without any greenhouse gases T 50 ElC There is almost no atmosphere so no greenhouse effect 7mm m mum mmoumw clxlrmmmn my 29539 w m 52 ox t 1 139 e 5 4m V35quot 1 u lam a h 7 E s m 1 4 E w more carbon maxla rumu mumwa tumult zommmml ID 3quot md onw warm 5 Without any greenhouse gases T 27 ElC Lots of greenhouse gases T 427 ElC Venus has a runaway greenhouse effect Emmyquot am Mall Conslznpklun and C0a Emlnlong 7 m gt1 I r rr m 4gr4 rm Eonmmnlm m Ivle mu lkxuubu mm m u Kndxunmxn ml nu heu m Farmers 39uniu 1 ml u 39 u 39er m r m mum m W Mr W m y I I u may 11tvyml muurm mu rll Hnmuw nnI L n 1 mlnHr I m vuYIryrmrrl m w r m mwmm WNW up Wquot r m z N mu VlnInu m nun W Global Trends in Major Greenhouse Gases to 12003 mmmmm 2 msmana g 39mw 5 m E g an Eye r m mu rm mu me man 2 errnus am i a g m E ES 2 emuamemsmmwayrunwweuwmmmeqsesmumnnwearznuz Mess veuaszsaccwmvmaham am am mmdchmnm mung wrungrm greenhouse gas mums ism a nmnbuw m In m m we mm harwen vasesz Hero 22 mmsn whammammgns chM 3 and con Finish reading Chapter 3 textbuuk Internal Combust on Eng ne Humevvurk 4 duetuday lnqulrelnfurm Asstgnrnentw due tn elass en Friday uel ts burned inside the cylinder Typically tt ts vapurlzed and mixed With air first apld tnerease tn pressure and temperature exensfurca urt ptstun Often rapld burning Expludesl Srnaller tetr eernparaple eutput petvver twu Cun lmlng requlrEmEnts hard tet Satisfyln a single cylinder Pls1un Cunnedlng mu Flywheeletankshati Burning happens at htgher temperature and pressure thh less atr Metre co and NOX pellutten Tvpteal Efficiency ZEI n Clicker Questtun Clicker Questtun Fur a given heatengtne heptane ts lt ts ubsewed thatvvhen heptane ts SE mama Whteh etthetellevvtng are a heat engtne7 burned 07H m 02 97COZEHZO tt pruduces earpen dlDdeE Water and heat it etne Weretu duublethe arnetunt uf uxygerl A MW 3 35quot 93mm EDA arenglne presentfurthe reaettun but keep the sarne arnuunt uf CJA stearn Engine tn an aid tashteneutratn heptane hetvv Weulu the resulttng arnetunts er earpen dlDdeE t D A nuclear petvver plants turptnes Water and heat dlffEr7 E All at the apeve A duuble everythth 5 reduce quantity pt earpen dlDdeE by same factur They aii are They are all devices which convert thermal c duu e Water unly energy from a fuel orfrom nuclear materials and change cortvert someof it into mechanical work E trnpetsstple tet tell sernethtng else he heptane ts keptflxed yuu ean tgetrnure pruductuut The Extra uxygen thltust hang aruund and net parttetpate tt Wun tchange the co H20 erheat pruduced Diesel Engine Physics is similar to standard internal combustion engine but many details are different Much higher pressures and thus no spark required Higher compression for a diesel implies higher ef ciency typical efficiency 30 Fuel injection makes engine less sensitive to fuel characteristicscan run on cheaper fuel Higher combustion temperature makes NOX worse but much lower CO output Fuel smells more noise heavier weight harder to start in cold weather and slower response The fuel economy of hybrid transit buses is all over the map but all are improvements over tec nology There are reports 39om transit agencies of fuel economy improvements of 1 0 percent all the way up to 50 percent depending on variables such as series or parallel hybrid design system optimizations and the type of bus route eroa tests are being carried out by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL but nal results have not yet been released However preliminary results are promising with fuel economy tests showing a 25 percent to 50 percent increase for the hybrid buses being evaluated depending in part on the conventional diesel used in the comparison H r 3 Y Y a signi cant increase over a standard diesel transit bus the cost of which is closer to 300000 Natural gas buses a loweremission alternative to conventional diesel transit buses are generally 20000 to 50000 more than a diesel bus Natural gas buses will likely continueto be able to meet lower NOX emission standards than even diesel hybrid buses until at least 2010 when stronger diesel emission standards go into effectquot b uses html Gas Turbines Jets Expanding gas serves two functions 1 It rotates the turbine to compress the airfuel on its way in 2 Then it exits the chamber to give thrust Typically 20 30 ef cient Needs high temperatures More high tech RollsRoyce General Electric Engines generate mechanical energy eg turning turbines or crank shaft How do we use this to enerate electrici 2 Electromagnetic Induction Faraday s Law Amazing discovery in 1830 sthat says that a moving metal in a magnetic eld creates an electrical current Michael Faraday was asked by a British government of cial of what use is electricity and he replied someday you can tax it Generator Demonstration Somehow it converts mechanical motion turning the crank into electrical energy that lights the bulb B turnin a wire coil in a ma netic field from a ermanent magnet in this case there is a changing magnetic ux and this induces an electrical current Faraday s Law of Induction Farada Flashli ht No Batteries The rst electrical power generator station using this idea Where is this At Niagara Falls the energy from r the falling water turns a set of wire r 39 coils inside of permanent magnets Him a l l t creates an alternating a a AC and this electrical current 13 This was a great success by Westinghouse and Tesla In fact at the time there was a great rivalry between Edison promoting direct current DC and Tesla promoting AC In this arrangement is the ef ciency for generating electricity limited by a Carnot Maximum Ef ciency B No No it 39 Generator 39 Luau w w A heat engine can also turn a coil And thus you can generate alternating current electricity That is how most power plants work Note that most plants are energy electrical energy However this is at the power plant One then loses cities or wherever it is used LM mummyhm lfwe want to generate 100 MegaJoules of energy in electricity we typically need to bum 300 MegaJoules worth of chemical energy of coal Le 33 ef ciency heat work What happened to the other 200 MegaJoules Just heating the atmosphere or a lake or river wasted However if we have a need for heat energy nearby we can use some o en not all ofthis wasted energyquot Heating the passenger compartment ofa car or bus cto Heating buildings or a fa ry Selling steam in New York City for building heat Cogeneration Reminders Read Article on Carbon Footprints see web page link for discussion in class on Wednesday Homework 9 due on Wednesday InquireInform 2 due November 19 in class Research Project 2 topics selected today due December 8 Reading Chapter 9 Research T ics 2 due Monda December 8 2008 You are asked by the Department of Energy to critically investigate a particular issue of importance for the new administration You have been asked to write a four page brief on the following topic You are asked to be concise and ive enough information for the Department to digest the information and follow up with more detailed references Details are linked from the class Web page Read them carefully If you have a preference for a different topic please make arran ements to meet with me and discuss the alternate topic proposal This is encouraged Deadline for topic changes is Friday November 21 2008 Research Project Reminders 1 You must include two 2 calculations of relevance in a separate Appendix and refer to them in the text Check your calculations to see if they make sense Feel free to come and talk to me about the calculations Example SAitching to solar water heaters could save the people of Boulder a hundred trillion dollars 100000000000 in natural gas costs see calculation 1 in Appendix quot What is incorrect or needs clari cation in this sentence i Any energy amount or fuel quantity or dollar gure needs to say over what period oftime Is this for one ear ii 100000000000 is one hundred billion not trillion iii Does the result seem reasonable Boulder Pop 100000 so that would be saving 1000 per person or 1000000 per person Both sound high Why 2 You must include at least six 6 references At least two I must be in peerreviewedjourna s You must Include 24 sentences on each reference detailing what the resource is not what the content ofthe article is Example Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energyquot April 5 2007 by Roy D39Silva m m Buzzlecom is a website dedicated to intelligent life on the web They have E Buzzl cnni Does the above quote tell you the reliability of the source No Ray D39Silva M mum new Wu 1 1 mm mww mywmn WWW Intum m mm u me gum ml AM w 14 mm minmul lllla m my Amqu Amh mm m a 1 mom i m y mum i g ml Perhaps I would not quote this source to the Department of Energy However if this article points to other references one can always check them out Example case of Brandy Bridges of Ellsworth Maine was a cleanup cost of 200428 for a broken bulb which doesn t include the cost offrayed nerves and risks to healthquot The United States Environmental Agency states that the 5 mg on mercury 39n is a un re 39 39 quot is found in an old style glass thermometer If you should happen to break a bulb mercury will be released and care should be taken but cleanup is not overly dangerous Air Pollution Air pollution has local regional and global impacts What is smog What is a thermal inversion What exactly happens to the smoke coming out of a smoke stack We need some Air Physics Pressure Force Area for example pounds inch gm 311 311 Area A a ma ma If equal conditions in the air on each side then the net force on th middle piece is zero equilibrium and no net acceleration or motion Additional Forces 1 Gravity downwards 2 Buoyancy force upwards Due to the Weight of all the air above the the air pressure is larger I I lower down near the earth and the 3 air pressure is smaller higher up in the atmosphere Buoyancy I Notice the lower pressure in Boulder than at sea level Thus there is also a buoyancy force upwards Gravity Archimedes Principle xu chiuucdes Principle mt lxlinyx Inl m H rum 9 rhc wcigu afihc splnccd va Force upwards Density of Water x Volume of object x g Total Pressure in 3 Liquid Pressure O at top sure increases ater Is Pr linearly with depth force u All slices are the sarne dens39ty ev higher pressure since 39 not eas39 compressed en though at Thus the buoyancy pWards does not depend on the depth Total Weight of column SCUBA D39v39ng hen SCUBA divIng the add just the right amount of Weight so that the gravity force down balances the buoyancy force up If too rnuch Weight you would just keep sinking down to the bottom assuming you do not paddle If too little Weight you would just keep rising up to the top 4 again assuming you do not paddle C ker Ques If you are diving deep underwater and the uoyancy force is greater than the gravitational force you will A You Will sink to the bottom B You Will rise to the surface 0 You Will rise to some level below the surface and stay there You Will sink to some level above the bottom and stay there E A shark Will eat you first The buoyancy force in Water is rather independent of depth since the density is the Water is alrnost constant Gases are Different iLoWest density Pressure O at top Pr sure increases linearly with depth J Gas is com pressed Density increases with depth iHighest density Unlike Water gases compress under higher pressure thus higher density Therefore buoxancx force is larger near the earth and aets smaller hiclher in the e Hot Gas near the Ground Hot gas density is less than surrounding cooler air 7 Bunyantfurce upward greater than weight ddwnward 7 Thus hdt gas rises Gas expands as it rises and cools as it expands 7 Thus the Bunyant tdree is redueed Rises until buoyant force equals weight Then is sta this height rWnen ddesthis happen7 Gase us dpieet edntaining water vapur is mdre edmplieated water vapur may edndense la Adlabatlc Lagse Rate ALR s 9 up Pressure deereases Gas pupple expands Temperature deereases AbuutrB BBCkllumeter Net Effect is td reduce the have pse rate td apduthalrthe value a n inmnirti annlmr tnmnll39 i in i ii In inns h the Trdpdsphere up td lEI EIEIEI matters the temperature d drdps with altitu e m i t if per iuuureet Altitude a T mp lf gas pldp is always hdtter than atmdsphere are all altitudes it always has a buuyancy rdree largerthan gravlty and keeps rising tn the upper atmdsphere Gddd thing rdr avuldlng ideal pdllutidn the that gldpal issues are still a prdplem Even in this easel put nuvv better dlstrlbu E Gas pldp gets eddlerthan surrdundings Altitude a Hdtgas pldp Atmdsphere Temperature a reaehes the erdssing pdint CllEkEr Questidn Hdtgas blub Altitude a Atmdsphere Temperature a What happens lftne weather lnverts the ndrmal atmdsphere temperatureraltltude relatidn7 l idt gas still gdes up putsldwer Hot gas blob 4 Altitude gt Atmosphere Tem perature gt sumrnnl l High Przssure Ni htDa Inversion Nightday inversion at low altitu Atmosphere Altitude Hot gas blob Tem perature gt ate s posttton on an tssue or e rgy andortne enytronment You snoutd tnen do a ttttte trtvES LtgattEIrt mm the tSSuE Then WrttE them a tener ormtng tnem or some setentttte trtfurmatturt on tne tssue t t t etude att references You need agree ordtsagree wttntnetr posttton Grades are based onty expresstng an Dptrtturt no eredttwttt pe gtyen Feet free to eneex wttn me tr you naye guesttons Ftrstonets due Frtda Octoberua ZEIEIE tn etass Electromagnet c Rad n Energy Ltgnt ts an eteetromagnette waye ttxe radto Waves Ways and atso ytstpte ttgntt Tnese wayes eany energy an Suntt nt ts eteetromagnette Ii 39E i souree or most ottne energy tne ereatton or fusstt tuets a tong ttme ago Think aboutgetting a sun burn Nuvv we xnow most or tne dtffererttfurms or energy and many ottne dtfferertt unttstnattnts energy ean be ex ressed tn Lets worx out a few more examptes to get some feettrtg tntuttturt fur energy and atso F39uvver Reytewtne retattonsntp between Energ and F39uvver Power Fuvver ts tne rate or dotng worx tttstne energy gtyen to or taxen away frum an omeet per untt ttme Power Energy Powerx time ttme F39uvver ts a rate ttts nottne same as energyt Anatog You mtgnt getpatd a satary as a rate e g Mt nour tf you worx 4n nours tn a wee yuu naye earned 4M Tne 4M ts ttxe energy and tne t unour ts ttxe power Chcker Questtun Tmzl cumulative Energy cumulan EU I a rntnutes D tt ts the sarne at aHttrnes shuwn F39uWEr Change tn Energy Change tnTtrne stuue un graph Electric Here tn Cuturadu a XcelEnergy39 My uttt eharged rne tur auuruxtrnatety tuuu kt uWattrhuurs tuuy eteetnetty trurn the F39uWEr Cumpany Nute that kt uWattrhuurs ts PuWer kWattD gtlt Ttrne huurs and ts thus a unttut energ Xeet dues nut eharge rne tur F39uWer they charge a eertatn Su rate fur rny tutaT eTeutrtuaT energy usage Fur EXamp E they du nut uare tt T used mun kWattsfurune huur ur mu kWattsfuMEl huurs etc They unTy uare auuut the tutaT energy NDIE H311 kWattrhuur can be Eunvened mm JDU ES 6U ns 1 Xeet eharges auuruxtrnatety su ma 9 cents per kWattrhuur mun Elkthaw 5W E36MegaJoules Thus stnee t used tuuu kWanrhuurs rny eteetne uttt was tur auuruxtrnatety sun tur une rnunth Dues that energ usage make sense ttt had ten tuuWatthghtuutus un 3 the ttrne turune rnuntht huw rnueh energy ts that7 E 10 gtlt100Wattvgtlt1momh h m eyert we want kWattrhuurs nut Wanrmunths Sun We need tu use the fautthat there are 72D huurs uerrnunth E 720 kiloWatts h0ms ctuse tu rn usage Du t reatty teaye tn ttghtuutus un attthe Ume7 Nu HuWEvEM use the eteutne uyen tuuuWatts and t atsu use the dryera tut 3uuu75uuu Watts The hut tuu dettnttety dues nut he u Watery stnee that ts trurn naturat gas anuther t uuu kWattr huurs and anuther stun per rnunth tn the wtnter t M Great Idea or Not thaye a Cuneeutz Ruwtng Maehtne at hurne tt t ruwturzu mtnutes ttsayst haye uurned 25m Fund Catunes We the unetetty dunut N 1 That ts auuut tu uuutes tn tzuu seeunds ur a F39uWEr uf uuu Watts HuWEvEM arn unty auuut tunn ettteteney at uruduetng usetutwurh the ehatn utttng a Wheat and thust unty euqu getuut auuut an Watts uf eteetnetty generattun fur exarnute Su tnstead uf uaytng stun tur rnytuuu tt euutd hayetust ruwed fuMZ EIEIEI huurs sun dayst am a guud guy and eare abuutthe envrrenrnent a green gu Wne are tnese penp e usmg mu Qatu m tne us eaen year7 WeH mu Qatu rs tne tuta 5e tne average per persun rs usmg 3 gtlt1EE Btuyear ur 3x W James per year Arnmne uttnuse gang s Electric Usage mun kWanrhuurs per rnentn 12mm kthr peryear Cenvert tnrs te James a 4 X mm James Natural Gas Usage Heating my house mun kWanrhuurs per rnuntn m tne Wmter Esumate BEIEIEI kthr per year 9 3 X W James ood eat abuut auuu Camnesgay 4 X wuweuxesyear Nevvtnat rstne energy ettne gem eat nettne energy rtregurregte grevvtne mug and get rtte rne n tact rt rs abuuHEI gtlt rnere energy tn pruduce tneteeg 4 wumJeuxes Transgonation Car drwe abuut m uuu rn he eaen year My CRVV ets 2U MFG m tne erty net nrgnvvay rnnes Tnat means cunsume sun gauens ufgasuhne a year t a gtlt1Eg Jams42 gauens frunt y eaf 7 X WEI DJuu esyear Trans ortation Fl in Fue cunsumed perpersun perrnne rs ruugh ythe sarne furcars and p ane y ever m uuu rnnes per year a 7 X wumJeuxesyear Goods ans rs narg m tn quarmiy butvery reugn esumate M Jamesyear Tuta s E ectru 4x WEI E39Juu es Heatmg 3x wumJuuwes and 4x1umJuuwes ar 7x1umJuuwes P anes 7X1EI E39J s Gangs mxmmeAes Tuta 35x WEI E39Jumes Tne average perpersun m tne USA Was an X mwemesw Caveats My exeetne neat and ear are actuaHy spht vvrtn rny fuurpersun tarnny On tne utherhand arn net rnemgrng any energy usage at Wurk mg factur Wnat rs a staustma breakduvvn un energyusage m tne Umted States 85 of energy supplied via fossil JeIs j n in m m Chcker Questan 85 of US energy supply comes from fossil fuels This includes Petroleum gas methane and liquid oil natural gasquot propane butane gasoline kerosene etc Coal Tar Sand and Oil Shale are sometimes considered separately from petroleum but are still fossil fuels in ZEIEEI U ZEIEIS ieyei s oaroon diuxide Emissiunswuuld be 62 beluvv S s putting a rnaiurbrake on global Warmin What do youthirw emi Active Solar Heatin mm Imlr Wu mm mm tseraremaeon the oyeraiipian7 ityou 39 39 quot were the next President Wuuld you implement it7 A Yes asis a Yes vvitn minor Change C Yes vvitn maior changes No How do the numbers work imagine you Want to neat lEIEI gaiions otyyatera oaytrorn 5m to SEW F39W S Equot in square meters 5 mm Square feet lZEI oegrees Fahrenheitfuryuurnuusenuld n eos Thus une panel a teetoy lEIfeetvvuuld dutneiub meeiy We eaieuiateo lastvveektnatvve neeo lEIEI rnilliun Juules of solar energy eyery gay to accumplisn this NE at 3 Weasmble We then eaieuiateo that at am emoeney fursernieactive We Wuuld regurre abuutlEI sguare meters ur lEIEI sguare teet or soiar p l mulesday 915 kWattenuurday Photovolt cs PV in Winter soiar intensity is duvvn oy anutnerfactur 273 Yuu also need some type ufbackup fursustained puurvveatner You Will also need storage tor nights and eiouoy days mooerate storage ufneat energy ean oe achieved With 9 Again properiy insulated materials e g Watery bricks ete Direct conversion of solar energy photons into electrical energy Not a heat engine Semiconductor Materials RecaH that photons have an energy E hf E l Nunnat Sthcun Thus a photon m yeHoW hghthas an energy of approxtmate y Lam E 4x tnwootes estestest s test These photons do not have enough energy to typtcahy Prtypetdumdwwh t t t t t t Hasfewer e ectrons remove change rnoteeotarponos petween atoms Va m a u39 f if ij SfoSf Pp05mve type 300 or us 5 5 5 Howeven fme photon stnhesaetevenyoestoneo s s s s s 5 sernteonooetor We Sthcon t mustme nght amount of mildggffmw Adds extra e s rons energy to t an shaman up and ettt ronouct away owas t t It t t Nnegatwe type an eteetneat eonentt s s s s ttoht A lt 1 2pm 05 Volts Typteat ef menmesforpv are WENe ano maybe up to 2 at theteehnotooteateooe Ef menm ts notthe onty factor 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SEI nDtE that scares are HEIW ayattaote on tne CULEarrt page Ptease eneek tnem and tn oartteutaryour etteker numoer fractturt or guesttons answered Let me know ASAP tfthere are any orootems J Wnat aoout otner renewaotes stttt sotar tn ortgtn us Renewaote Energy Consumotton tn 2mm tn Qatu Enerd Souree Qatu PercentufUS Totat Hydroeteetne 2 a 2 8 Geotnermat u 3 u 3 Etumass 2 a 2 8 s ta u no u no n thd u M u tt Totat 6 t5 6 3 Ctteker Questton Wnat does renewabte enerd mean anatrt AJThE energy ts notaetuatty used a tne energy eomes frum ttytng tntngs 9 e energy tnat ts used ts returned to tne enytronment tn a rerusabte form 9 tne souree or energy ts not deoteted oy ustng tt E tne energy ts green 7 ttdoes not damage or stgnttteantty atter tne enytronment D ryuu don tdeotete ttoy ustng tt Ltke sunsntne Hydroelectric Sun heat water 9 Evapuratiun 9 vapurii ed up 9 ram faiis 9 riuvvihg Water gues dEIW HiH by gravity Nature heatengine i 7 lawnquot Gravitational Potential Ener PE mgh R ivev m 103 k x V m3 m m 98 g X PE98X103V11 h heightin meters v vgiurheihrheiers3 Putantiai Energy R ivev Cunversiun unhis gravitatiunai puiehhai Energytu Eiectricai Energy eah be very emeiehi mamu Nu significantpuiiutants ur heat Casts iessthan 1new current fussii mei piants per kiiuWattrhuur of Energy pruduced There is he iherrhugyharhie iimitfurthis EunvErSiDni Aisg yuu eah pump Water uphiiifur sturage ufenergy This Wurks if yuu have h Generam m lt u am Long history dating back to water wheels Some countries have major resources for hydroelectricity generation Norway 99 ofelectricity 10 GigaWatts Brazil 93 of electricity Canada 58 ofelectricity USA 10 of electricity Globally 24 oftotal electricity production Trends in US Hydroelectric Generation Nydmledd entry I 039 MW hrlyr HydvulectIic penanqu al Is eluniu39ly I I I I I I930 I590 zoou 20 a Year US has tapped most of the potential Some room for growth but large 39 and c II I 1 195a 1960 1570 ost Issues now In the United States we are not building any new large scale hydroelectric generating facilities dams Some small scale projects are promising eg Boulder hyrdo Aswan High Dam White Nile Lake Victoria Blue Nile Ethiopia Nile Khartoum Aswan Low Dam 1889 1912 1933 Aswan high dam 1952 Good News 12 X 175 MW 2100 MegaWatts Brought electricity to some areas forthe rst time Controls very damaging oods Bad News 4 Million tons of sediment per year not delivered down stream and accumulating behind the dam Signi cant ecological damage to the Nile delta region The upper Nlle region which will be submerged by the water behind this dam contains many sites ofhistorical and archeological importance including the temples at Abu Simbel and the town of Syrene where Eratosthenes rst provedthat the Earth was round Every square meter ofthis country is signi cant historically or archeologically lfwe preserved every antiquity we could never build anything Are dams We these wurth the prune Tun uften the peep1e whe pa y the pnee are same as the one the benents nut the svvhu QE 3 Surge Dam Yangtze yer R1 When eernp1ete1n 29 w111 be the 1argest sueh preueet 1n the we vaatt Famed 2 WWW rneye and13 em abanduned Hd 19 peup1etu es Carbon Em ss 5 Inventory for the U vars of Colorado Boulder Campus 1n the Umted States 99 etearben d1ugtlt1de1s Ermtted asthe resu1t etthe cumbustmn ettess11tue1s U mventury etcoz Em1ss1unsfrum199 tu1989 shews Ermssmns gumg dawn 5 2 Martha 19 year penud Fur umpa sum e1eetne1ty use has been gumg up 475 Every year Thus mar 19 years the e1eetne1ty cunsumpum WErEaSEd Hew7 by 59 but Ermssmns went duvvn by 5 Whatha enswhen1twe stu en Eneratmn Wmd guWEr Primary Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide rnostiy trorn transportation otners are a mixture or sourees Note tnatbereentages aboye dues not reaiiyteiitne story about Carbon Monoxide Singie earbon buundtu a singie oxygen atorn Cuiuriess uduriess puisunuus Creation Cornbustron wrtn inadequate oxygen 20 02 gt 2C0 C 1402 CO Gasuiine Enginey Especiaiiy wnen eoio ornrststamng Wand and eoai stoyes and firepiaces sorne gas appiiances Snuuid states naye tne ngntto reguiate Emissions or oniy tne Federai Goyernrnent7 A States snuuid be abieto naye tnerr own reguiatiuns a oniytne Federai Goyernrnent ean reguiate Wnat irtne Wind biows frurn onto into New York Can New York reguiate wnat Chin buts intEI tne airtnat goes into New Yurk Wnat about different Euuntries7 CO Formation Nurrnai reaetron wrtn adequate oxygen c 02a co2 Reaction with inadequate oxygen 2coza2co CV2024gtC0 How dues tne earbon know iftne oxygen is adequate COCO2 Conversion Step 1 Always happens 2coza2co CV2024gtC0 Step 2 happens only irexeess oxygen 2co ozazco2 impiicitcunciusiun Oxygen prefers stepi instead or c or co2 wrtn sorne c not reacting How much CO is too much Coneentratron orobierns start at about mu ppm rusnnour trarne parking garages n39 7 312 Legai iirnits 35 ppmfuri nour or a bbrntor a nours Tiny eornbareo to eoneentratron or oxygen ZEIEI EIEIEH ppm CO Emission Densit EPA Symptoms relalmg lo co cunmnllallor an I HOSOIBO 200 220 210 MlNUTES Legal limits 35 ppm for 1 hour or 9 ppm for 8 hours 10 times this amount for extended periods causes death Clicker Questio zl uwploms telalmg in co co unzmnun 3 u in 1m iJa lsa mi 2m 2m 2m MlNlJTES What might the most severe symptoms be if you were exposed to 200 ppm of CO for 4 hours Natu ral Removal Methods Combines with O2 in the lower atmosphere Combines with OH in the upper atmosphere Mean time for removal 12 months Thu carbon monoxide released into the entire earth s atmosphere is not a major problem currently The largest problem is when large amounts are released locally and not quickly dispersed eg in your house eg during a thermal inversion period around Denver A None B Deat C Vomiting D Coma E Slight Headache Potential Carbon unmade Sources the Home S39E v monnxlde liens Camcoa m ulscu39merlm w l mucky lye WWW w 3mm m w W a Carbon Monoxide Detectors Reducing CO Emissions Step 1 Always happens 2cop2co c1zopco Step 2 happens only if excess oxygen 200 OZaZCOZ Increasing the amount of step 2 reduces CO emissions Increase the oxygen content Use a catalyst 9 increases reaction time for CO NO Reducing CO from Cars Catalytic converters for car exhaust Converts CO to CO2 using a hot catalyst Oxygen sensor on exhaust Varies input mixture Add oxygen compounds to fuels Ethanol MTBE What is MTBE Methyl Tertiam Buyl Ether Originally added as replacement for lead Addedto increase oxygen content starting in 1992 to comply with requirements of Clear Air Act of 1990 Colorado Front Range NovemberFebruary Evening rushhour at or alter sunset MTBE is soluble in water Gets into water supply from leaking tanks Santa Monica water supply contaminated in 1996 Many other sites have some contamination Alternatives The choices Siritch to ethanolbased stuff Colorado Promote electrical rail trains or other mass transit Decrease CO pollution some other way VacuumInsulated Automotive Catalytic Converter Variableconductance V quotw vacuum insulation and phase change material 1 s heat storage are used to keep catalytic converters 3 hot for up to 24 hours 1149 11 mm By having a hot gt 250DC converter at the start of a trip auto emissions can be reduced by up to 80 NREL developed and patented this concept Clean Fuel Reguirements US lean Fuel Requirements 125271 Y I chemi RFG cm mm 2 we Mimi swarmed ml Slate ml Program Many of these measures are working though ghting an uphill battle of more and more cars mm or m mu m m min Ker was my me mg war men 93 mm WWWrm mm mm mm Oxides of Nitrogen 9 NOx N20 Nitrous oxide NO Nitric oxide NOZ Nitrogen dioxide N205 Dinitrogen pentoxide NO is formed in a hot ame ifthe temperature is above about 1100 Dc Smaller amounts ofother compounds also formed Many nitrogen compounds are unstable NO can be thermally dissociated breaks apart with heating Manmade Sunless of ND Emlssians 2003 dualI may mimics Ra 4mm 22 Mata hulaa NOX Emissions Looks very similar to carbon quot Ozone Creation Start with small amount of N02 N02 sunlight gt NO O o oz 03 03NosNozo2 Creationdestruction reactions for each component and thus densities reach an equilibrium Note that sunlight cannot dissociate other common atmospheric gases Clicker Question Which ofthe following is not an allowed chemical reaction A 03N09 N0202 B 02N09 N0202 o o 02 a 03 D 2C 029 2C0 E All ofthe above are allowed mg m quotyam nus 95 Bush Sphls Willi quot Mulmdi manuals mummum unum m Illnun unnm Extra Credit 6 Check out the EPA document at uquot m Mum u httpwvwvepagovclimatechangeanprhtml Write a 12 page letter detailing a couple of speci c scienti c points that you nd are critical to consider in setting this policy Ask for a reply in your letter Letters should be addressed to News Releases By Dale av wuw cwmlmmy a Duuminyu In Fulle mumrml Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center Environmental Protection Agency Mailcode 2822T 1200 Pennsylvania Ave NW Washington DC 20460 Note that the EPA comment period ends November 28 2008 Hand in a copy of the letter in class on Friday November 21 Remi e i THE NEWYORliER Homework 9 due today at 5 pm Homework 10 now available due next Wednesday Nov 19 InquireInform 2 due next Wednesday in class Nov 19 Extra Credit 6 due next Friday in class Nov 21 Reading Chapter 9 and 10 Make sure you have your research project topic 2 Advanced notice exam 3 on Wednesday December 3 Advanced notice research project 2 due on Monday December 8 IDEAL vs IMPORTED MEAL imam mlmlmunl Mamemarwunmmn emnanummnaawmwuwmamummy wunlHulkMMmHmcmmma elwmwwm wwmn n mmmddvmng54mmmmmalarmrsmxmwmmwnm WWW mmnampmmm am New ml mm m p mm m w p mp mm Murmuka WWW Wmmuaam m m mmwaw mmmapan run mmm mmmmmmuwvmu 0mm Washmglw a nmnnma ymwnwammqmn aa nmnwna yqvwwmlmhm g mmmzwasnmgm s g ammuywnwmm u 5 magnum gmm pquot m a amawmmgm u Enmwwaw mmmm m w m mmumaw m n vH mnmnummm Lnla Farmedquotan m Observatmns Daas ms repun uf aampwaxny and seemmg y uunterr mtmuva rasmts aad yuu m7 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Combustion Engine mm HWWW stiriingengine com Very simple mechanism Rerhthders Extra Credtt4 due tuday th etass Hdrhewetrx 7 due tuday ats prh Exarh t uh Frtda oetdper 24 th etass Brthgtextpddx ahd eatedtatpr eseareh Fretteetw due uh Frtdayt Detpperat th etass he erhatted th papers aeeepted Extra Credtt 5 peetrhthg Pahet Dtsedsstdh Du We Need a MahhattahApetttet Fretteet Tu Sutve the EnergyChmate F39rubtem Thursdth Oetetper an 7 an PM 7 a an FM CUrEfuutdEr Eateth Hdrhahtttes Ruum tau Free and Open tet the Pdptte VtEW Et er httEtSctenceguhc pradp eddddtreaeheeez erpdt Wrtte a ethe page Essayun a eddpte pt tntErESttng ththgs yuu tearhed ahd Whatyuu ththxtrdrhthe setertee yuu xhdw Due trt etassurt Frtday Nuvember at ZEIEIE Wpdd ts ptetrhass Presehtty tt represehts abuut 3 ettthe tettat us Energy ephsdrhptteth Thts rhaxes tt ethe ettthe btg rehewapte sddrees atth thh hydrdeteetrte Mdeh dttttstdrdtreetheatthg Pettet stave eurteept Ef ctEnL tean use eheap Wand seraps Stttt rhetre swam thart gas ur dtt Need eteetrtettytetr btuvvers teeders Abuut a 5 GtgaWatt uf trts taHed apamty pt eteetrteat pretddetteth otteh used turrdhhthg a factury ur tpeat tndus uy but tun the Heart Nd Thts ts tessthah tum pt hydrdeteetrtet whteh ts abuut tun SW The tettat th the USA ts BEIEI 3W Caretdt apddtedttthg dEIWn tetet mam trees t e rehewapte There are programs to develop faster growing rees What about growing grasses that can grow in more places than trees Do not forget about the water input issue One thing to consider is the CO2 eguation Why is burning trees carbon neutralquot produces no net excess of CO2 in the atmosphere but burning fossil fuels is different THE CARBON CYCLE mp m cm m nelygrml d and wanted Into may umponem mgm um i mabmrbcd hy the original raps whlzhleleam whkhunbnusmas mmgmmmxmkd mm dioxide an alemalva luel m make mum What is carbon neutralit The amount of CO2 taken out of the atmosphere by the plants in the growing process is equal tothe amount of CO2 put back into the atmosphere by burning or processing the biomass ie plants What about ethanol from corn or other products Note that ethanol does not come from burning corn in a stove Will Cellulosic Ethanol Take Off Fuel mm s an L1 mm could be mg m the an In wearsnif the government help an mum tum 31mm ml 8139 i1 Seek to Promote Iillmnul in less a leu um ng lllrnnglluul Lum Anwnm mm mmmmmu mordm n Arminration Mllemh luultu uulhng equipment Kimmy lInm n pulled to am mum in mu gm Brazil Sugarcane i United States has a tariff on imported ethanol from sugarcane through 2009 Who is this person United States Senator Grassley Iowa Energy Related Press Releases January 17 2007 Grassley Salazar Introduce Resolution Recognizing Need for Renewable Energy January 25 2007 Grassley Ob39ects to Idea of Lifting US Tariff on Ethanol Imgorts January 30 2007 Grassley Urges Energy Secretam to Consider Need to Retain Tariff on Ethanol Imports January 31 2007 Grassley Comments on Administration Farm Bill Proposal March 2 2007 Grassley Expresses Concern Over Possible USBrazi Partnershig on Ethanol Let Cowboy Energy help you beat the high cost of gasoline Build and operate your personal ethanol still with the materials offered on this web site gas emissions into the environment than regular gasoline Two things to note 1 You need a license to run an ethanol still Energy Independencequot 2 Much of the ethanol focus is on energy independence and has little to do with environmental concerns Tractors and Farm Equipment Energy Input in Wet Mills Fossil Fuel mm mm Wpmiin to their cnmponenl xllguri Input for Fertilizer V39 9 unglnal mm 4 lt COI mi m whlzhreleaxe wlllthunhnuwdax Tlmxugxruredlmlled urban mm an autmwu mi m mm annual Distillation What was missing in this picture Lots of Processing to Make Ethanol Guln strch Sugu Ethal llnline Giwhol What is FFE in this Figure from the textbook Answer Fossil Fuel Energyinput Does this change the carbon neutrality of this biomass Clicker Question How much does the ethanol creation process rely on fossils fuels A Not at all it39s a classic form of using solar energy to create quotbiofuelquot B Only a tiny negligible amount C At almost every step of the way C is correct take a look at Fig 513 Assuming that the amount of energy from fossil fuels consumed in the ethanol creation is a fair bit less than the amount made available in the ethanol is it a good candidate for a gasoline replacement Why or why not The 2001 Net Energy Balance of CornEthanol Note that this is one study linked to from the Iowa State web bade Other studies numbers differ rn gtdtarnatet tacttc amd hctutd we exctude the Q quotquot quot quot tracttctn cttthe Energy J mput that we assctctate wtth the bypruducts nctt ethanctw the HI ttt W 3112 155 322 AYes QW39N tn tnitp 3 ND C ttdepends whatthe catcdtattctn ts tctr prdduee neat mstead err burmng cua Turmeheatengme part rstnen srrnnartd a eunyentmna puvver p ant K2 Ehements Fue Ruds 9 cuntam En ched 3 Uramum235 Mederaters 9 serne rnatena te smvy devyn tne Extra neutrens se tney dd net eseape Cuntrm Ruds 9tney absurb neutruns when msened tn snut dawn the rEamun Moderators Grapnrte e prdmern rs tnat rt burns rt rt gets yery nut used at Chemuby Heayy Water DZEI e yery a ectwvey but Expenswe Canada used tnrs CANDU Regmar Water HZEI e Umted States mus dy uses tnrs EeryHmm e Effemve but a tuxu meta Paramn Wax 7 am nas prdmern err burmng and memng Enriched Uranium Reactor Tutal rnass utmei zuu uuu kg 3 235 Control Ruds Mugeratur vvaterr graphite E Cireker Questan Afterthe nntrul ruds are inserted lritEI tne reactur and it is shut down a greatdeal gr energy untinuestu be released lritEI tne cureithis energy is primarily a result at c stearn returning frurn tne turbines in euntrui ruds heating up trurn neutrun absorption E nut suresurnetnrng eise El fissiun pruguets are still tnere and still ragiuaetiye and u nes urtli nesde y ygr iy tne eure euuis g a LOT yery gurekiy Atter a shuntime it s not hut enuugntu run a turbine any re it s nuu tn be a sate and s urage euneern Eyen after rnany years tne Waste pruguets are still kept lri easks undervvatertu kee tnern uul ittakes geeagestu uul duvvn enuugn tn Evolution of the Fuel Rod Uranium starts out enriched 3 U235 Overtime Uranium 235 depleted eventually decreases to lt 1 or less a er ars Converted to lots of stuff not destroyed puisuning Uranium 238 does not unmodi ed What to do with the Fuel Rods Reprocess Remove radioactive junk put it where Produce new fuel and recycle Makes rnuen betteruse ufthefuel Extracts Uranium 235 and Plutonium Store and dispose Increased storage and disposal problem Bomb material remains in the rods Where to put this stuff US deCI5ion 19705 No reprocessing e Uranium Wasls eneap and available 7 Nueiearpreiiteratien is a seneus tnreat Store fuel rods at power plants Temporarysolution Begin search for permanent site 7 Still ieeking 25 years later Storage Sites At least 1000 years for highlevel stuff Some isotopes will need up to 10x longer Hanford Washin t n Currently being cleaned upquot Savannah River South Carolina Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP Carlsbad New Mexico All above limited to Defense Department Yucca Mountain Nevada ucca Mountain Stable geology far from current level ofwater table Many studies of suitabilityfor longterm storage 7 Mudels invuive assumptiuns abuut unknuvvns State of Nevada of cially opposed to current use as permanent site Would be full by 20302040 anyway Sturage needstu iastrertens ufthuusands ufyears Why can tvveiustiaunch it lhtu space7 ltvvuuld eustmure Energy than the Entire plant pruduces Aisu riskyi Shielding Three Mile Island accident 1 Fuel ruds lri a sealed Zircuniurnaii keepsfuei avva f Dy Pressurized water reactor started 1978 y rum Water Pump in primary loop failed Inserting control rods to absorb neutrons does not stop 39 Backup cooling not adequate reactor starts to overheat 2 Pressure vessel is 8 inch thick steei Wall rrtammerrt vessel is 3 tea WE EDWEIE We 7 Radiuamve Water and steam vented Core overheats and melts 4 isuiated ieeatmn 7 7 Steam reaets With eere materiaistu pruduce 5 Emergency eure cuuiing hvdmaerj I Some radioactive gases vented In 1979 roughly 25000 people lived within ve miles ofthe giant cooling towers that became symbols ofthe nation39s worst commercial nuclear accident No people were killed and it is not clear there was any signi cant radiation exposure Containment largely worke Chernobyl 1986 Very dt ereht destgh Thts eyeh Graphtte reaeturvytth hp EDNIammEHtVESsEH buhtup a Then they resumed the EXpEHmEnt and turned t back uff hg ereated ah unstapte sttuatph where XEHDH had psprphg rhahy neutruns 5p theyhtted nut at ptthe ephtrpt rpdstp phhg the reactmn back dpt Destghed tpr Pmtprhurh pruductmn and thus Wanted tp remuye ruds du ng uperatmh F39vaer shut upfrum 3D MWtu ZEIEI MW Apht 25 1986 Operatprs reahzed sprheththg Was yery Wrung htt erhergehey shut dpyyh Operaturs started a dupmus EXpEHmEnHD hetp therh uhde rstahd what Wumd hap eh ttthey usi erhergerrey Huge exp usmm gramme ruds caught ppvyerepphrrg Shutuff euphrrg systerh yptatthg 3 safety We 2 5 Efrad aucm m the cure rutes reteased One hum aterthey turned tt back an 135mm peppte Evacuated 25 pt Betarus budget patd turthts 2mm persphhet ahd hrehghters Smk Average dpse BEIEI rerh at dted Chddreh lt 5 shpyys thereased thyrmd cancer rates ESUmatES ya but perhaps zu uuu Extra premature deaths Nuts that thts ts nut pt suu uuu uuu hurrhat a D4 Luts uf depate abuut tptat heatth trhpaet THEWALLSTIIEFTI39JUIHIM II on lndustry IOII um mwd a mm a mm l Wmn Urn e Mn Mm d wan lre mm hnummll39 rr MAW ml dm dummy run nmlnm mm n m r d m r n medulla mum n n n n r nml mlmnda nlwl n m rlmwum Md A yplcal desktup cumputer ednsdmes Energy Wlln a puvver dr mu Watts lrydd have lnls umputerun nutlrl hlbemate urstandby fur an days huvv mden muney d u cents per klluWatkuur des lnls edsl assdmlngl Tlme ln nuurs ln 3D days an X 24 72D nuurs Energ F39uvverleme u l Hldvvansx 72m nddrs Energy 7 72 klluWattrhuurs aw in permdnln 85 of US energy supg y comes from fossll fuels Tnls lnelddes Petroleum gas melnane and llddld all natural gas x prupane butane gasullnEl kerusenel ele Co Tar Sand and Oil Shale are sumetlmes cunsldered separately frum pelrdledm but are stlH rdssll mels Petroleum 3 Molecules of rbon and hydrogen ydru r H abun Example Alkaneszlth saturated slngle bands l e eaen arbun nas4 bands H H H I I I HCH HCCH I I I H H H tnree earbun alums fuur arbun alums H H H H H H H H I I I I I I I I HCCCCCCCCH I I I I I I I I H H H H H H H H Eurrllrlg MEtharlE CHA 20Z gtCOZ 2 H20 F39ruvldes 45 EIEIEI r 55 EIEIEI Btukg When yuu qudlZE cnemleal Energyls released Wnen burrllrlg How are fossil fuels formed Origin lsfrum plants and same animals but nut much dinusaurinthere e M ustly micruscuplc early eeean lle Solar Energy as Input or an s Photosynthesis Energy 2 C HmOSh 02 Cellulose Carbohydrates lfyuu burn a piece ufvvuud yuu are reversing tnis preeess andfreelng energy Similar burnlng ueeurs Via bacterial decurnpusitiun Heweven in the absence e Oxygen this dues nut happen co2 H20 Chemical Putential Energy Celluluse Sulav Enemy I Burnng 0 oHo intermediate sale Sumetirnes instead er bacterial decurnpusitiun ur burning Dead material sinks in the bean ufthe Water lfbunedvvhere there is nu uxygen e g lrl sand annual high pressure and temperatures ean actually remuve the uxygen frurn the mulecules Carbuhydrates Hydrucarbuns Tne Pruductiun uf Fussil Fuels N N N N N N N M LiNiiiii caaiccccc quot775471 WWW l l N l l Hear Pressure Oxygen absent Hear Oxygen present coz H20 Liquid gas hydrocarbons ow until they are trapped in a natural area impermeable rock Over geological time scales 108 100 million years reservoirs may end up under LAND but can also be under WATER too Coal formed relatively close to the surface Relatively low temperatures and lower pressures Oil formation requires higher temperatures and pressures Oil decomposes into natural gas at very high temperature Natural gas CH4 Methane almost always presen 155quot 09m m 59 1 1 414 Gas and Oil Trap Surface mpermeable rock trap 4 Porous materials J L Upward pressureforces oil and gas Into trap Oil prospecting Finding the trap Geologists locate promising areas Test drill wildcatquot well If you find oil this is considered a proven reserve ie economically recoverable known to exist lmpermeable rock trap 4 Porous materials J L Upward pressureforcesoilintotrap Typical drill Rotating bit hollow shaft with coolant Typical cost 100 foot of depth Deepest 5 miles Average 1 mile 5280 feet 2 million drillings in the United States alone V TILIA WVD United States history of oil 1859 Colonel Drake at Titusville PA 1862 75 wells in Pennsylvania 3 x 10B bbl year The barrel abbreviated m is the name of several units of volume Oil barrel 42 US gallons 1589873litres11 V kipedia 1870 Rockefeller Standard Oil oil monopoly 1900 Cars start being sold 1909 2 x108 bbl year US is the biggest in the world California and Texas dominate production for the next 50 years Production rose exponentially 1911 Standard Oil monopoly broken up 197D Naska m1cumes unhne mm VWWV 51b cum 197D Peak Us pruductmm 3 3 X 1E1g bbWEar 1973 O11embargu Cust3bb113bb11 1979 F311 ufthe Shah uf 1ram2 hm 1981 Cast uf gasuhne mahest 1n h1sturyaccuunt1ngfur 1n at1un a1mus L 3ga11un1n 2mm Equwahent duHars 1991 F1r51 Gu1fWar ZEIEIS We pruduced19gtlt1 9 bb1yearEEI n uftuta1 usage 1 W r d s eadwa suppher ftechnu uw mum management mpmw and mfurmatmn smutmnstu the mend gas 1ndustry Hm ttattntn n at tt We in t tluzl an ttmattttmtt ttmstttnnttt Wuk inti tat muttnttatt t m attwtetm tttntttttt Humevvurk 3 dueth ay at 5 pm tntne Weeeen buxes setuttens tht be avatiabie tumurruvv 172 ettne test and teeture rnatertat thruugh Mtg WWWeta due getetataeeetnetanatystsnngt ntrnt Huw dues tnts eernpate in tne wette suppiy7 Huw much muney tstne at new What tust passed tntne u s Huuse ut R Epieseniaiives7 Citcker Questtun Consider the followin production rate agai for the US oil supp y g plot of nst t ime Rate Maiyen Wnten ut the tuttuwtng must be true A arterTa nu rnere new ruducttun curve tht in area underthe cu area trernTa tn 4 nurte ertnese must b t yuu think severai mus sanenteertetme tuttatnust mm m manna went at ett tsteund atTa ts zere rtse agatn Ne trernTEI tn T3 tstne sarne astne Ta 11 Tm TA E true the true 7 Eitck yuurfavurtte Mae empte m we re nattte at man dettnnei natzeta Hubben had one other advantage preview Luuk at diSEDVEHES et Weiis fuiiuvvs Takes abuuta decade rer a new a scqury te eerne unitne Discovery rate ts not constant Rises steepiy atrtrst tn a given regtun then steadtiy decitnes t tx tug bbi discuvered tn us tn mus awn tesstnan prevtuusyear Dismvery ean aisu inciude revisiuns er predicttuns rrern Weiis due te tmpruved technuiugy How much oil is there in the US Hu F39Eaktrt pruducttun tht bbertmasa Om tBsxtDB barreis nut eeunttng Aiaska ueeur 19664971 Metre reeent vaiue ts Om 324gtlttEIg barreis inciuding Aiaska Huvvever We have aiready used much ertnts A Xi mg bet inciudtng abuut xing bbi tn Aiaska This inciudes pruven serves esttrnate er undiscuvered t Current pruduettuh eve th Us ts apuutz xmg harm syear Thus there are apput BE years tptat at currentproduction level OH th Naska euhtrtputes abuu1273 years World Oil Reserves Ustrtg Hubbenrtype ahatysts meprtd 2 5mm parrets By eurhpartsuh the vame furthe USA Om 324x D9 parres Refuge see hurhevvurh pr b Em meevNaianSenalm FvanK Muvknv khmZElmtsmnanhe nmm the Sehate aha hem up a tame pteee m vhtte pneethnam He Sm what ts at nhe mnseemw mevnmh N aha vvtmttte Remge s mas1at math H s tat trs unamadwe trs hm Mamet thts ts W al nnkshke nnhthemtsthtntmeu 2 g 18 1E barre s FrDVEn reserves 1 1x1 D12 parres Current pruduct rate 3xth parretsyear Pruven reserves tht tast abuu137 years at currentproduction Ie vel big assumption 1 MaXtrhurh esttrhate th ast abuut EEIVEEI years Wt Mr ta m quotm Chcker Questch ppert Curve ahatyses preetet gtppat DH pruductmn peahthg thhth new years But What abuut future at dwscquHES 39 thereasee ettteteheyt mpruved teehhptpgw What trhpaet tht these have AThe Hubbert Curve presumab y atreaeytaetprsthatth a tt Wtu therease the ttrhe tp peah x butby a hegttgtpte amuunt C tt tht therea the ttrhe tp peak by perhaps a taetpr uf 2 D tt epute ther se the ttrhe tp peah trteetthttety e EEntuHES mH E mat the shy tsthe ttrhtt A ts the pest answerr the Hubben curve certatny taetprs th 3 ts atsp eprreet se ea pVMANopecorg Org tzattph uf the F39Etru eum Expumng Cuuntr es Whteh uf the fuhuwthg euuhttes ts hut a member uf OPEC Amtgerta OPEC Members Ewehezueta Atgerta C trah D ra w E E 3 rt Qatar Saudt Arapta UAE Venezue a thx 2 39 mm we I 43 Df g uba nu prudmmn umesfrum OPEC natmns eaH nenre Er e um um Mandaha Mlnun nu ma mm we OPEC Web Page Frequently asked quest ns 5 the wane runmng em uf enw on s a hrmted resuurce an u may EventuaHy run nut anneugn nutfur many years m eeme Anne rate uf pruductmn m was OPEC en reserves are summenttu ast mare than so years WHHE nuneOF39EC en pruducers rEsEN 3 Es mwght as essthan Oyears e Wenuvnue demand fur en 5 Hsmg and OPEC 5 Expected m be an mereasmgxy mpunant suurce unnaten we manage uur resuurces new use en Ef men y and deve up new e ds than uur en reserves enema as L fur Green Inc J 39ntJ min mm the ii tiii iniiiii iiiiimii ii tutti newt rn Reminders39 Research Project 1 due on Friday Make sure to review paper requirements See me ifyou ave questions Must be handed in not emailed Next homework will be assigned on Wednesday and due the next Wednesday Reminder of Extra Credit 5 Forum this Thursday Energy Balance7 Carbon Neutral7 Does farming produce more energythan it uses 7 Fertilizers Watertranspun farm rnae iriery Estirnate in lhelexl based en sulal energy eenyersien is nut the rnain issue Can we grow enough plant material to make a differe e valtchgrass either HDH fDDd erups hange tei rneire yegetariari diet Should we divert agricultural products from food to fuel NlMElY 7 Nut ln My Back Yard Peuple de nut lihe ineineraters ngh eests fur separatlun Currently abuut l5 er Waste is burned Few Other Renewables scussed Chapter 5 Oeean Thermal Energy Cunverslun OTEC seemerrnal Energy Tidal Energy Serne at these seern llke ubvluus blg energy suurces but there are very significant practical issues These and uthers are yery interesting but nut rnaieir players right nuvv Read serne details in Chapters Ocean Thermal Energy Conver n Heat engine driven by thermal gradient between surface and deeper ocean layers Very small Carnot ef ciency Turbine driven by ocean curre Potentially serious environmental impacts Very large capital costs 39 Geothermal Energy Potential Warm core of earth radioactive in origin Heat ow out from core lt 11000 of ow in from sun Most places the ow rate is too low to make use of but hot spotsquot geysers volcanoes might be tapped Places like Iceland have this working quite well 13 oftheir energy World wide all operating and planned facilities 9 1 of current global electrical production 13 GW capacity in 1985 Hydrothermal systems Hot dry rock igneous systems Normal geothermal heat 200 C at 10 km depth Many sources are not renewable eg Geysers in California Over time one uses up the local heat source Summary on Renewables Key message there is no easy xquot Even maximizing and combining all ofwind solar OTEC biomass geothermal tidal etc we are still not able to match our current and increasing energy demands We need to provide incentives to develop these alternatives and they can be expanded by factors of10 100 However a key part has to be reducing demand Remember that our demand is doing the opposite it is increasing Watch out for numbers that quote the demand per person since the number of people is also increasing Nuclear Energy Clicker Question What is the rst thing you associate with the word nuclear A The solution to our energy problems B The Atomic Bomb C Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI D Three Mile Island E Death F Words that are dif cult to pronounce Isthat pronounced quotn clearquot or quotnukeula MRI is really nuclear magnetic resonance imaging but for some reason ople were more apprehensive about a nuclear testquot N ueiear fissiun enain reaetiuns are r Nuciearweapuns riuvv utiiiZE petn tissien and msien reactluns sun is ppwered by msien reaetiens in tne eere Tne s uritlriuetu burri furiE piiii petere it runs nut pt mei will uri un years Ha u everbeen expused te innizing radiatien trern nuciear preeesses7 Did yuu grew up trigntened abuut nuciear war7 A Yes it was a falriy epnstanttnreat en my rnind El Yes but i uniy tiieugnt uf iLVEN uncaslunaiiy A Nut as far as i m aware i g tnetreat wiii ii wit i serluusiy C Yes enee in a wniie trern muitlpie suurces D Neill have aivvays cumpieteiy ignpred tne tnreat D Yes a number at tirnes trern muitlpie suurces E i wasnt reaiiy aware tnere was any suen tnreat E W expused all the We wntmwusiv pr apeuttne tear er a serluus Chernubyi seaie er Wurse Answer is E we39re exposed all tnetiine continuously nuciear aeeident in tne 057 Typical annual dose something like 3400 inilliREMlyear i grew up in tne iBEEI s witn PresldentReagan e g tne evii Radiation from the sun from rock granite medical x ernpire and se my answeris sernewnere between A and El rays all kinds of sources We will need to de ne what iniIIiREM is United States of America 104 reactors with 99000 MegaWatts 20 of electricity Map at Research and Yes Reactar sixes iBBEI tine Pubill Service Cumpany pt Celerade initiated steps tn deeernrnissien tne FurtSt Vralrl nign temperature reacturand tn eunventne site tn a peaking piant fired bynaturai gas USA nas 7m reamurs W7th aa uuu Megavvans France a7bne na 59 reacturs W7th 63mm MegaWans 77 unner E7Ectr7mty generabun anu nas 443 reacturs 367mm Megavvans apamty I France e7eetne7 yrrbm I nue7ear 77 Suuth Kurea e7eetnenyrrbm nue7ear 4 Germany and Japan E7Ectr7mty frum nue7ear 25 many bebb7e were Med 7n thEThree M772 7s7anu nue7ear acmdent m 7979 Tne fracter br us E7Ecmmty ummg frum nue7ear wants uverthe past 7 a years nas been A steam7y mereasmg E stayed abbuune same A D C siead y decreasmg E 7n D nut sureElmer C 7mm D 7 mm Answer 0 Steamy decreasmg beeause the number uf E WEED b7ants nas aayeu nxem but uur e7eetnenyrrbm Either suurces EDHUHUES El HSE NDIE that nu HEW nudear pDWEr b7ants n been urders 7n the Very s7m77ar m nyurbe7eetne stury Umted States smee than Start with the Basics Nue7ear puvver 7 51777 a s7gmf7cant suurce br Us E7Ecmmty 7 an G7gaWans ur 2m br uur e7eetne gnu Nu new wants smee 797D and sun the percentage 7 druppmg 7n the us s7m77arm nyurbe7eetne Muen 7arger b7ayer 7n Either bans br the WEIHd EspEmaHy France and gruvvmg 7nAs7a unma s Kurea Chma Tawan J Daya Bay cmna I PHYS 30 O and ENVS 3 0 Professor Jamie Nagle The web page for this course will be used to link reading assignments homework solutions additional materials etc httplwwwcoloradoeduphysicsphys3070 PHVSIENVS 3070 ENERGY amp THE ENVIRONMENT Associate Professor Jamie Nagle httplspotcoloradoedunaglej JamieNa le ColoradoEdu 3037353560 Email is the best way to contact me Of ce hours Location Gamow Tower second oor F221 Monday 1 2 m P Wednesday 11 am noon Or by appointment A few basics about how the course is going to work Font check 28 point font 24 point font 20 point font 18 point font 16 puimrunt Exams and Term Papers anee nrdass exams dates to be announced WeH m adyance Tnere are no make u exams Tnere rs no nnat exam tortne course Drsabrtrtres Retrgrous obseryances norcode TWO researcn term papers detarts to be drscussed tater 4 pages typed t2 pornt tont doubte spaced References and ngures attne end not part of 4 pages Meant to be a researcn papery not a book report AH work must be your own or property crted HomeWork Assrgnments gryen eyery Wednesday as posted on web page mpteted nomeworx due on We tne wooden bo dnesday at 5 00 pm m x room Duane 2B tabet 3070 outsrde tne pnysrcs netp teyet N0 tate nomeworx wru be accepted Tne towest nomeworx scorers dropped trom your grade tngurretntorm snort Assrgnments Scwence 5 not a vacuum Scwenu c u rnouny snoutd rntorm s More detaHs on these two assrgnments tater FNVSENVS an7n ENERGY amp THE ENVIRONMENY Ftrst assrgnment rs ayartabte and due on Wednesday September 3 2008 at 5 pm Chckers Weer be usrng tne rn dass response system rctrcxer Make sure to regrster your rctrcxer see web page tor detarts rctrcxer responses wru counttowards your grade 3 pornts tor a correct ansWer 2 pornts tor an rncorrect ansWer and 0 tor no response rctrcxers start countmg on Monday September 8 2008 Ouesuons that askfor an opwmon are Counted as 5 Correct answers Wave an ChckerWuh metoday A Yes cannotyote because t do not naye my rctrcxer Gradm forthe Course Hmllm numtu du4k39lmmnl wmlnu mn tutu Hula mm Mn wncht mu Tu uuu twu trva n nun 11mm nlmm mammm mt vuhv mm mm urnntuntt Wm lH nt39 In mm uh mm H wwrnlt uentnun Tnere wru be occasronat extra credrt proects gryen as announced m dass and on tne dass web page No laptops open No text messaging Discussions during discussion time I like to call on people by name and actively using your brain during class Big Topics Fundamentals of Energy basic physics Fossil Fuels what we are doing now Heat Engines more physics how we use fossil fuels Alternate Fuels solar wind nuclear ConservationEnergy in the home Transportation and pollution Global effects ozone greenhouse warming Let me know ifthere are things you would like to learn about Issues of energy and the environment come in and out ofthe public view We are entering another perhaps longer time of public focus and discussion Note that this is a physics course The class has no prerequisites except algebra and logical thinking Many issues we will cover are complex and can be emotional with strong opinions on different sides This is not physics such as if I slide a block down an incline plane without friction But still it is sub39ect to guantitative logical scientific reasoninu We will focus on facts and technical aspects I leave the socialethicalJudgments to you to draw from the facts and analysis This is not a policy class You can express your opinion but I will always ask you to back it up with scienti c and quantitative argumentation SuiIncl Aquot Tamarlure mm mu m 1950 Previous chairperson of Senate Environment and Public Works Committee James lnhofe ROkla Climate change is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American peoplequot Current chairperson Barbara Boxer DCalif Climate change is the greatest challenge ofour generationquot The math skills in this class span a large range Do not fearthe math you do not know just resolve to put in the effort to learn it during this course I will help you Short Diagnostic Exam does not count for any grade Smerm caH true statement The rhure hre true ks that are sent tn hght a re the mere damage the hre dues Correlation or Causation Newspaperamdes r e pupmarpress urteh bhe y summahze What reporters have Eame m 54 u mmutES rrurh What researches have been Wurkmg uh rur years ese amdes need D e vreweu Wth cautmn and tar research shame be backed up wrth mere detarteu suurce materta Mata m m Em neut at Reminders Research Paper1 due in classtoday October 31 Homework 8 due next Wednesday Finish Reading Chapter 6 on Nuclear Energy Extra Credit 5 due next Friday Chemical versus Nuclear cnernlcal reactlons also release energy from rnass gtenergy conyerslon Wever cnernlcal reactlons lnyolye tne oroltal electrons and typlcal rnass dlffel39el39lces are yery srnall Recall tne loa dltterence ln energyl Neutron Induced Fission Ferml tlrst dld lL LlSe Meltner and helpers tlgured out wnat H g I lf don t get swallowed lt tne 3 tree neutrons can go lnducernoretlsslon Chain reaction neulluns maklng tlsslon that makes mule neutrons tnat makes more flsslon tnat rna es rnore neutrons t tmakes more ssion that makes more neutrons that makes more ssion that makes more neutrons that Fission Nuclear Explosion yd WWWquot atomic bomb makes more fission that makes more I Muhamm t 3 Aquot BOOM l generatlonad quot s a V 0lt 0lt sgt Uranlum 23 V quot 2 orpulonlum V ltfqu loo generatlons a 039 perrnlcrosecondl quot 2 x 2 x 2 x2 sslol ls each Wlth LOTS of Eacn tlsslon releases rnultlple neutrons Eacn ofthem can lnduce furtherflsslol39l reactlons Tnls rneans lt ls posslole to naye a cnaln reactlon Wever one cannot allow too rnany neutrons to escape or be absorbed by otnerrnatenals ortnere ls not runaway ctlon That ls wny one needs a crltlcal mass wnlcn depends on tne snape to keep tne yolurne to sunace area ratlo large Reactors are deslgned to glye steady selfrsustall led tlsslon They use tne released neutrons to lnduce rnore tlsslons Bombs are deslgned to get expollel ltlal bLllldLlp 2 4 gts gtl6 gt Manhattan Proiect 39 i A World War II project to design and build atomic weapons Starting in New York City in the basement ofthe Columbia University Pupin Physics Building First reactor built in 1943 in Chicago by Enrico Fermi under the football stadium Special control ro re inserted by hand to add material to absorb neutrons thus prevent a full runaway reaction Fermi was calculating when to insert them as they did the experiment ds a and Only certain heavy nuclei can be induced to ssion easily Uranium235 and Plutonium239 are the most common Natural Uranium mined from the earth is 993 U238 and only 07 0235 U238 is a different isotope Same number of protons but three extra neutrons How big a difference can this make Big Why Ur 235 not 238 U 238 v has 3 extra neutrons help 5 W hold it together i v w um 3 l 3 v W Eels exta neat0775i Atomic weapons development involves two major aspects One is designing the warhead and explosives The other is separating U235 from the mostly U238 in Uranium ore Two Plutonium239 bombs developed One tested in July 1945 One dropped on Nagasaki in August 1945 One Uranium235 bomb developed No testing One dropped on Hiroshima in August 1945 Weight 4 tons Energy released 125 kilotons ofTNT quiva en Estimated 140000 killed Almost everyone within 1 kilometer radius killed instantly Uranium Bomb Little Boy Extract neariy pure Uranium 235 9u Gun Uramum Uraniumtarget Barrei proiectiie Neutron initiator Trinity and Fat Man Bomb based Uri piumriium 239 Prepare criticai mags Conyentionai 39 lt3 expiosives Neutron initiator Atomic weapons are yreweo yery differentiy arouno the worm They aoruptiy enoeo Worio War ii Americans who oeyeiopeo these weapons were often yreweo as heroes They represent the rnost destructive weapon eyery e What oo you think A Dropping the bomhswasiustified to eno the war ano saye the hyes ofAiiied forces B They shouio haye oone a testto showthe new weapon rnowasawarnrno othe Russians ano was unius ie D Any rnass kiiiing oreryrhans rs uniustrneo eyen in wartrrne Il uniuu Sreks it Make Cdsr l39trr NHCINH39 ngmm Tr monomer powwow ninth Tr 39 Iihiuiiilmpril tumtn hr min rimquot uwnuimniuimlmmmnlimitii err N em arm x mm im ii sinir nu oriemm me r m tixvik in Immixle mphapp r I r i u In uiinlil uiiliulliii o mleil pat omit tour ugi un um um wimiwm the inilhvlunuuiiriimninuxv who lepulwi wlliiilwwu re do cou ntries Whe obtain their Uranium Fuel Uranium mine in Namibia Uranium prtrnrne in Saskatchewan Uranium Dinnerware Year good reea to add Uramum omem m covers 1 eirdmnerpiates itmd mak attractive wish but it aiso made them ramoaerhe e ceramre giaze that e a nrrghr orange Demonstrahon vmh Gerger Counter aha mate Colorado Uranium Uramum mrmhg aha miihng became a iarge induSIAWSEI S ah the Comrade Piateau The Grand Junction Operamhs 0 me anhe Umree States Ammre Energy Commrss ah was headquarters ror the emerphse aha bought aH the uramum produced Grand Junction aisovvas home base raras many as 35 mrmhg campames nciudmg area arrrees armaror Where does the United States currently gel Uranium mrmhg corporauohs and aaamemaagng Pubrshed 077 Sunday July 6 2003 rug ussamren m pummeammm by Me New Wk Was 7 What I Didn39t Find in Africa by Joseph c Wilson 4th Gheh We s1mciuve enhe cunsumumsihai upevaied We rmhes nwuuid whenwrwrwrw r 7 he exceedingiydimcui mNigeviuivansievuvamumiuivaq Nrger s L 515 Mummas Sumawand 0 r whr h r ahese guvemmemwamed m vemuve uramumr r mm a rmhe NWEIUM haveiu nuiiiyihe cunsumum whreh mmrhrsshreuymeh b h urea yi e imemaheharAmmre EnergyAgency Mmequ because iheiwu rmhes are ciuseiy re uiaied uasrguvemmemaientities seiimg uvamumwuuid WWI 3W rm veqweiheappmvaiu he minisievuimmes ihepnme rmmsierahe quot I a med pr babiyihe presreem m shuvmheve ssimpiyiuu much uvevsigmuvev Remembermough this mustme Uramum are Theron or rsampe separahah rs a me chauehge In the GulfWar Iquot in the early 1990 s the Iraqi government was developing a full facility for uranium enrichmen They were attempting to use electrostatic separation which is a very large scale operation Claims were made that they were restarting this program prior to the Gulf War IIquot It turned out not to be true Enriching Uranium Recall that natural Uranium is mostly U238 which does not easily ssion Thus to use in power plants it must be enriched in U235 up to 3 and higher for weapons Gaseous diffusion Uranium gas pumped through porous membranes Isotopes have different speeds at the same kinetic energy Requires thousands of stages of separation v vv v 39 v v 39 v v v vv v gt llilllllllllill gt Requires very large electric power input Enriching Uranium Electrostatic Separation utilizes very small difference in mass to electric charge ratio large scale operation original method at Oak Ridge during WWII Centrifuge method Also depends on difference in mass Lighter mass moves to smaller radius Zippe design Ef ciency rpm2 90000 rpm Aluminum Tubing Is an Indicator of an Iraqi Gas Centrifuge Program But Is the Tubing Speci cally for Centrifuges Nuclear reactors use controlled ssions steady reaction not h These ssions generate heat and can be coupled to a heat engine stream turbine for example 1954 First reactor online in USSR 1957 First online in the United States There are over 400 around the world today r 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident more on this later 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident more on this later too