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The war that ended peace

by: Bérénice Bc

The war that ended peace HIS 3308

Marketplace > Florida International University > HIS 3308 > The war that ended peace
Bérénice Bc
GPA 4.0
War and society
Francis Luca

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War and society
Francis Luca
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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Bérénice Bc on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The Reader belongs to HIS 3308 at Florida International University taught by Francis Luca in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.

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Date Created: 01/21/15
Chapter 5 Dreadnought the AngloGerman naval rivalry I the original context in both countries 12 England navy 5 years ago in 1897 the British power sea was even huger We can notice the first suspicions and information about potentials enemies in the press for instance in the Times the British used to say that they were about to spend whatever funds and money necessary to maintain the sea power over the seas So they expected a new rival a new sea power in Europe and they wanted to maintain their supremacy The rival was unknown unnamed even if France and Russia remained potential enemies since the huge battles in the Caribbean s for the colonies in Canada and for the US independence war in 1775 22 The ideas against Germany in the population and the mass media a Literacy and liberty the spread of the XVIIIth century In the mean time numerous pamphlets books were published to denounce the growing German power one pamphlet called made in Germany was published to show the omnipresence of the German products everywhere Germany was in fact the first industrial country and they were in advance for everything compared to Great Britain Something else disrupted the usual system in Europe the growing independence and free speech of people There was less and less monarchy in Europe and the democracy started to be the only way to govern since the French revolution in 1789 the philosophers of the XVIIIth century and their ideal of liberty and education and with the American revolution because the US was the first country to adopt this system and it worked on the contrary of France were a parliamentary monarchy was built between the two Bonaparte s empires in the XIXth39 b The democracy in Europe gt The spread of democracy brought the new mass communication there was more and more literature noncensured press publics and this is why people could be more and more aware of what happened in their country Information spread easily with the railways the telegraphs thanks to the industrial revolution gt Each country began to rely on national s newspapers and this is how they began to manipulate the public opinion to be more and more powerful that s why in Britain the press as always been called the 4th power British press started to be suspicious against Germany and they did that because they were scared to lose the power and the supremacy on the sea and this is a strategy when you find the target the enemy you want to appeal patriotism to be united and build a stronger nation and in this particular case a stronger navy 11 Relationships between England and Germany suspicion and rivality Different factors At the beginning of the XXth century relations between Great Britain and Germany were the worst for many reasons 0 Bad relationships between the German Chamberlain and the German ambassador in London 0 Public and private outbursts of the Kaiser 0 Controversy about the Prussian army 12 Who s the leader of the sea a How England took the sea power to the southern nations of Europe So Germany was the first enemy the British press even suggested a preventive attack on the German eet The Britain has the advantage of its geographic situation because she was able to see the growing situation of Europe from its island and her lake of territory and frontiers force this country to develop a very powerful navy if she doesn t have the land she will have the sea In the XIVth and XVth centuries Portugal was the rst sea power in the world with its colonies in south America after it was the Spanish armada and even if they were the first one the English navy had been able to take the first place for many reasons o as first its colony in north America who gave her the materials as the wood to construct the ships quickly and easily 0 and they have the American territory which was very spread for the constructions of the ships because it took many years to build just one ship the wood had to dry for months 0 The technique s construction of the ships in the XVIIIth century was very sharp and the British were the best at it this is one of the main reasons for their supremacy on the seas in the XVIIIth century for instance this powerful navy was the reason why Britain defeated France in the seven years war 17561763 22 The industrialization of the late XIXth early XXth centuries a The growing production the growing consummation Britain had also one main problem it was the first industrialized power in Europe and this why it produced a lot but with it comes the consummation too because the population grew a lot in the mean time and there was an increasing home production and consummation This is why the exchanges of products over the seas were necessary to England for its economy Added to this is the fact that England is an island and its lake of territory makes her dependent of the other countries because it has to import some products she isn t able to produce on her land So she really needs to be the first sea power to maintain its economy and the growth of its population b Feed the countrV The famine was the biggest fear this is why the navy became progressively the second problem an association was created supported by the royal commission which shows its importance our food supply in time of war The association included trade union s members This association has many members of the working class because they were the one who were able to produce they needed to be trusted but before the Great War the loyalty and reliability of them was doubted by the middle and upper classes the reason is that they started rebelled in the mean time of the Victorian reforms because if the horrible conditions in which they lived and worked c The problem of the army fight on the land the lake of soldiers ARMY Moreover at the beginning of XXth century most of the countries had a conscript army especially France after the massacre of the war of 1870 against Prussia on the contrary England didn t have a conscript army and the authorities were afraid of a lake of volunteers in case of a major con ict because less and less people passed the physical standard of the army POLICY ECONOMY In the context Britain wasn t in the best situation considering is national policy she was really divided the Irish question was a problem trade unions were growing up the official labor party obtained almost 40 seats at the house of commons which divided the government The government was divided mostly between conservative and liberal and the point was to create a balance between the security needs and the fiscal ones Germany became a powerful navy whereas the British army received half of the budget for the army the advances in technology were expansive a lot 2 J At the same time the government spent a lot of money for the social programs so is the English government able to afford warships and pensions social measures 3 2 The beginning of the dreadnoughts construction in England with Admirald Fisher a the admiral s program Creation of the Committee of Imperial Defense in order to coordinate defense planning and budgets lacky fisher the Admiral has been one of the protagonists in the history of the British navy before the Great War He was a very impressive person made to do war his definition of war was the three R s Ruthless Relentless Remorseless and his Three H s of gunnery Hit first Hit hard and keep Hitting Fisher had faith in god and country Fisher took over as the first sea 10rd he set up a group 0 build the greatest innovation the new super battleship It will combine speed heavy armor longrange guns new turbine engines the fisher committee went well and in 1905 it became the HMS dreadnoug the ship was 18000 tons the biggest one ever Fisher considered speed even more important than armor on the ship gt From 1907 the main plan of the admiralty was focused on the possibility of a naval war with Germany Canada didn t want to help England in the fight against Germany the admiral concluded that they were selfish people who only take what is good for them from England But they had help from New Zealand and Australia since 1909 they started their own dreadnought Canada joined in 1910 The foreign office of the English government started to think that Germany was a menace The population was torn apart between the young generation who was anti German and the older one who still thought that the isolation of England will save them b The strategy of England its weaknesses gt Britain s foreign and defense policy was determined by geography its isolated situation of island in Europe and its huge empire all over the world England couldn t concede the control of the seas because it might get weaker The British wanted to plan a new battleship and the new German naval attache reported it to Berlin J Not all the Germans accepted the battle and the increasing spending for the naval army even in the navy itself there wasn t a perfect agreement Because if the naval army focuses on the better ships and more and more ships there won t be enough money for the personnel and training in the Reichstag deputies from all wings attacked the naval army budget The financial crisis was the main problem and the naval army was not the priority when the war in Morocco appeared in fact there was no real sign from England which proved that they wanted a naval war the only risk was to see their neighbors becoming more and more powerful and they ll never know what England would do so they had to protect themselves through a huge naval army III The beginning of real mesures in both countries alliance and economic proggms 1 Trying to find an agreement to face the German threat Christmas Eve 1904 beginning of the alliances and hostilities gt the war between Russia and Japan caused international fear and the German feared that the English attack Germany because England is allied to japan and Germany supported Russia and gave it its help In Germany everyone was prepared for the war even if they feared it By 1908 the tensions in Europe rose against above the Bosnian crisis For England the only reason they would attack Germany is the economic rivalry March 1908 a new supplementary naval bill appeared and short ships will be replaced by bigger ones by 1945 Germany would have reached the gap between Germany eet and the British one if the England doesn t respond In fact 90 of central government spending goes in the army and 3 the naval the total expenditure in army has doubled by the end of the XIXth century but the Kaiser didn t approve that gt In the meantime England noticed the increased tempo of German naval building but they didn t answer yet they only built one dreadnought and a heavy cruiser A journalist of The Observer wrote about the menaces gathering around England Both of the politicians in England and Germany thought that there was something to do before the situation get critical and end in a war 2 The European context fights for territories in the Balkans and competitions for the colonies in Africa Added to this high tension between the two countries there was a crisis in the Balkans over Bosnia and tensions between France and Germany over Morocco colonies The analysis of the interview by the foreign office showed that the German were enraged and appalled against the Kaiser and it was time for him and his regime to retake the control brought by the parliament gt The daily telegraph in Britain made an analysis of the context the liberals were elected gt pledges to carry out both economies and social reforms gt provide oldage pensions but they couldn t ignore the threat from Germany and the public concern 0 The main opposition to the sharp increase in the naval budget came from the economists David Lloyd George radical and Winston Churchill British aristocracy They wanted to resist the unnecessary spending because their priority was the social reforms The liberals were losing support in the country for this main reason 0 The conservative opposition much of the press sustained the Navy League and thought that the navy and the unemployed could fight together they wanted 8 supplementary dreadnoughts and quickly 0 In February 1909 Britain broke the compromise with the cabinet the liberals came down and the government defeated a motion of censure Press campaign died and the public attention was focused on the budget designed to raise money and to change the lives of Britain s poor this a war against poverty and squalidness for them the naval supremacy was also essential gt a new budget to pay both for social reforms and defense gt Proposition to raise the taxes 0 The house of Lord rejected this budget in November 1909 but then the parliament was dissolved and the lords let the budget pass the House of Lords lost his dominance forever Britain was able both to afford its financial crisis and to keep the parliament away form its affairs Partial conclusion The naval race is the key factor to understand the growing hostility between England and Germany even if there were other factors as 0 Trade rivalry 0 Competition for colonies 0 Nationalist public opinion Igt Those factors played their part but they were the same with France Russia and United States but in those cases the suspicions weren t so deep Once Germany started to build its eet it was meant to put England uneasy Big navies were signs of being a major power British could accept a growing navy for Russia Japan etc but not for Germany because of the conseauences of 2e02raphv Germany was closer the German eet was in the Baltic Sea close to the British Isles 4 Conclusion The naval race created a deep gulf between Britain and Germany both elite and public opinion were against the other Britain was persuaded that it needed new allies to counterbalance the German threat If Germany had put his budget in army rather than in the navy what would have happened during the Great War in Europe during the battles against France The German forces would have been stronger in 1914 0 The naval race shows how individuals are important in history no naval race without the economic manufacturing and technological capacity in both countries 0 The naval race maintained Europe s long peace through the path towards war Britain major foreign policy was a defensive one 0 In that decade before 1914 was is noticeable is how frequently and easily the possibility and the idea of war was part of the ordinary life


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