Energy and the Environment
Energy and the Environment PHYS 3070
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This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Peter Toy on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 3070 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/232116/phys-3070-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Physics 2 at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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mSCOVeN H Went 0 one Hahn Anotner notame tern rstnattne raoratron many ortnese peopte were usrng was atso kth tnern Heattn rrnpaetwere not unoerstooo at Ume Fission Some rsotopes of eternents are mheren yunstame ano wru just spontaneoustysptrtartersorne arnoun ortrrne Some otnereternents omy unoergo nssron rtrt rs mduced wnren of tne rottowrng are true A Tne tertngure rs of spontaneous nssron Tne ngntngure rs of spontaneous nssron B C Bo ures are rnouee rssron D Botn ngures are spontaneous nssron Induced Fission 1 235 144 89 0n 92U143 2 Ba Kr3ny s mu am an 3 2 u 62 mm t gt 336 gt mu mu 3977 n Gamma M W Neutro Gamma rays y pnotons or etemrornagnetre energy ngnt 1 235 144 89 0711 gzUm 2 311 Kr3n7 s than the mass atthe End What happened m this small arnuunt Elf mass Over mu years agu Albert Einstein dlSEDVErEd that mass islus t anutner furrn pr energy rn is mass in kllugrarns Si Units and e lsthe speed pr light a X we metersseepng At certain energies we can split the nucleus Nuclear ssion reactions can produce energy Each reaction frees about 1039M Joules of mass energy Nuclear ssion 3 1 Light a light bulb for one billionth of a mugrmcgquwn se 0 o muc 110000000000000 FISSIOn Energy Release U235 n 9 Te139 Zr 3n lfyuu add the rnasses befure and a er yuu nng that yuu lust mm X we kllugrarns in the prpeessl calling that Erne2 Wnere e E rns What is the ratlu pr energy frurn 235 grams pr Uranium l D23 aturns eprnpare tuthatfrurna l puun urnp prepal lD Juules A Uranium and mi Energies are abuute al a Uranium energy is man prtne e C Uranium energy is lEIEIEItlrnEsthE epal energy J D Uranurn nergylleIEI DDDtlmesthecualEnErgy EWmmm mc 10 x3x10 kg3x103mx2 10 J X521 15 new lheluglhg a glselpsure apputlrhpaets uh ellrhate What ar abuut and Mia a 1 page dESErlptan e lheluglhg reterehees Due nextWEdnEsday 1h elass WW1 due ats pmtudaerDDdEn bux omee hpurs 1 1ehpp vaz tel pe pusteg due next Weghesgav Flhlsh rEadlng Chapter 1 1 starch Chapter 2 h Tpples tpr tpgav Order at Magnltude Es llmates T pes pt Eherg I Thls lS relevahttpr gas standards gas tax Estlrhate SEIEI Mlllluh uuld check frurh Us Census Estlmate 1 ear persph Wlth sun rhllhph ears hpw rhueh gas gel thev use7 What 15 the mileage grlveh per earpervear7 Estlrhate 15 uuu rhlles pervear What 15 the miles pergallph MPG uh the average ear7 stlrhate 2U MFG Gallons Cars XE Car MileDn39ven 1 E i X 7 Gallons 3x10 carsgtlt15gtlt10 milescar ZOMPG GallonseloE x10 x10quot1o Gallons of Gasoline Miles Dn39ven jx Gallons of Gas 1 1 Gallons 3x105 carsgtlt 15 xlo milescar x 20 MPG GallonseloE x10 x10quot 10 Gallons of Gasoline lEIEI blHlun galluns Elf gasullne Each Earl Eveh fura rpugh Estlmate we might get better keeplng the must slghlfleaht dlglt And 1t ls hut much extra Wurk Gallonse 3x105x 2x10 xx10quot 3X2 GallonsmE 2 jxuoixlo xwquot Gallonsesxlo ML Estlrhate SEIEI plllluh galluhs uf gasullhe each earl The guestth was p turthese 3x1u11gallphs at gas we phlv needtu knew the average prlEE pepple pald pergallph at gas Thls lstrprh aruund 1998 Hasthe prlEE pt gasphhe ehahges slhee theh7 Estlmate Ruughly 4 mm per galth 50 roughly 12 trillion dollars are spent on gasoline per year One eah luuk up the real numbers t a Natlunal Trahspprtatlph Safety Euard http vvvvvv htsp gpv v Estlmate us uses 2mm blHlEIrl gallphs at gas per vea y x v v I I lapan Nnrwly sMquImd unixeu Sums 3W Iceland I Sweden 5 quot 11x r g maao Gummy ael39gium Canada u o llaly g 10000 39B Cub 39 Ecuador 39 P ll d 39 1 w w I In 20 30 40 5 60 7 Earmlsalnilluyita o Murman Her r m mm m nllmu I ml no Th ay to come to grips thh 12 trilhon 5 to forget about the number itself and thmk mstead about wha you could buy wnh the money When you do that a trillion stops soundmg anydung hke milhons or billions m But What exaeuy m physms terms rs energy7 We knuvvvvhat a smaH amuuntversus an enormous oo amuunt or energy r57 What is energy Etymo ugy kn may no mg m A mowmnn m ammo Mme mm Wham leak mans m avm may means 5 Lu meant dumeadmn m 39nagmyewanon um mom aclmly awemInn m ugam anuuyuoum e compo mm M by w S mlu m one uwnooe Pn Sm De mtmn Energy rs the apamty tn go Work How rnuen energy you naye EH you the amuunt or Work you phi ean oonn prmm 5o mm s Wurk Work Force gtlt Drstanee saa NewInn r e F r ans rs the oennmon m terms or rorees as speeneo by o e mass gtlt acceheratmn Fma Dnecuan Energy sthe keytu Evenmm Huvveven u en energy m orrerent rorrns appears yery orrrerent In Us 1 Kmetu Energy energy or mutmn KElva 2 yynere rn mass on omen m Wugrams ano y ve umty or the abject m metersserum Chcker QUESUDH Thts persetn pushes the eurttng ruck pt rnass in kg and reteases tt wtth a yetetetty y 3 rnetersseeetng Work Force dlstance What ts the ktnette energy at the mew a tt yuu hutg a Wetghtftxed there ts nu ehange tn pustttetn g he um and SD zeru wer ts p A an James a an James The sarne trypu push agatnst a watt C BEI James D WEDJDMES E 32D James 1 v 2032 Z 2 Cuuntertntutttvey tt ts nut the Enghsh anguage usage but Stnee energy ts epnseryeg hetw rnueh Wurk has the persetn dune 1 5 WE de ned W FWS ES terms and very usefu tn pushtng the ruck from rest tet thts yetuetty7 n uur curhng Examphe unce she reheased 3D mute 3 ED t the ruck ts she dumg any rnetre WWW C BEI James D WEDJDMES h E 320 James hatethuthenaxtnun massma tack tsts as re We abseme WWW the m5 WW Mtplen Wktpedta atgwktcutttng cunttnue at the same vemmty furever 7 Energ is conserved We aWaystaHlt abuutustng Energy Sn hpw ean energy pe EDHSENEd7 The exaetarnuunt pt energythe enttre untyerse started nut wtth t4 pttttpn years agu ts Examy the sarne arnpunt pr tt turns putwe are atwaystust ehangtng pne term at energy energy the untyerse has tuday tntp anpther 39 sprnettrnes the new turrn pt energy ts tess userut Marty dtfferentfurms pr energy 7 put they are an energy npnethetess We haye atreagy tntruduced kmEt te Energy and netwwe wttt ttst rnany uther trnpetrtant eategetrtes Dernpnstrattpn wtth tennts patt and sprtng Atthe begtnmng the tennts patt has htnette nergy KE a James After putttng the duly the tennts patt gpes ytng aerpss the mum wtth sprne yetpetty Stnce energy ts unserved where gtg the energy eprne trprntp gtye the patt thts ktnette energy7 When the pan rtnatty tangs and steps muvtng where gtg the energy gu7 Nute that n g eunsetvattun tn Everyday use rneans ustng tess Energy We turntng uff the ttghts Nutthe sarne as out phystes rneantng tn whteh energy ts Phys 3070 115 15 Lecture 1 Mon Jan 10 2005 Info sheet and math diagnostic On board PHYS ENVS 3070 Steven Pollock F419 tower 4922495 stevenpollockcoloradoedu wwwcoloradoeduphysicsphys3070 Of ce hours MWF after class xxx at xxx by app39t virtual ONLINE PARTICIPATION Bring Math diagnostic back HW for Wed read handouts and RK 11 12 and 15 Today intro to course energy Next US energy consumption orders of magnitude units Welcome syllabus Try to make large class feel small engage Why not take this course Upper division fair amount of work have to attend and collaborate Energy what is it how is it produced and used How does it impact technological society and the environment Quantitative this is a physics course But no prereqs except algebra and logical thinking Many issues we ll cover are complex and can be emotional This is not physics I quotpointlike objects neglecting frictionquot But still it is subject to quantitativelogicalscientific reasoning We will focus on facts and technical aspects here I leave the socialethicaljudgments you draw from these facts and analysis to you Not a policy course Focus on scientificquantitative argumentation Just eg consider all the complex issues surrounding nuclear power Some are physical some social or political We ll try to focus on facts quantitative comparisons the grounds for forming opinions My own opinion about Whether it is quotgoodquot or quotbadquot is totally irrelevant and I ll try to keep it out of the discussion A word like quotenergyquot is well defined and we will try to understand and make sense of it A word like quotpollutionquot carries with it some subjectivity and valuejudgments Nonetheless we can make working definitions and consider how to evaluate the associated data That s the game in this class Phys 3070 2 15 15 Big topics fundamentals of energy basic physics Fossil fuels what we39re doing now Heat engines more physics how we use those fossil fuels Alternative fuels solar wind nuclear where we39re headed Conservationenergy in the home Transportation and pollution as time permits Global effects ozone greenhouse warming We39ll try to look at the issues we face and possible solutions always focusing on what can be measured calculated approached scientifically This won39t be a policy class By the end you should have a good store of quantitative knowledge and understanding an ability to evaluate products decide on storm windows inform your own rational decisions about personal choices and legislation Energy and the environment comes in and out of the public quotviewscreenquot The quotenergy crisisquot of the 397039s introduced most Americans to it Oil prices are now at much lower prices taking inflation into account It loomed larger in the 2000 election and was relegated to much less press time in the 3904 election It will come and go in the public eye but as we39ll see these issues will steadily gain attention and importance They may very well completely dominate global politics very soon a a fossil fuel exploitation Figure 12 in your text 1 is perhaps one of the most sobering and 5000 YEARS PR ESEN 39 YEARS important graphs we will encounter It sets the stage for much of this course For hundreds of millions of years this supply has been steadily building and there will be nearly complete exploitation of it in a time scale of several centuries This course is all about understanding the implications of this graph We live in an extraordinary time I don39t mean this particular year I mean the era of massive The bottom line to take from that curve and others like it this is not just relevant for fossil fuels is that 1 natural resources are finite and 2 environmental effects are not zero As Aubrecht puts it in his nice Energy textbook quotTANSTAAFLquot there ain39t no such thing as a free lunch See Arithmetic Population and Energy Al Bartlett See Vostok ice cores httpwwwexploratoriumeduclimatecryospheredata2html CO2 wwwglobalchangeumicheduglobalchange1currentlabscarboncyclecarboncyclehtml Phys 3070 3 15 15 Some stuff I looked up relating to that curve shown in the text and in the notes above mostly from wwweiadoegov energy information administration Global coal USE is about 100 QBtuyr 5E9 tonyear Global fossil fuel USE is about 400 QBtuyer 2E10 tonyear Global coal reserves are estimated high end estimate at 1E12 tons 2 2E4 QBtu Global oil reserves are estimated high end estimate at 2E12 bbl 2 1E4 QBtu US coal USE is 20 QBtuyr 1E9 tonyear US fossil fuel USE is about 100 QBtu of which 40 is petroleum Some fun estimates Mass of earth is 6E24 kg 3E21 tons A ball of earth size with thickness 1 km like the crust using a density of water 2 coal 2 1kgm3 gives 5E20 kg 2E17 tons So a uniform crust 1 meter thick is 2E14 tons compare that with the 1E12 ton estimate for coal So 12 of the top meter is coal Given that we consume 400 QBtuyr the current global use let s just pretend it s all coal since coal dominates the long term supply story So if the entire planet was coal it d last us 15E11 years If the entire crust was coal it d last us 1E7 years If the top meter was coal it d last 1E4 years Given the EIA estimates it d last us 50 years Note since at the moment coal use is not ALL the energy use but only 14 the current gov t estimate that quotcoal will last us 200 yearsquot is consistent with this As we ll see later if you have growth at some percent P then the amount of time a resource will last is reduced If you call T0 the number of years that you expect a resource to last WITHOUT growh that s what we computed above then the formale with growth is Tendin years 100P ln 1 P100T0 in years So for 2 growth which is what we ve experienced for several decades that 50 years of coal turns into 35 Or the 200 years considering other fuels becomes 80 Even the 10000 years of a fantasy earth with 1 m of coal everywhere using just that coal would last less than 300 years At 3 growth less than 200 Phys 3070 4 15 15 Lecture 2 Wed Jan 12 For next read 13 4 6 and the Feynman introduction to energy handout Last Intro to course Today US Energy use some math powers of 10 estimates Next More US energy use Physics of energypower and units HW CAPA and couple quotlong answerquot See web Problem solving session Tuesday 3305 in back of quothelp roomquot Go over math diagnostic reminders dropping exam Clicker matrix and registration US consumes about 100 QBtu of energyyear We ll talk about units soon This is a big number Q is 1E15 See graph 11 p 3 for the time evolution of these Semi log do we need to discuss We ll talk more about this and Where this goes to next time Key points for us to focus on this semester 1 Fossil fuels are nite If take quotestimated resourcesquot and divide by quotcurrent rate of consumptionquot get several decades for gas and oil few centuries for coal If you factor in increasing rates of consumption these numbers go down 100E6 cumulative years of stored solar energy is being exploited in a few centuries 2 Environmental consequences Atmosphere is finite too CO2 Pollution Chernobyl Oil spills These were considered negligible until quite recently in history Our quotera of fossil fuel exploitationquot is remarkable in this way too we are now approaching natural planetary limits and impacting the global env t 100 QBtu is 14 of planetary use we have 120 the population Why so much 1 We re wealthy High standard of living correlates with energy use See Fig 13 p6 Cars SUV s clothes dryers dishwashers etc Wealth is not the Whole story though 2 We re not very efficient US economy developed in era of cheap energy Later in course we ll focus on this energy conservation Improving but slowly Role of gov t subsidizes roads crops deforestation industry which increases energy use But also mandates energy efficiency standards mileage bans DDT CFC 300 lbs of coal 2 lifetime of manual labor Fossil fuels played a central role in developing technological society End of slavery surely not coincidentally at time of 1st exploitation of fossil fuels Back to that graph 13 showing correlation between wealth and energy use CAUSALITY is NOT the same as CORRELATION Ex of preachers in England is correlated with points of rum consumed in England Preachers don t cause drinking both are correlated to population of students leaving townmonth correlated with height of liver in town River doesn t chase students away both have annual cycles that happen to coincide Phys 3070 5 15 15 Some Math 1 Powers of ten How to express big numbers 1000 103 10A3 1E3 one thousand 1 followed by 3 zeros kilo k in metric 1000000 2 10A6 1E6 1 million in the US Mega M in metric 1E9 1 billion in US Giga G in metric 1E12 2 trillion Tera T in metric 1E15 quadrillion So 1 QBtu 10A15 Btu Something else in metric never mind 1 Btu 1055 J 210551031 2 1055 kJ Note 10A2 times 10A3 10A23 105 Also 10A0 1 2E3 4E 2 24E3 2 SE1 2 80 piece of cake 2 Unit conversions See front flyleaf Like cm to inches Example What s 10 cm in inches You just need to know 1 inch 254 cm or 1 2514incm So youjust multiply 10 cm by quotonequot in this way 10 cm10 cm110 cm2514incm 39 in So what s the power output in quothorsepowerquot of burning 1 lb coal in 1 minute Table 26 says coal typically produces 12000 Btulb Flyleaf says 1 Btu 1055 J and 1 horsepower 1 hp 2 746 Watts 2 746 W 746 Js 1 1b coalmin 1 lb Icoal 12000 Btu12000 Btu 1 min 1 hp 2 283 hp mm lb coal lb coal 60 sec 746 J sec 3 Order of magnitude estimates OOM Very important in this course in work in life Much of all science begins with and relies on OOM estimates Gives rough but reasonable numbers Let s you decide if people are talking nonsense It s the KEY to decision making sense making policy making It doesn t MATTER if we re off by 10 or even a factor of 2 That s the trick the secret here Don t WORRY about factors of 2 We want it to within a power of 10 If you break up the problem into pieces same story just need rough guesses Most errors will cancel out anyway Phys 3070 6 15 15 Example How much money is spent in the US on gas for cars each year Would be of real importance for policy decisions about gas standards or gas tax etc How could you possibly estimate this Break it into pieces think of reasonable s Do we know the ofpeople in the US a fact that s easy to find 300 million What if we didn t know THAT number Denver metro is a couple of million people Each state has a big city or two many have huge cities some have none So figure 50 states 2 big cities 2 million 2 200 million We re in agreement on the COM Use this to estimate of cars Must be similar Most people have a car So 3E8 cars Of course kids don t have cars but many adults do have more than one Doesn t really matter for our OOM purposes Can you guess how much gas you put in to a car each year Sure think of how many miles you drive and how many milesgallon you get Typical people drive 15000 milesyear and get 20 milesgallon which means 15000 miyear 20 migal 700 galyear What ifI didn t know that people go 15000 miles Well how about this you fill up about once a week at about 15 gallons a shot 15 galweek 50 weeksyear 750 galyear Same result So we re estimating 3E8 cars 750 galyear per car 2 2E11 galyear You now how much money you spend per gallon roughly 2 gal nowadays ouch So we have 2gal 2E11 galyear 4E11 or 400 billionyear That s a lot A 040 gal tax 10 of the cost would raise about 40 billion in revenuesyear But is it right It could easily off by 2 or 3 But I just can t see how it could be off by 10 or 100 If you read an article that says quotAmericans spend 200 millionyear on gasquot you know the reporter has paid no attention to numbers they re spouting nonsense If it s a politician and they stick with it maybe you should reconsider voting for them By the way many times you can use such a technique to estimate something you could never figure out any other way But nowadays lots of obscure facts get compiled on the web A search took me to the National Transportation Safety Board which estimates Americans use 200 billion gallonsyear 2E11 galyear We re bang on Of course it wouldn t surprise me if THEY did an estimatejust like we did You have to be REALLY wary of getting stats off the web Unless you have strong reason to trust the site there s so much nonsense there this kind of OOM estimation at least lets you decide if they re crazy or not H1y53070 715 15 mu mm mm mumnon a Egan u Various fem Dung Whmw me 13m Thistype is called agmlwmmwam zkmk gm in It afgnph Append 041w Hummalmmcsafhwmwmmm 1970 u s Dcpa mmllvfcummelm Bumu om CM 1975 v3 Adm nimnon Annual Engrgy Review 198939 Energy us j rrw Us Onlj 5 quot2814quot 0 But H1y53070 815 15 Energy Fundamentals Energy Us in an Industrial sway 300w new mom a 0 2o 30 0 so so mum Emu mmmmmmampawbagyphmmniun wmpuedxammxmeoquw ww lwbmkmufor mulcn mmmw sminmun as qummim u 7 Some World 5mm in 514 Unitszanoru WW Mu edinon 7 1992 Energy 51mm 11mm United Nnu39om 1993 lo Ur j o From Tom Murphy s Phys 12 course Sp 04 UC San Diego henceforth quotMurphyquot 30000 20000 10000 Gross Domestic Product GDP per capita Switzerland 0 I Sweden aim 39 Iceland Norway Canada 0 0 0 Germany United States It 1 a y UK Belgium Many countries in the world lie in this quartercircle Cuba chand lndla O Ecuador I I I I I I I 0 10 20 30 40 50 Energy equivalent barrels of oil per capita per year 60 Phys 3070 1015 pnpulaticn 1 DD CI linear scale IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 49 Wr 39imumum CI ED 40 60 SD 100 time months populaticn log scale 100 llllllllllllllllll 39 100 J JJ rKr r f f 10 j 39 39 Je 139IIII 20 40 50 BO 100 time months Phys 3070 1115 Lecture 3 Fri Jan 14 Last US Energy use some math powers of 10 estimates Today More US energy use Physics of energypower and units Next after break More on units convesions and US energy use Don39t forget CAPA long answer AND onlineparticipation for Wed Reading finish Ch 1 and read Appendix A1 Demos Bring superball nerf rubber band scale block book Review 113 3 2 001 milli What s a milliHelen The amount of face required to launch one ship Error in front flyleaf old versions 42 gall barrel of crude petroleum 58136 Btu US consumes 100 QBtu each year Saw graph last time of Where it comes from Where does it go Food Key in the 3rd world and throughout most of history Now esp in developed world small of people large amount of fuel produce this freeing the rest of us This is now a small fraction of that 100 QBtu We eat 2000E3calday 4E 3 Btucal300E6 people365 daysyr lt 1 QBtu Cars About 25 of the 100 Heating About 15 of the 100 plus some from electrical which I don t count here Manufacturing About 25 of the 100 Electrical About 35 of the 100 Role in US society is huge Saw GDP graph last time 5 of world gt25 of energy Where does it come from About 85 of the 100 comes from fossil fuels Rest is nuclear and hydro about even We important a significant fraction about 14 since 60 s Fig 17 p 21 Resource is finite Best estimates at current rates to significantly deplete them are decades to a century Your lifetime We ll talk more about this next chapter it s clearly a big deal to understand But rst let39s talk about the basics some physics What is energy Energy is the capacity to do work With some caveats It s quantitative How much energy you have tells you amount of work you can do in principle So What s work It s NOT just a force push or pull Work W Force distance This is a de nition which turns out fantastically useful If you hold a weight gt no distance zero work Same if you push the wall Counterintuitive it s not quotEnglish language usagequot But it s well defined and useful Phys 3070 1215 Stretched rubber band can do work Lifting a weight you do work on it I had some stored energy chemical energy which I used to to do work on the weight Motion is NOT work A rock drifting in space gt no force gt nothing does work A hockey puck sliding across the rink gt same story no work being done Work energy principle If you do work you increase the energy of the thing being worked on You lose this energy yourself Energy comes in many forms You can transform it frombetween forms Fire a quotnerf gunquot toy Chemical gt spring potential gt kinetic gt gravitational potential gt kinetic gt heaU sound Could trace it back too Where did my chemical energy come from Ate breakfast lt stored chemical energy in plants lt solar radiation lt fusion in sun Life technology everything is fundamentally just conversion of energy Almost all our energy ultimately originates from the SUN Plants gt oil gt gas gt cars or electrical gt motors 1 Kinetic energy energy of motion KE 2 12 m v 2 Could rotate too flywheel 2 Gravitational potential energy PE 2 m gh Where m is mass g 98 ms 2 or 32 fts 2 h is height above quotground levelquot 3 Spring potential energy PE 2 12 k XAZ k is a quotspring constantquot X is the stretch 4 Electric energy U 2 charge voltage 5 Electromagnetic radiation never mind the formula 6 Mass energy Einstein s relativity theory E mc 2 c 3E8 ms Huge This is often associated with nuclear energy although it s really present everywhere 7 Chemical potential energy never mind the formula chemists usually tell us what it is for specific reactions Eg C 02 gt C02 95 kcalmole of carbon 8 Thermal energy We ll mostly use mCChange in temperature where m is the mass of stuff C is a number called quotheat capacityquot It takes energy to heat something and when something cools it releases energy Energy can take different forms and convert from one to the other But not all energy is equally easy to USE practically or to convert to other forms E g Thermal energy can be hard to use get at or convert into other forms Ditto for mass energy in many circumstances Eg my body gt 50 kg using Emc2 I get 50 kg 3E8 ms2 5E18 Joules Recall the US uses 100 QBtu each year at 1055 JBtu which means 1E20 Jyear So my body mass represents 5 of the entire annual national energy usage Phys 3070 1315 Units Can be a pain but oh so important Work or energy have same units force distance Energy in metric quotSIquot 1 Joule 1 J 1 Newton 1 meter 2 1 Nm 2 1 kg m 2sec2 The quotNewtonquot measures force it has units of massacceleration 2 kg msecA2 In the British system which America alone still uses 1 ft lb 2 1 pound 1 foot Conversion 1 ft lb 2 136 J There are other units alas I Calorie 1 Cal 2 1000 cal 1 kcal 4184 J a lot 1 Btu 1 British thermal unit 1055 J 252 Cal 2 776 ft lb a lot Note 1 cal heats one gram of water by 1 degree Celsius Not much 1 gram is small 1 Btu heats one pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit a lot of energy to do that quotA pint s a pound the world aroundquot Example 1 bike up Flagstaff How much work is done in various units 120 lbs 1000 ft12E5 ft lbs Multiplying by 252 Cal776 ft lb gives 39 Cal A small candy bar Multiplying instead by 136 Jft lb gives 2 MJ Mega Joules or 155 Btu Of course I need to eat MORE than 39 Cal due to heat friction wasted energy Power is the rate of doing work It s the energy transferred per unit time Power Energy time It s a rate It s not the same as energy though it s related Think of an analogy You get paid at a rate some number of dollars per hour CU staff won t say quotmy day job pays 10quot they say it pays quot10hourquot We usually average you might work for 40 hours in a week before you get your 400 If it takes the boss 1 minute to fork over the 400 you don t say you get 400minute sweet though that would be you average it over the hours worked to get to 10hr Knowing you earn 10hour does not tell me how much money you got I need to know how many hours you work in a week Rate is NOT the same as the quotthingquot When 1 bike up Flagstaff it takes 2 MJ no matter ifI go fast or slow But going fast short time means more POWER 1 expend the same amount of energy faster ie the RATE is higher Here my power 2 2 MJ30 minutes60 secmin 1 hp746 Js 1 hp I m a tenth of a horse when I m on my bike 1 Watt 1 W 1 Js A 100W light bulb consumes 100 Joules of energy every second 1 hp 2 550 ft lbsec 2550 Btuhr 746 W one horse could light 7 100 W bulbs continuously assuming perfect efficiency Not unreasonable Phys 3070 1415 Since power 2 energytime then energy 2 power time That s like saying salary hour so earned salarytime The quotpower companyquot Excel in Colorado charges for ENERGY 2 work done My bill comes and charges me for how many quotkWhrquot I used Note that kW hour 2 powertime is indeed an energy So they don t actually charge for power You can use 1000 W for 1 hour or 100 W for 10 hours the bill is the same 1 kW hr in either case do you see why Note 1 kW hr 1000 Js1 hr 60 minhr60 secmin 36 M Mega Joules That costs about 010 if you pay for Windsource My last bill says I used 350 kWhr 35 last month Is that reasonable Let s check Think about usingjust 5 bulbs ALL the time That s 500 Watts of power Since energy is powertime in a month that would consume 500 Watts1 month30 daysmo24 hrsday 360000 W hrs 2 360 kWhrs That s my bill So on average my home has the equivalent of 5 bright bulbs going Although I don t always have 5 bulbs on I do use electric appliances eg the oven which consume much MORE than 100W An oven might be 1000 W I might have more than 5 bulbs on for a few hours in the evening It s winter now so I use more electricity than in the summer So it s not a crazy number at all The average American home twice this about 1 kW It s impressive how much energy we Americans consume as we ll see shortly I ve seen newspaper articles talking about kWhour That s nonsense they re confused It would be like talking about your salary DIVIDED by hours worked Why would you do that it wouldn t tell you anything The average American doesn t consume 1kWhour or 1kWday or 1kWyear or 1kWanything It s an average RATE 1 kW Example You fall asleep and leave a 100 W reading light on You wake up 8 hours later time for class How much money did youjust waste Ans We pay for energy not power Energy powertime 100W 8 hrs 2 800 Whr 08 kWhr Since you pay about 010 for each kWhr that s about 8 cents No big deal Energy is cheap If you had to produce this much energy by running on a treadmill it s another story Above we said I can produce maybe 01 hp which is 75 W So I d have to run all night constantly to keep that bulb burning Imagine if they only paid you 8 cents for doing that That was the effective state of affairs before abundant fossil fuels Phys 3070 1515 Table 1 1 of text From 1996 Source Amount QBtu Percent 1018 Joules Coal 100x109 tons 2099 223 221 Natural Gas 219x10 ft3 2259 241 238 Petroleum 614x109 bbl 3572 381 377 Nuclear 681X109 kWh 717 76 756 Renewables 695X109 kWh 739 79 780 Total 9381 1000 990 Remmders Humewurk a doe next Wednesday Reamer ChaptErB A1rF uHut1un Research Prujem 2 Ass1gnrnents on Munday 1n e1ass THt NLWYORKEH Read Ass1gnrnentror next M m mg Wednesdaywovernoern Ame1e on earoon fuutprmts mked frum mam e1ass Web page We W111nave an m e1ass d1seoss1on fur part onne1eetore 1ngo1re1nrorrn 2 doe Wednesday Nuvember 1a Fwd ooune pusmun or a U s Congressoerson W1th regards tn nudearener Wntetnern a 172 page1etter po1nt1ng But a few re1evantse1enmeraets abuut noe1ear Energy and now yuu behave tnose snoo1d1nrorrntne1roo11ey pusmun 1a om nnnnnannn Nuclear Risk Assessment Rasmussen repun1975 tZEIEIEI chance Elf Luss quuu antA1dentLOCApantyr And than 11 El chance Elf mettduvvn And than 11 EIEI chance ufmntammentfa ure Thus 1 2 WWW chance Elf Chemuby We acmdentp amyr mnere are 1mm o1ants1ntne us and We run themfur in years Wnat 1 the enanee or a onernooy1 We aee1dent7 A1uu mm C 1 D 1 E u 1 W wouswv we EsvorDAvsorLszswsksuw m on 54 lextwm as nan o Rulmmn mm our on memo 191m x W mom we Esvotmvsnrws tosnngnsan mm mu morn n h no homo am away us mm 11 355 Nam Dd rn 4 on W due m new lunulm a Mom oomnwmoo made 5 Mom mm the one 11 M o M 1mm normed 1 We Recall the Advantages 15D years fur Uramum fue1 reactur teenno1ogy Womd Extend tnat tn What get yuu tntnw A We snetutg tnerease uur nuetearrtsstetn energy raetttttes a We snetutg eunttnue tet run etntytne raetttttes we eurrentty naye C We snuutg shutduWn att eXtS Ltng taetttttes uyertne neXtZEI years D We snetutg shutduWn att exts ttng raetttttes tmmegtatety Nuclear Fu on not on Ftsstun Reaettun Large unstapte nueteus spttts tntet smatter pteees U235 n 9 Te 39 ZI 34 3n Chatn reaettun sustatns retease Elf energy frum mass Used tn nudear quer ptants and urtgtnat nudear Weapuns Fustun Reaettun SmaH stabte nuttet fuse Uutn tn furm even were stabte nuttet 355sz 24sz n 176M2V NuW uttttzeg tn Hpump Hydrugen bumb Nu enatn rea tun Sn must generate enuug neat and euntatnmentfur puwer ptants nutyetvvurktngt Fuston Reactions Mass uf Hettum nueteus ts LESSthan the sum ufthe masses uf tne 2 prutuns and 2 neutrunstnat make tt up tfyuu euutd eumbtne Z p s and Z rt stu make a Hettum there wetutg be a retease utenergy Tnts tstne uppetstte utnsstetn wnten spttts up targe nuetet Thtstype prreaettetn tstne seturee prtne sun s energy Examgte What is the Problem Pmlnn o Prnlnn Demeriumonlher l 1 Z lHOJrlHualHl e Wnat nappens trwe shunt urte prettetn attne ettner7 4 w t u 76 pt etrtgtnat mass ts eunvened tet energy 4 grams pr Hettum Emu atetms 2 7x1D Ztuutes Egutyatent tet 4uu parrets pr ettt rettetns are eteetrteatty charged tney repet Need HtGH temperature and ntgn densttytu gettnem etetse enuugn tn SUCK can we get thts7 tun Mttttpn Ketvtn The Sun and all Stars Egutttprtum patanee petween gravttattunaty tnermat pressures Sun tuses 4 gtlttEI14 kttugramsday frum tustun reaettuns t HuWever remember tne sun nas a tutat mass 2 X tum kg How About on Earth t Yes we have tn bumbs Use rtsstetn bumb tet ereate ntgn temperature and pressure ZJWe ve peen Wurktng urt thtsfur4 years Lets ufprugress stttt nuWhere near a eetmmeretat ptant Nute tnere are same ptg advantages tryetu ean gettnts tet wer Nu rtsk pr exptetstetn autpmatte shutduWn tn ease pr prpptems et tpng ttyeg radtattun attnetugn tnere ts tetw teyet radtattun rrpm Trtttum natr ttre tz years an tretm neutretns nttttng euntatnment matenats Ma netlc Con Inement Tokamak magnetm eunnnernent magneu vans39ormer Hrgn temperature tn uyereurne W quot E prutunrprutun re utsrun Orbrtat eteetruns are smpped art so enargeg runs Hrgn gensrty gr mnstrapped m magnetm netg Need enuugn mnstu pruduce puvver Prubterns nstabmues eakst usses SUM uukmg rur breakreven energy But energy W hen n aima cuvrcn http www iter org LASER Ignited Fusion Natmnat gnttmn Famhty mpW Wgavmvpmyed serne euntruyersy abuut retattun tn burnbs7 Summary of FUSIon n pnnetpte rt nas great advantages nudear puwervntn abundant met reaetmn snuts duvvn Wnen you turn tne key Huvvever tnts nas nut been made pramcaWEt tmay seern We Wrtn enuugn engmeermg effun rter eyentuaHy Wurk But as tne seate and cast at such famhues TER rs bnnuns gr duHars gues up justreachmg tne energy break eyen pmntrs nutenuugn Where to Invest fyuuwere a weattnypersun and yuu Wanted tn gwe 1EIEI thmn duHarstu netp SDNE uur energy prumerns x huvv rnuen t rs dtf cmt tn batanee mves tment m thmgs tnat rnay ur rnay nutvvurk but atsu tnatnaye a rnuen ungemme seate Huvvever tney are atsu trnpurtant areas and mum be ust tr We unty tnyest m thmgs thn snurt payback WES aHu gawag Rerntngers tngutretntbrrnAsstgnrnentw due tbgay tn etass tntsh readtngtextbuuk Chapters and start Chapter4 HumEWurk 5 due next Wednesday Research Fretteet m getatts ang tbbtes gtyen nut un Munday m MICRGVUREINES t CoGeneration u t 9n n 34 mttmwtttnmtmr tutu tum Mm We wttt dtscuss abuut hetwthe Untyerstty ett cbtbragb generates eteetrtetty ang atset heats the buttgtngs Suunds Easy but tt ts nut What fracttun uf CU eteetrtetty and heat ebrne frum the eugenerattbn taetttty bummg naturat gas tn Inna A1EIEI n mamn D D zun The turbtnes tn the ebgenerattbn taetttty haye been turned uff cu esttrnates thatthts sayes ZMyear due tet the rtstng eetst ett naturat gas tnsteag eteetrtetty ts burehaseg tretrn gtlteet rnetstty ebat burnmg Extsttng butters tbrheat that were used as a subbternentary heat system nuW heat aH the buttgtngs cu by state regutattbn ts suppused tet reguee erntsstetns by mm by mm The key guesttbn ts what ts the basettne year tbetteye tt ts was when the eugenerattbn taethty was betng run tnterrntttentty We shbutg check un whatthe Untyerstty ebrnrnttrnent ts And hbw tt ts stated the that the Untyerstttes energy usage per square tbbt ts gettng duWn butemtsstuns are up Burmng naturat gas tn a ebgenerattbn taetttty has rnueh tetwer erntsstetnst an bummg naturat gas Purehastng wtng bbwer ts a rntnetr penurbattun tn SWeden nearty hattthe bbbutattbn hyes tn hbuses heated by gtstrtetheattng heat gtstrtbuteg tretrn cur generattetn eteetrtetty utthty btants Unfununate y the Ehmate tn rnbst uf uur uuntry gtetates that peak eteetrtetty pruductmn beeurs tn the surnrnert because ett wtgesbreag atrrcundmumng and set rnetstwaste heat ts pruduced tn the summer WhEn ttts nbt neegeg Our rnetst sueeessmt unrstte eugenerattbn btants are n heayy tngustrtest sueh as pu b and babertwhere there ts a steady yearrruund gernang tbrheattb bberate a brbeess NYTtrnes mm m M i l im mm NVC Basalond Power Plant 33 ef cient What if we do not want work eg electricity but fundamentally we want heat Or we want things cool eg air conditioning refrigerator We need a heat pumpquot Allllllllu fill 0 not 0 cold Heat energy input Heat energy output gt gt 1 Work extracted 0 not 0 cold Heat energy input Heat energy output Heat Pump Work input Notice the change in direction of the arrows If you have a hot region and a cold region does heat energy naturally ow from cold to hot If you put an ice cube into this hot coffee does the coffee get hotter Basically a heat pump is like a heat engine run backwards sometimes literally In order to move heat energy from a cold region to a hot region one must do work on the heat pump Coef cient of Performance COP QhotWork The more heat you put into the hot reservoir per amount of input work energy the better your COP There are limitations given by conservation of Energy and Carnot Thermodynamics W Qcald QM Qcald Team QM The Coef cient of Performance COP OhmWork That is the best you can ever get Real COP is always less than this maximum Apparently heat pumps work best if Thot is close to Tcold the opposite of heat engines This makes sense since it is easier to heat a house up by a degree or two rather than by a large amount The hotter you want the house the tougher it will be Healing your house with a heat pump or run rh reyerse to eoor the house rh summer Note that you can rnstead use ereethear heatrng The ereethear Wurk oohe h the Wrre goes munn mm heatmg or yourhorhe So a ereethear heater 001m Wurk areorom COP 1 rr you are usrrrg a heat pump to heatyourhouse aho Thu 23 Cersrus room temperature and Treoro u Cersrus What rs the COP re arso rhore Expensrve aho haroerto rharhtarh Note that for a rerhgerator you are hot so rhteresteg rh arhot Wurk Yuu are rnterested rh Groom Wurk HuW rhueh heat energy eah you rerhoye rrorh rrrsrde the rhoge ror a gryeh eost rh ereothear ehergy Wurk Ener E lclenc Ratm EER e What you want What you pay fur What you want rh hrs ease rs to rerhoye heat energy rrorh the eoro regrun rnsrde the rrrogoh Refrigerator Eyaporates at ooro temp Easyto hguety Cool meme Warm uutstde mow The orererreo terhoerature rs sumEWhErE between 35 and a d g r 7 to 3 3 degrees C Ahythrhg hrgher aho fundsWrH soorrtoo qurckry rt arso oresehts rooo oorsohrhg oroorerhs Ahythrhg rower aho freezrng becomes a proorerh rrroorhterhoerature rs 23 degrees C Whatrsthe EER Solar Energy Solar Energy Good News Completely renewable At least for a few billion more years Bad News Finite rate available locally diffuse Most renewables are solar in origin wind biomass hydro To start we will focus on the use of direct sunshine Passive Use sun for heating Active Convert solar energy to other forms of energy Example Photovoltaics PV 9 electrical energy Clicker Question How much of US annual energy consumption comes from renewables How much 39om solar directly A Renewables 15 and Solar 5 B Renewables 10 and Solar 2 C Renewables 7 and Solar 2 D Renewables 7 and Solar ltlt 1 E Renewables 2 and Solar ltlt1 Note that lt means less than and ltlt means much less than Answer D Renewables is mostly hydro and amounts to about 7 of our energy But Solar alone is extremely small still 006 Reminders Reading Chapter 10 Homework 10 due today at 5 pm InquireInform 2 due today in class Extra Credit 6 due Friday in class Exam 3 details will be given on Wednesday 9 The exam is in class the Wednesday after break Dec 3 Deadline for changing research topics is this Friday Exam 3 Details The exam is in class on Wednesday December 03 2008 The exam will be open textbook RampK and calculators are allowed You will not be allowed to use other outside notes Thus make sure to bring the book and a calculator to the exam The exam will cover all ofthe material in Chapters 5 6 9 and 10 ofthe RampKtext homework assignments 15810 and lecture material through and including Monday December 1 2008 The exam problems will be similar to homework assignments in class worked out problems and issues discussed in the text or in lecture A practice exam and solutions are available on the web page Measure of Acidity H OCO 2 2 we Mir mm c39 waitr i a 1 vi a m s a mr In gt 51 wsllllua kmnicnia pH value Each unit is factor of 10 in concentration Acid Rain Wet and Dry Deposition Eml ion D Y DEV S VPquot 39 Natural Wet Deposition of Source Ggf fkggggfs Ammunia Dissolved Acids EPA39s 502 auction results mu 1m wwwmun me m we LII3 ma bvol er n4 n4 1 ullm a pm at m up w m pmgmm mu Hum 1mm mg m mum ukludr w tpetui momma memo puma or uzn m was mu in MD ulxtrnannl Aimmm altered men Jen mm in help pluvld mum m Flannlnu in n the gtldmce u gm 4 d rm s wed ueuxe av mum but 45 max mm a I an minmm hummean am a n p e a Collp Enmvrmnlll Emwv a m or w on the mum aim Progress Rapun on the EPA Acid Rmn ngmm s i Adirondack Lakes u r rtr n L tn n nm Very poor conotttons n tne mtd gm s due to arm ran 1990 Amd Ram Program eslahhshed underthe C ean AVACI Reponmghhgms sorne reat soccess n reoocng soz ater Forsoztne program nas a rnanoatory cap on erntsstons nattonwtoe from etectnc ummes These are aHoCated m terms of aHoWanceS Whtch can then he banked forfuture use Dr Sam For NOX erntsston nrntts are otaceo tor eacn source type Read the regortcarequ and etme knowWhat oufmd strange or tnmnststent m the sctenttftc greSentaUOn tne tn year permd 39 Mm A Not rnocn cnange m 502 erntsston B An tncrease n 502 erntsston C A srnau oecrease ts 502 erntsstons D A decrease pu by a stgnncant n 1995 E None ortne anoye nctuated decease Dtrrerent spectes arrecteo otrrerentty ny actotty ortne Water Tnere naye heen sonstanttat reducuons m Wet sotrate deposmons 5quot quot regmn are not snowtng any measurame tncrease m am neotranzng capamty ml an r mm mmwm in Nunavurmrqr q man m n MM 1 auallrlhmturn inq mm My Nuhlunh mm ln marmm mquot m4 mnshuam vuw quotmm m nmmunum mm MM k39lil i w39n39 m a mow m m quotmom was um M r quotminium m mm lawnn aquot r rum Mmrhmlwmhau rumu rawmu mum flair quot m Wu 32 on mum Partrculates gAerosolsl Particles smallerthan about 100 um 10394 m Natural sources windblown dust fog Produced during combustion of coal Particles scatter light but too small to see individually Beijing Particulate Matter Aug 4 Photo PM Reading 292 Aug 2 thlo r 4 PM Reading 15 Aerosols claim amp Precipitation Salt rm Sea Spray amp Burning Bubbles 1 Panida dllmuer um 39 ni l 1quotquotquotquot quot EPA Study mum ulllawu mnmqmtl rumpliming m mmmn 41 mlllliuuvnll mmth Particulates lAerosolsl Buoyant force proportionally much larger than for larger particles Settling velocity lt 01 ms Particles remain suspended in the airfor days or longer Natural Dust Storm Problems Particles scatter sunlight reduce intensity on the ground Smallest particles are most likely to enter lungs and nitrates Can be another form of acid rain Vluripilnlmn mummy al ileum w om l vl Removin Particulates me 9 mm Fan Mechanical filters Electrostatic precipitators Small particles become electrically charged Often combined with K scrubbers for sulfur removal Local Regionally Global umquot nr Reginnzlnr Synaptic r Micrnsczg Inczlsczle mesnsczle Glnhzlsczz 1 r gtlt gtWgt y Lnngiived CF my species cmiizo imephemispherie 1 r cmcm e mlxlngllme 3 V c0 Glam 5 Mnderzlely lung Emsnls elnlrzrhemispheric livedspecies 502 mp 03 mixinglime 1dzy N0x 202 e g cziis DMS Enundzlylzyer u M Grinf mixing lime cmo Sh rII39 a n rive quot03 H02 5 eeies 15 oil 1m in m mquot m 1 km1n kminn kmm w nnn km Spatial scale Worst and Best Cities Los Angeles About at legal limit Worst Beijing Calcutta 7 x Los Angeles Mexico City 6 x Los Angeles Bangkok Bombay 5 x Los Angeles New York London Paris about 50 of Los Angeles Current Situation 502 and voc EmlSSanS in United States are duvvn NOX Emissiuns are still relatively cunstant Rutuni quotup many quotitm lstne Clean Air Actduing enuugn and fastenuugn A Yes 3 Nu Global Issues Based uni Envisat ubservatiuns this high resulutiun glubal atmuspneri map utnitrugen mums pm utiun makes clearlust nuvv nurnan activities impact air quality Click an image for a mum Data are frurn the Scanning lrnagirig Absurptiun Spectrumeterfur Atmuspneri Chanugrapny SClAMACHY instrument un Envisat Frurn Ozone Creation 02UV4gt00 1 0102403 2 Ultraviolet wavelength lt 240 nm Shorter than UVB Creation of Ozone absorbs UV Reaction 1 increases with altitude Reaction 2 decreases with altitude Phys 3 070 18 See prev notes to finish up Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Fossil Fuels Petroleum and coal 85 of US energy supply quotPetroleumquot 2 gas methane and liquid oil plus proban butane gasoline kerosene Mightmight NOT include tar sand and oil shale as quotpetroleumquot convention Coal is always considered separate Petroleum gt molecules of carbon and hydrogens quotHydrocarbonsquot Eg quotAlkanesquot Saturated gt quotsingle bondsquot each carbon has 4 bonds H H C C H H H Methane CH4 Ethane has 2 carbons Propane 3 Butane4 etc Octane has 8 carbons C8H18 Provides 45 55000 Btukg when you oxidize Methane is best Eg Burning Methane CH4 2 02 gt CO2 2 H2O quotFossil fuelquot gt origin is plants and animals not really much dinosaur in there Mostly microscopic early ocean life Solar energy photsynthesis gt CO2 H2O gt Carbohydrates Dead material sinks Bacterial decomposition quotburns itquot If buried where no oxygen sand mud pressure and temp can remove oxygen from molecules gt hydrocarbons Liquid gas hydrocarbons flow till trapped in natural areas impermeable rock Over geological E8 year timescales reservoirs may end up in LAND See Fig 21 in text Geologists locate promising areas Test drill quotwildcatquot well If find oil gt quotproven reservesquot Economically recoverable known to exist Typical drill rotating bit hollow shaft w coolant Typical cost 100ft Deepest 5 miles Average 1 mile gt2E6 drilled in US P0353070 28 History 1859 Drake Tltusvllle PA 70 ft People Lhought he wasnutsl 1862 75 Wells 3156 bbl e r 1870 Rockefeller Standard Oll monopoly forlong lee 1900 Cars star emg so 1909 2 b r We re tlne blggestln world ca Texas dornrnate 50 years roducLlon rose exponenually 1970 Alaska comeson lne 1970 Peak us producuon 3 359 bblyear In 2003rtwas19E9 Now rrnport 50 of oll we use 1973 Oll embargo CosL 3bbl rgt 13bbl 1979 Fall of shah of Iran ZObbl 04353 1991 rst gulf war Refining See g 24 Table 23 lookl mama Dlsullauon lleatrt Asnses dlfferent e h o lcomponentsllqulfy condense at EvuneE x rxil39lP s arates W m i l i mlw dlfferenttemps ep ur gasfue WIEHIEILI Abyenkdown gasollnefue lugnllous fueloxllfuel kR Iusmrunnula olnrodnrls greasewax ubrlcants Eh Fun de vedhom prtonltar rooflng pavrng quot WEJH a WHO In 1 lmnelol t lllATEFlIELDII l a Namml mrs NOT wnatrnarketdernands quotWhinimllnnluul u rude oll Too much heavy stum gt Lher l crackmg and oatalytro converslon oo much llght stuff gt GASOLINE 175 1 PolymenzaLlon e g make octane Octane rating in gas burmng olnaraotensuos Isooctane ls deflned to be 10 Lactually bum easlly enough nrheptane0bumsloofaSL can tcompressltwthouLlngmung t o h plane 1 Spontaneously lgmtes ata oornpresslon level deslred m typlcal oars ngher compreslen rauo need HIGHER ootane o O 8 E Phys 3 070 3 8 RESOURCES in the USA When do we run out Key concept Qinfinity 2 TOTAL SUPPLY OF OIL or whatever available over all history It s cumulative It doesn t change with time it s how much was underground long ago that is ultimately going to be used We d like to know this number How to estimate it Fig 23 Look at discoveries of wells Because production always follows Takes about a decade for a new discovery to quotcome onlinequot See also 23 25 and 26 of older RampK available on reserve at Phys library Discovery rate is not constant Rises steeply at first in a given region then steadily declines 11E9 bbl discovered in US in 03 50 less than previous year quotDiscoveryquot can also include revisions of predictions from wells due to improved technology MKing Hubbert tried a different approach Plotted total production to a smooth bell shaped curve Argued that many small wells which grow produce and run dry must ultimately yield such a curve PREDICTED in 1956 Qinfinity USA 2 2E11 bbl timemax prod 1970 He didn t consider Alaska Textbook 1996 QinfinityUSA 28E11 bbl time max prod 1970 USGS estimate in 2000 still about the same No amount of effort or technology there s been LOTS has changed these numbers for 50 yrs Why He built in the assumption that there would be new discoveries that s what the Bell shaped curve comes from Look at Fig 22 of our text USGS 2000 update the new rectangle has 97E9 bbl in it but it starts 7 years later See also Table 21 We ve consumed 190E9 bbl sofar As prices go up can afford to get more out Ex 30 recovery rate from a field might improve perhaps to 50 This should be in the curve which is not a geology model Hubbert s estimate was off not by much The farther we get the better the estimate is We consumed 7E9 Bbl in 03 Rising gt2year If we got it all without importing our total Qinfinity supply would give us another 100E9 bbl7E9 bblyr 14 years Imagine being o by a factor of 2 so add 100E9 bbl more for a magic technology yielding total 100 recovery from all wells past present and futurequot That would add another 14 years at present rates Less if demand rises Note PROVEN RESERVES in US are currently 21E9 Pi g 22 and discussion above argue EXPECTED reserves 100E9 So we plan on still finding much more oil than we already know about Phys 3070 48 GLOBAL supplies Because we do after all import Proven reserves in world are N lEl 2 bbl If we take over the planet kill everyone but us keep our consumption increasing at 2year this supply will last us 67 more years One lifetime Qinfinity will be more than proven reserves though How much more Hubbert 1969 estimated it to be between 14 and 2E12 bbl The US Department of Energy 2002 estimates between 274E12 bbl hrrpvm39ne rL39 quot39 quot1 See also httpwwwphysicstodayorgv01757iss77p47htmlref If world was brought up to our standard of living proven reserves would last lElZ7E9 bblyear 22 people in world for every American 7 years 39ude Oil oral 10553 CI WorlL1 13 lion Barrek OPEC is 43 of global oil production which is 25E9 bblyear Remember we consume 7E9 bblyear Fewer wells in Middle East than we have gt they39re still tapping their quotearlyquot rich reserves we39re down to the smaller pockets by now Saudis make 3E9 bblyear compare that to US consumption Hubbert curve for world redone in I93 puts Tpeak at 20102020 Estimated peak production will be 30740E9 bblyear After we pass the peak global consumption will go down every year Not by choice What are the economicpolitical implications Qinfinity planet N 25 E12 bbl Note planet has used about lElZ so far Proven reserves are lElZ so far That leaves another 5E12 quotto be discoveredquot Optimists double that Phys 3070 58 Many people eg oil companies like to quote R Reserves either proven or estimated quotrecoverablequot Production Rate Naively if P stays constant then RP total amount per year of years So RP gives you a simple idea of quothow many years do we have leftquot But that would only be true if production stayed constant and we consumed up to the last drop and then it stopped Usually looks nice and long when presented this way RP change They are not independent RP went up for a long time That means we were finding more at a rapid rate more rapidly than we producedconsumed it In US RP has been quite level for 30 years It can t stay level forever if demand gt P goes up then you must keep finding new reserves at an ever increasing rate New US discoveries 11139 bbl in 03 Production in US 19139 bbl in 03 So RP is now going down Prices Gasoline has dropped for last 20 years Even recently with rise from 150 200 still not near peak in 80 s If US oil supply is steeply decreasing and global supply is starting to approach its peak why isn39t price climbing Oil production is primary income for many countries gt good supply US gas tax is 5 10 times less than rest of world Issues Pollution road rage congestion resource depletion trade imbalance wars Lobbies oil industry car inducstry motelrestaurant industry highway construction land developers What are the costs to increasing taxes What will happen when the world does reach the peak of its Hubbert curve Phys 3 070 6 8 There are other fuels Nature gas methane CH4 bit of ethane See Fig 26 of text Fast growing Less pollution less 802 less particulates less C02 per Joule released Historically cheap but rising like mad recently New uses cars power plants Liquified gt easycheap to transport but dangerous costs energy 162 C Current global RP 60 years recall for oil this was 50 years Current US RP 10 years This is HARDER to import Exploration still primitive May find lots more Seabeds Transport is so hard some oil wells burn it off quotflaringquot We import 12 of our needs from text now 15 will increase Cheaper joule than electricity But be careful eg hot water heaters are 100 efficient if electric 50 90 efficient if gas fired Gasoline 13138 Jgal Nat gass 11139 J 1000 ft 3 at standard temp and pressure Cost 2gal 13138 Jgal 15E 8 J 101000 ft 3 11E9 J1000 ftA3 09E 8J Cheaper comparable Note 1 gal of gas 2 134 ft 3 To go as far with nat gas requires 13138 Jgal gas 11E6 Jft 3 nat gas 2 118 ft 3 compare with 13 Compressed gas 100 atm is a bit higher than currently practical still means 10 times the tank size is needed OK for buses Phys 3 070 7 8 COAL Oldest form 350 Myrs in formation butI mean in usage by humans Banned in London brie y in 1306 1000s died in London in 52 from stagnant air Comes from plants on land ferns trees etc Layers get covered gt can t oxidize becomes useful fuel First form gt quotpeatquot Low energy content Lignite 150 Myrs lt 50 C Bituminous 300 Myrs 50 80 C Anthracite 350 Myrs 95 C See Table 26 Near surface Well known where to look unlike natural gas Coal production quite steady in US Wyoming W Va Ky 2 big 3 See Fig 27 Good news Lots of it US has 20 of Qin nity global Qin nity coal 100 Qin nity oil Bad News Produces SO2 ash particulates Much more CO2Joule produced US Coal 10000 Btulb typically highly variable cf gasoline 21000 Btulb cf wood 8000 Btulb Technology could reduce waste output Eg integrated gasification combined cycle Costs Some discussion about quotsequestering CO2quot China relies heavily on Coal Follows US in CO2 emissions Uses local burning gt harder to clean up OTHER MATERIALS Shale Oil 4E6 Btuton cf coal 24E6 Btuton wood 15E6Btuton Rocks with high kerogen content Costs a lot of energy to recover Not clear if it canwill be a net quotwinquot for energy Also needs water 3 bbl bbl oil Huge volumes and turning to oil means MORE volume than you pulled from ground Huge supply If recoverable could increase Qinfinityoil USA by factor 2 Tar sand viscous oilsand mixture Tar like Bitumen Mine as solid then process Found in Canada Northern Alberta 2 tons of sand gives one barrel Environmental impact Coal gasi cationliquefaction Not presently economical look into it if you re interested Phys 3 070 8 8 Example Sources of growth Bikes in China Call it 13E9 people over 4 times US with 1 growth 80 of their electricity is fossil fuel much like us Consume 1E12 kW hr in a year cf 4E12 kW hr in USA in 2003 Oil imports are 2 behind USA increasing more rapidly 10year Total petroleum use 2E9 bblyear We use 6 Right now they have about 5E6 cars and 15136 other vehicles trucks buses What happens if they all drive cars at the same level per person as we do That would increase the 5E6 number by a factor of 100 Their goal is to produce or import l 2E6 each year a 20 40 increase annually SUMMARY End of era of fossil fuels is visible Resources are finite We will experience the quotstartquot of this end in our lifetime The human race has used almost half of ALL the oil that will ever be found already Similar for nat gas although there is somewhat more Ditto for coal there is still more of this Table 29 in text Unprecedented period of time historically Rather than talking about quottime to run outquot nonsensicall better to discuss time to reach quotpeak of Hubbert curvequot where resources is half gone and future production is always LESS each year than the year before After the peak for any given resource others must take over or else radical change in economics and lifestyle must occur decade for oil decade or two for nat gas Century for coal Shale oil and tar sand expensive destructive Do you think they ll be used Coal huge environmental impacts Still hard to fully evaluate will discuss more Can we switch to it when reach Hubbert Peak for oil and gas Should we Costs certain to rise sharply when reach peak of curve Short term fluctuationspolitical influence might make it hard to discern or accelerate it Hubbert peak doesn t have to be Bell shaped rmnes were arms a nardnd te Energy SuurcesF39anH due m see detans Handmg back tngdtretntdrrn Asstgnrnentm tdda Atrndstau were yery gddd and qmte mterestmg td read Putntrnaxtrndrn u m uutstandmg a veryguud a surnetaetdat SSUES r7 nu reterenees Many hatter dtsedssed uf shure dHng and ANWR Many dtsedssed prdpdsattd enrntnate duredrrenttrn drts trdrn tne NHde East and yenezdeta thtn m years Many dtsedssed arbun eap and trade prdpdsats n ungerresearch papers make suretu mcmde speetne reterenees magme tne readertrymg td checkthem n a d y ntng Research Pm eet m Detanstdrtnts asstgnrnentare gwen untne etass Web page Ptease be sure td read tnern earemuy and quthhe regmrernents Attne end uf c asstuda nu Wm gtek nurasstgned tugte nut ufthe bux Make sure tn Wnte duvvn nurnarne and tne tum etteruftne stgn m ShEeU f ydd naye a stgntneant prdbtern thn tne tum ur naye a strung preterenee tdr a dtfferenttupm ptease make arrangements El meet W t me an SEUSS the alternate tum prdpdsat bythe end uttnts Week fyuu rmss gemng an asstgnmenttuday ptease make sure tn see rne urernad rne tn get a tuptet Detdberat 2qu m etass ND 312 papers and nu Tntsts an How much are we us39 9 Enerd Suuree QEtu Percent ufUSTum Hydrae ecmc 2 E 2 8 Gautherma D3 D3 Emmass 2 E 2 8 Solar 006 006 Wmd D M D 11 Tuta E 15 E 3 n faet tnts number nas decreased SmEE tne eany man s Why are we motivated to use more of these Advantages Reduce dependence on limited fossil fuels Less environmental impact be careful with hydro for example Source is free though the technologyequipment is not Disadvantages Intermittent cloudy days nights ensity 9 need physically large collectors lnef ciency conversion to electrical energy Still expensive in most cases First some physicsWhat is light Light is actually an electromagnetic wave or EM radiation It has a frequency f cyclessecond how manytimes the electr39c an magnetic fields jiggle or oscillate each second It has a wavelength quotAquot meters the distance from crest to crest Visible light is only one wavelength ran e of electromagnetic radiation that our eyes happen to be sensitive to A 350 750 x1039a meters A 350 750 nanometers Just like nanotechnology Things that are very small on the order of 10398 meters Different colors are different wavelengths of EM radiation Clicker Question adio waves for FM has a wavelength of33 meters What is the frequency ofthis EM radiation A 30 Hertz B 90 Herz C 180 kiloHertz D 900 kiloHertz E 90 MegaHertz Note that 1 Hertz is a unit equal to one cycle per second Sometimes light acts more like of stream of particles Einstein found this and won the obel Prize for the photoelectric effect These particles of light are called ghotons Their energy is not given by Photons all moves at the same speed ie the speed of light 3 x108 ms Photons have zero mass Clicker Question Ph oton En ergy Where h 663 x103934 Jouleseconds Planck s constant Xrays have 10B meters Visible light 10B meters and Radio waves 2w 10 meters Which is the correct order of photon energies from highest to lowest A Visible light 9 Xrays 9 Radio Waves B Xrays 9 Visible Light 9 Radio Waves C Radio Waves 9 Visible Light 9 Xrays D They all have the same energy photons The shortest wavelength gives the largest energy Thus Xrays have the largest energy answer B The sun emits EM radiation at many different energies or wavelengths Splclral Dismbminn oi swam and MoluuiaAhsnrMIen 2 5 Exlla e esmai Sun 7 Suniigmm SagLaval m i 3 E incidnm m kwm umi 2 Ln 590 um 15m 2mm 25m ma wawis gm um Spectral Bishibuii en oi Simiin aim Molecuiat mama 25 meme 7 E 2 a airmusm l 3 is e E in 5 05 m Mvsm iaui m m mm m 5 we quot9 I I The most radiation from the sun However mere i5 aiso infrared iR but not too much eraysi is in the visible range and Uitravioiet UV The Suniigm mmngme upper atmosphere her of 2 calories I minute I square centimeter This is Caiied he Soiar Constant You can convenmisto other units