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by: Kirin Anandsongvit
Kirin Anandsongvit
GPA 3.2
Prof. Matthew A. Lackner

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About this Document

Prof. Matthew A. Lackner
One Day of Notes
25 ?




Popular in Thermodynamics

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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Kirin Anandsongvit on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to MIE230 at University of Massachusetts taught by Prof. Matthew A. Lackner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 158 views.


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Date Created: 01/21/15
The differences between the fundamental classes of materials can be traced back to the way its atoms are bonded Ceramics Ionic and Covalent Bonding Metals Metallic Bonding Polymers Covalent amp Secondary Primary Bonding 1 lonic Bonding Occurs when you combine a very electronegative atom an atom that wants to steal elections with a very electropositive atom an atom that wants to give electrons a In other words it occurs between positive cations and negative anions ions i Generally it is a nonmetal with a metal b Electronegativity increases as we go up and to the right of the periodic table c The force is called the coulombic force of attraction and it is non directional as the force is existent all around the charged atom 2 Metallic Bonding Occurs between two metals generally with partially filled electron orbitals a The electrons are delocalized because when the atoms come together they have a lower overall energy i The electrons are distributed throughout the solid ii The bonding atoms usually have similar electronegativities b There is an electrostatic interaction between the positive ionic cores and the negative electron sea c Electrostatic repulsive forces between the ionic cores are screened out by the electron sea d Bonding is also nondirectional 3 Covalent Bonding Occurs between atoms usually nonmetals that have similar electronegativities and thus share atoms a For some atoms especially carbon the s amp p orbitals combine to form sp orbitals and are called hybrid orbitals i sp3 hybridization occurs between two carbon atoms and is the basic bonding between diamond atoms ii sp2 hybridization occurs between two carbon atoms and is the basic bonding between graphite atoms Secondary Bonding 1 Van Der Waals Bonding a This type of bonding occurs due to the interactions between dipoles without the exchange of electrons b Different types of dipoles can cause secondary bonding i Fluctuating Dipoles These have asymmetric electron clouds and thus are dipoles An example is two H2 atoms interacting with one another ii Permanent Dipoles These have polar and nonpolar regions And thus they attract different molecules with similar characteristics An example is water Bonding Energy and Packing The bond energy for secondary bonds are much lower compared to those of primary bonds While ionic bonds can range generally from 5001500 kJmol Van Der Waals bonding usually has a bond energy that ranges from 4060 kJmol Dense and ordered packing tend to have lower energies 1 Crystalline Materials a Atoms pack in periodic 3D arrays The atoms are oriented in patterns thus are mostly organized in a repeating patternl i Typical of metals many ceramics and some polymers b The coordination number is defined as the number of atoms surrounding 1 atom in a crystal structure 2 Noncrystalline Materials a Atoms have no periodic packing b Amorphous Materials i Materials with no long range order ii These materials however are isotropic since they are randomly oriented and have no particular pattern or order 3 Anisotropic materials a Materials whose properties are directionally dependent i Take graphite for example in pencils 1 When you write little flakes of graphite are left behind onto the paper This suggests that the bonding in the vertical directions between planes are weak But the bonding between the atoms in the same plane are extremely strong Thus the properties are different in these directions graphite is anisotropic 4 Polycrystalline Materials a A material in which there are several different single crystals i The boundary between one crystal and another is referred to as the grain boundary ii Each grain is a crystal 1 If these grains are randomly oriented then the properties are generally nondirectional Atomic Densities and Packing Factors Linear density a It is defined as the number of atoms per unit length Planar Density a It is defined as the number of atoms per unit area Atomic Packing Factor a The volume of atoms divided by the volume of the unit cell Theoretical Density a Density nAVcNa n Number of atomsunit cell A Atomic weight Vc Volume of unit cell Na Avogadro s Number In general the densities of metals are greater than those of ceramics and the densities of ceramics are greater than those of polymers i Metals have close packing and usually have large atomic masses ii Ceramics on the other hand are lighter elements and have a less dense packing iii Polymers have low density packing and are often amorphous and are also composed of lighter elements cameos


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