Introduction to the individual in society- Definition
Introduction to the individual in society- Definition SYP3000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bérénice Bc on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SYP3000 at Florida International University taught by Dr. Guillermo Grenier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see The Individual in Society in Sociology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 01/21/15
01132015 Individual in Society Introduction I What is the individual I What is the individual s relationship to social organization and social relations I How is the individual constituted or made through social relations I What possibilities and choices are available for the individual within social systems that are unequal and hierarchical gt We live in a world interconnected into a system The inclividual a modern western creation Much of the way that we conceive of the relationship between the individual and society comes from Western notions of the self Autonomous Isolated Able to make decisions for oneself and Responsible for one s own actions Expectations Understand Western notions of the autonomous self and alternative notions of the selfembedded in social relations See how people are constantly engaged in interpreting How do sociolodists look at societv And what it means to be human Individuals are shaped by society Logicalrational proof Basis for Truth found in reason Based on logic careful organized and honest examination of ideas no who said it philosophy demands logic Sociologists try to guess how an individual will behave according to different social criteria Empirical and rational proofs are ways to test accuracy of ideas Philosophers and mathematicians rely heavily on rational proof Scientists on empirical proof 01132015 The I I I The sociological Empirical proof truth based on careful observation and measurement Does what we think re ect what is going on in the world we live in Reality is shared and observable Empirical proof is basis of sociology and other social sciences observation is the key sharing observation is key 0 Durkheim on Suicide he saw solidarity in patterns and rates of suicide in Europe in the XlXth century quantitative data For instance if you re a protestant you re more likely to commit suicide than if you re a catholic Strive for objectivity replication of observation Assumptions of sciences nature has patterns laws nature events are caused by other natural events Social facts are explained by other social fact individual recognizes Hisher existence as embedded in a speci c historical period Hisher conditions as being more than personal The social nature of hisher existence Problems vs issues imagination Charles Wright Mills allows us to penetrate our social world and identify the links between our personal biographies and larger social forces to see that what is happening to us immediately is a min point at which our personal lives and society intersect 2 Ability to see overlap between biography and history personal and public Ability to analyze how individuals are in uenced by larger social structures Nature Nurture and individualism some ideas to consider Our social interactions create the differences between us Initial thoughts all matter made of same building blocks Behavior genetics study how predicting individual differences 1 Genes 2 Twins and adoption studies 3 Temperament and heredity 4 Geneenvironment interaction Study identical vs fraternal twins 01132015 Egt Similarities found in identical twins despite being raised in different homes Personality styles of thinking and relating Abilitiesintelligence test scores Attitudes Interests tastes Speci c fears Brain waves heart rate Given the evidence of genetic impact on how a person turns out does parentingnurture make any difference Does the home environment have any impact Studies have been performed with adopted children for whom the biological relatives are known Searching for parenting effects biological vs adoptive relatives Despite the strong impact of genetics on personality parenting has in uence on Religious beliefs Values Manners Attitudes Politics Habits Temperament is another difference apparently not caused by parenting From infancy into adulthood most people do not seem to change temperament de ned as a person s general level and style of emotional reactivity According to some researchers 3 general types of temperament H M appear in infancy quoteasy slow to warm upquot quotdif cultquot Interaction of genes and environment Selfregulation genes turn each other on and off in response to environmental conditions Example of selfregulation in animals shortened daylight triggers animals to change fur color or to hibernate Epigenetics the environment acts on the surface of genes to alter their activity Example in humans obesity in adults can turn off weight regulation genes in offspring 01132015 Evolutionary Psychology Natural selection how it works Begin with a species genome which contains a variety of versions of genes that shape traits gt conditions make it dif cult for individuals with some traits some versions of those genes to survive long enough How might evolution have shaped the human species Example why does quotstranger anxiety develop between the ages of 9 and 13 months Hint in evolutionarysurvival terms humans are learning to walk at that time Explanation of Phobias why do people so easily acquire a phobia of snakes An evolutionary psychologist would note that snakes are often poisonous gt so those who more readily learned to fear them were more likely to survive and reproduce Can we apply this to all types of phobias Examples clowns spiders