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Honors Coseminar

by: Joshua Kuphal

Honors Coseminar HONR 1001

Joshua Kuphal

GPA 3.59

Erica Ellingson

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About this Document

Erica Ellingson
Class Notes
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joshua Kuphal on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HONR 1001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Erica Ellingson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/232193/honr-1001-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Honors at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Review of Light and Telescopes What is the purpose of a telescope nancm concave mirror 2 en ye s objechve Figure 1 Designs for Reflecting Telescopes starlight starlight starlight 1 I Kf h u quot Cassegrain Fetus NeManian Fucus Masmytthuud Focus quot39 f focus DFIIFI IEIW 39 mlrmr r39nlerr Mirrors in Reflecting Telescopes TWiIl KeCk telescopes 011 Segmented 10meter mirror Mauna Kea in Hawaii of a Keck telescope What are the two most important properties of a telescope 1 Lightcollecting area Telescopes with a larger collecting area can gather a greater amount of light in a shorter time 2 Angular resolution Telescopes that are larger are capable of taking images with greater detail Light Collecting Area A telescope s diameter tells us its light collecting area Area 11diameter22 The largest telescopes currently in use have a diameter of about 10 meters Bigger is better Angular Resolution The minimum angular separation a gum that the telescope f 1 Wm can distinguish separation Inieranive iigum Focusing Light Digital xxx cameras R L detectlight WWlth charge l coupled devices CCDs A camera focuses light like an eye and captures the image with a detector The CCD detectors in digital cameras are similar to those used in modern telescopes CCD Advantages How does a CCD work Response is linear Highly sensitive 80 vs few percent High dynamic range Mention Thermal noise or dark current Light Electromagnetic Waves A light wave is a vibration of electric and magnetic fields Light interacts with charged particles through these electric and magnetic fields Wavelength and Frequency 1 cm 39u39JEVE IE QIl I 1 cm fremlency SCI Ghz 15 cm wavelength cm frequency 2 X at Ghz Elf GI Iz D 25 um wavelength g cm l newsnay 4 M 30 She 12C Ghz wavelength x frequency speed of light constant What is the electromagnetic spectrum gamma rays Inlrared visibie mucmwaves metevst sue at wavetength frequenCY hertz l hydvogen atum protein bacterium ammameu plnhead baseball kmtba me d lt mgher hwy u mm mm m 10 10 to t t t w w m m t ra macnve e radar mmwave laments Dven My machlnes mack hale aucvetmn msk cusrmc microwave hackgmund gamma ray radm gataxy burst Luminosity passing through each sphere is the same Area of sphere 47 radius2 DiVide luminosity by area to get brightness Spectroscopy housed starhght 39 marry spectrograph separates the Diffraction different Light from grating breaks Wavelengths only one star light into of light before Enters spectrum they hit the detector ra m Three Types of Spectra E K Continuous Spectrum The saaaxhuh shaws n smaam camihuous rainbow of rum A graph aflhe spectrum COIIUnllou vanes snglmy at different wavelengths The light bulb pmahaaa Iighl mm a Con mlvlls spectrum Wa sue bright Emission n as at s Eri c wavelengths valor am Ila other Ilghl The graph shows an 1 am 5 m at he wavelength 0 mh emission line rha cluud aha Emil ha awn light am July at shamc wavelwngkhs dek39mlirmd by its composil39inn We see dark absorptiah lines where the sham has absquotbed uglus or speci c wavelengths calms a graph shows a mp wavelength a n absowtion linev nus pamuu dummm m pumm The claud absarb lightnkspe 39 wavalangms aalamihau by us nomposiliun Energy Level Transitions vonlzallon level 7 The only eV V allowed WV changes in energy are those level 1 uul ground state to I I a a transition between Not Allowed Allowed energy levels Chemical Fingerprints Downward transitions produce a unique pattern of emission lines A101 434 a 486 i 656 3 nm nm nm nm Energy Levels of Molecules Spectrum of Molecular Hydrogen The large numbers of vibrational and rotational energy levels can make the spectra of molecules very complicated Many of these molecular transitions are in the infrared part of the spectrum 19 Properties Of Thermal adlatlon Hotter objects emit more light at all frequencies per unit area Hotter obj ects emit photons with a higher average energy39 150 K star 103 A the Sun 5800 K E e g 0 3 000 Katar E 104 E E 102 10 A 10 103 105 wavelength n 4 ulwavlolet infrared gt Measuring the Shift Labnralory snectvum Statiome ohjecx 1 Moving Away We 2 Away Faster claim 3 Moving Toward Object A Toward Faster We generally measure the Doppler Effect from shifts in the wavelengths of spectral lines How does Earth s atmosphere affect groundbased observations The best groundbased sites for astronomical observing are Calm not too windy High less atmosphere to see through Dark far from city lights Dry few cloudy nights Transmission in Atmosphere maiur space ubservaiunes gamma ray llka 10km Only radio and visible light pass easily through Earth s atmosphere We need telescopes in space to observe other forms Light Pollution Scattering of human made light in the atmosphere is a growing problem for astronomy Twinkling and Turbulence Star viewed with ground Same star viewed with based telescope Hubble Space Telescope Turbulent airflow in Earth39s atmosphere distorts our view causing stars to appear to twinkle greer lrlrer red Hlle39 Imaging Imeraaiva Figure Astronomical detectors generally record only one color of light at a time Several images must be combined to make full color pictures Imaging 1Fng x in red mediumenergy x gays lgmen highesreneygy x rays iuiuei Astronomical detectors can record forms of light our eyes can t see Color is sometimes used to represent different energies of nonvisible light This document was created with Win2PDF available at httpwwwwin2pdfcom The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or noncommercial use only


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