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GEOL 101: Earth's Interior I & II

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOL 101: Earth's Interior I & II 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOL 101 Earth s Interior I II
Natalee Stanton

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Geology 101-017
Class Notes
Geology 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
GEOL 101 Earth’s Interior  I. About the earth’s interior  ­ The center of the earth is about 6400 KM below us  o Deepest well is 10 km ­ Heat inside the Earth drives the core’s geodynamic and the mantel convection ­ Earth’s interior is explored by using information form seismic waves and their  passage through the body of the earth  II. Stricture of the Earth ­ Seismic velocity depends on the type of material (composition, temperature, and  pressure o We can use the seismic waves to tell us about the interior of the earth ­ When waves move from one type of material to another, they change speed and  direction  III. Behavior of waves and boundaries ­ Waves travel with spherical waves fronts  Reflection – when energy, reflects, back form the boundary between materials with  different physical properties   Refraction – when energy “refracts” (is transmitted but changes directions) at a  boundary between materials with different physical properties  o Think of a laser going through a fish bowl filled with water   Passive source seismology ­ Study of the earth’s interior using earthquakes as  sources for seismic waves  Earth’s layering: ­ Velocities ­ Densities  Earth’s Interior II  Structure of the earth ­ Study of the behavior of seismic waves tells us about the shape and composition  of the interior of the Earth   Crust   Mantle   Outer core  Inner core  IV.  Isostasy­ This is what causes an iceberg to float on water. o Mechanism by which the less dense continents float on the denser mantle o Over long periods, the mantle has little strength and behaviors  Moho – is the seismically defined boundary between crust and mantle  o In order for continents to be higher they must be thicker  V. Role of Heat ­ Many physical process on Earth are a result of heat and the distribution of  temperature ­ Melting of rocks (solid to liquid) ­ Metamorphism ­ Convection of the mantle ­ Convection of the outer core VI. Earth’s internal Heat ­ Original heat ­ Subsequent radioactive decay  Radioactive decay happens in the Earth’s curst   Condition (lithosphere) : transfer of heat through matter with no particle  displacement  o Energy moves through the substance   Convection (Mantle) – transfer of heat through matter though particle  displacement  o Move it from one place to another to cool off VII. Earth’s magnetic field  ­ It is much like field that would be produced by a giant bar magnet placed at the earth’s center   Declination – horizontal angle between magnetic north and geographic north  Inclination – angle made with horizontal  o Not stable  ­ Outer core is made primarily form iron that is a good electrical conductor ­ Convention in the earth’s outer core generates and maintains the magnetic field  Geodynamo ­ Rapid convection motion of the outer core generated electric  current   Self –exciting dynamo ­ the sun’s magnetic field interacts with the moving iron  in the core to produce and electric current yielding magnetic field  VIII. Magnetic reversal ­ Polarity of the earth’s magnetic field has changed thousands of time in  the Phanerozoic   The most recent reversal was about 8,000 years ago  These reversals appear to be abrupt   Magnetic epoch – a period of time in which magnetism is dominantly of one  polarity  o Oceans crust is a magnetic tape recorder o Normal – north oriented polarity o Revered – south polarity   Paleomagnetism – permanent record of the direction of the earth’s magnetic field at the time the rock was formed o Use of magnetic properties of rocks to determine their age o Use of the earth’s magnetic field to investigate past plate motions Sample Exam Questions P seismic waves travel faster than S seismic waves. a. True b. False The shape of the earth is a sphere. a. True  b. False What is the approximate distance from the surface to the center of the Earth? a. 700 km b. 2900 km c. 6400 km d. 24000 km Which layer in the Earth does NOT transmit S waves? a. Crust b. Inner core c. Mantle  d. Outer core What type of seismic wave is depicted by the ray path in the diagram? a. P wave b. S wave c. A surface wave d. All of the above


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