Intr World Religions
Intr World Religions HISTORY 112
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History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 17 10130103 Classical and medieval Islam Picture Aya So a mosque Istanbul formerly Hagia Sophia church If a tradition is vital meeting a real need then the tradition will be readjusted or grow as required by circumstances A living cultural tradition in fact is always in course of development Marshall G S Hodgson Secular and religious authorigz lSunni Islam majority divided lCaliphs deputy succeeded prophet judges but not legislators lQadi judge delegated by Caliph apply law to speci c cases lFiqh jurisprudence handled by scholars with no formal power lUlema body or community of scholars separate from secular power Schematic gt 1 K 1 lt Sunni Islam lEarly Caliphs encouraged rational approach to law lShari a based on four principles Qur an Hadith Ijma Ijtihad closed by 900 CE lUlema interprets Shari a lFocus on orthopraXis obligations meritorious actions discouraged actions prohibitions lFour schools of qh With different degrees of severity The caliphate to 945 Islamic world c 1100 Islamic World c 1500 Shi ism lAli the rst legitimate Caliph lOnly relatives of the Prophet can be Imam lImam is a representative of God on earth mystical strain union of political and religious authority lTwelver Shi ism Hidden Imam lSevener Ismaili Shi ism lSafavid Persia established a Shi ite state Sufis the mystics of Islam I Sul wool robe uResponse to legalism of Sunni tradition eg Rabi a initially associated With Shi ism uAlGhazzali 10591111 legal observance and mystical piety are compatible IOrders veneration of saints ulntroduced coffee to general consumption Islam and unbelievers lPolytheists in dels forced to submit lPeoples of the Book Jews Christians Zoroastrians Mandeans etc dhimmi taxed subject to their community lDar alIslam abode of peace and Dar alHarb abode of war lJihad struggle against in dels peaceful or Violent lFalsafa philosophy a foreign science pursued but often Viewed suspiciously lews under Islamic rule IAS dhimmi generally tolerated lEXposure to and adoption of AraboGreek philosophy lJudah HaleVi theologian and poet I Kuzari dialogue among Jew Christian Muslim pagan philosopher and Karaite Jew lMaimonides Cordoba gt Cairo IMishneh Torah 14 vols in Hebrew IGuide for the Perplexed in Arabic Challenges to Islamic world lCrusades c 10951291 lMongols 13th14th centuries lEuropean colonial expansion lSouth and Southeast Asia 17th century lMiddle East and Africa 19th20th century I Moderniz ation industrialization secularization History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 12 10 14 03 esus and his context Picture Christ Pantocrator Sts Peter and Paul Ukrainian Catholic Church Toronto Primitive Christianity was right to live wholly in the future with the Christ who was to come and to preserve of the historic Jesus only detached sayings a few miracles His death and resurrection Albert Schweitzer Why does lesus matter lBelief in Jesus is at core of Christianity eg Apostles Creed Nicene Creed lChristians Theologians God Incarnate at least since the 4th century CE lHistorians founder of religious movement though not founder of Christianity and representative of Palestinian Judaism in rst century CE Difficulgg of sources lJewish and pagan sources had almost no interest in Jesus and his followers lGospels written c 80100 CE 5070 years after Jesus s execution I Synoptic gospels Mark Matthew Luke differ signi cantly from John Sampticmble Picture of a synoptic able The Quest for the Historical lesus lFoundations late 18th century Enlightenment lDavid Friedrich Strauss Leben Jesu 1835 lErnest Renan Vie de J sus 1863 lAlbert Schweitzer yes the Albert Schweitzer Quest of the Historical Jesus 1906 called for an end lGeza Vermes Paula Fredricksen 1970s lJesus Seminar 1980s Robert Funk Dominic Crossan and others Two a roaches to the uest 1 Determine which sayings and deeds are authentic 2 Determine how to contextualize sayings and deeds lApproaches are mutually reinforcing lJesus s sayings and deeds reconteXtualized by Gospel authors ITO assess them we need to put them back in their historical context Points of agreement lHistory needs to be distinguished from myth Strauss Renan lIn modern terms Jesus has to be distinguished from the stories told about him 3060 years later I Miraculous elements are later additions or exaggerations lRationalists outsiders they are impossible lFideistic insiders they distract from moral message Points of dis agreement Picture Rembrant engraving ofJesus preaching uApocalyptic and Messianic elements uNo convincing grounds for removing them uJesus Seminar and predecessors don t think they fit in with Jesus as moral sage preaching selftransformation uPalestinian Judaism in rst century CE uSadducees Temple priesthood uPharisees and Scribes uEssenes apocalyptic sect Theology vs history of religions lHistorical approach seems to make Jesus irrelevant to modern Christians lReactionary theology rejects Judaism lJesus Seminar strips even Jewish context away making Jesus a sage in the mold of Socrates or the Buddha lCan the two be reconciled esus and post modern theology Picture Salvador Dali Cruci xion 1954 lMarcus Borg The pre and postEaster Jesus History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 11 10 9 03 Bab lonians ews and Persians Pictures photograph of the Ishtar Gate Babylon now in the Pergarnon Museum Berlin In the sixth fth and fourth centuries BC both the Greeks and the Jews reorganised their communal life in conscious reaction tothe Persian Empire It is a great compliment to Persia that both did so Without hating her Arnaldo Momigliano Announcements History majors Graduate School Information Session With Barry Levy Thurs Oct 16 500 615 in Herter 601 The kingdoms of Israel and ludah Picture Assyrian bulliheaded god from the palace of Sargon II lRepeated pattern in Tanakh Israelites worship Baal and Asherah suffer return to Yahweh lCovenant With David lSolomon s Temple central ritual site lProphecy and ethics I722 Assyrians destroy Israel Making sense of disaster lIsaiah s prophecies lc 622 Hilkiah discovers Book of the Law Deuteronomy enjoining strict monolatry lJosiah purges Temple of idols destroys old shrines centralizes worship in Jerusalem 597 rst Babylonian conquest 586538 Babylonian exile Photo Dragon from Ishtar Gate Babylon The preexilic legacy IA god active in history lProphets who urge ethical conduct lOpposition to idolatry lCentral worship in Temple lThese are the roots from which Judaism Christianity and Islam will owerbut rst the encounter with Persia The Babylonian Exile lMany turned to Babylonian gods lOthers saw exile as punishment new Covenant is more personal Jeremiah lSynagogue develops prayer and Torah 539 BCE Cyrus conquers Babylon 538 allows Jewish exiles to return l Hardliners returned to Jerusalem under Persian patronage Nehemiah Ezra Persian religion Zoroastrianism lEthical monotheism Ahura Mazda creates world lAngra Mainyu chooses evil lHumans faced with choice between good and evil lChinvat Bridge highly developed angelogy and demonology lAfterlife in paradise or hell resurrection Footnote After the Muslim conquest ofIran some Zoroastrians ed to India where they were called Parsis Persians Their descendants continue to practice the Zoroastrian religion Second Temple period c 520 BCE 70 CE lTemple reestablished c 520 BCE tension with those who remained lReturned exiles reworked traditional stories into the history of Genesis to 2 Kings Biblical canon complete by 2nd century BCE lEmphasis on strict monolatry becoming monotheism sacri cial ritual Jerusalem written Torah mixed marriages condemned lDiaspora Babylon military colonies The Diaspora map Jewish diaspora c 1 CE History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 24 1212103 Religion and politics in south Asia Picture photograph of the destruction of the Babri masjid Dec 6 1992 The meaning at most of Ayodhya s sites is inherently unstable constantly under alteration according to variables of sect caste time or season Julia Shaw Ayodhya and India a chronology 11th century Temple to Rama built in Ayodhya 16th century Mughal conquest of India Babri masjid Babur s mosque built in Ayodhya 18th century British colonial rule direct rule from 1858 to 1947 1947 Independence and partition of British India into India and Pakistan in Ayodhya Hindus profane the Babri masjid Which is closed from 1947 to 1986 1991 BJP BharatiyaJanata Party makes Ayodhya a campaign issue uDec 6 1992 destruction of Babri masjid provoking riots and murder Colonialism and Hinduism lIslam reaches India in 12th century Mughal Empire in north from 16th to 18th century lBritish rule East India Company and direct colonial rule from 1858 lColonial rule created infrastructure and idea of a united India English as lingua franca lModern Hinduism de ned in comparison With Christian model India independence and partition lNonviolent movement for independence partition India E and W Pakistan lHalf a million people killed during violent migrations to new states Gandhi assassinated lKashmir remains a contested ashpoint lConstitution does not contain a uniform civil code to some extent civil status determined by religious group eg Muslim Personal Code lGovernment de nes Hindu as a member of any native religious community Ayodhya lWho owns the past lBuddhist sites built by Ashoka lBabri masiid lHanuman temple lMythical time and historical time lHindutva religious cloak for secular ends Cultural religion History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 13 10 1 16103 Rabbinical udaism Picture Marc Chagall The Rabbi Taking as axiomatic belief in God his Revelation through Torah and his election choice of Israel the rabbis de ned Judaism in terms of the mitzvot or divine commandments Norman Solomon Announcements lHistory majors Graduate School Information Session With Barry Levy Thurs Oct 16 500 615 in Herter 601 lSecond paper assignment opinion essay based on current events re ecting approaches learned in course The Diaspora Map of diaspora in rst century CE Palestinian udaism at the beginning of the Common Era l Pairs heads of Sanhedrin lShammai c 50 BCE c 30 CE lHillel c 70 BCE c 10 CE lSadducees Temple priesthood lPharisees innovators resurrection of the body pronounced ethical bent lEssenes apocalyptic sect lJesus movement The destruction of the Second Temple Picture Romans despoiling the Second Temple demil from Arch ofTitus in Rome 66 CE Revolt in Judea against Romans 70 CE Second Temple destroyed by Titus 132135 CE Bar Kokhba revolt Jerusalem razed IScriptural Judaism based on synagogue and Pharisaic practices survives Regrouping under the Rabbis lYavneh J amnia in Palestine and Babylon lBelief taken as axiomatic focus on practice of holiness and purity messianic hopes lMishnah Judah haNasi Rabbi c 200 CE lMidrash exegesis commentary lTalmud Yerushalmi and Babli lOriginally limited to Palestine and Babylonia Torah Picture ofa Torah scroll being read Halakhah and Aggadah lKey Rabbinic doctrine Dual Torah lMishnah concerned With ritual behavior and purity including Temple rites lHalakhah settling legal questions according to Written and especially Oral Torah lAggadah theology ethics folklore lTalmud systematic attempt to relate Mishnah to Written Torah I There is no early and late in the Torah Talmud Picture page from a Spanish edition of the Babylonian Talmud lMishnah lGemara lRashi France 11th century lTofarot France Germany 12th13th century lRabbi Nissim Spanish 11th century Halakah orthopraxis not orthodoxy lGod has given mitzvot commandments instructions to his people 613 248 positive 365 negative authorities disagree about exact list Rambam Maimonides Widely followed lGezeirah fence around the Torah lTakkanah Rabbinic law lMinhag binding custom lPoint Imbues everyday acts With religious signi cance Feasts and celebrations lLunar calendar 19year cycle 7 intercalary months lHigh Holy Days New Year Rosh Hashanah in fall through Day of Atonement Y om Kippur lTabernacles Booths Sukkot fall harvest festival desert life after Exodus lPassover Pesakh barley harvest Exodus lWeeks Pentecost Shavuot Wheat harvest Ten Commandments The Home Picture contemporary mezuzah by Judith Morton uTorah speci es rules for home and diet but not a complete system uPharisees application of priestly rules to all Jews home becomes sancti ed ICodified in Mishnah uMezuzah uKashrut uReligious value of synagogue and home central after 70 CE History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 16 10128103 The origins of Islam Picture The Qur an Illuminated North African manuscript c 1300 The early Muslim community was held together by the basic rituals of devotion all of which had a communal aspect Albert Hourani Announcements ITODAY Law School information session with David Peters 78 PM Herter 601 lTomorrow History Club Ghost Tour of campus meet 8 PM in Herter lobby Refreshments will be served before the tour lPaper rewrites if you got below a B due November 7 in discussion The Five Pillars of Islam Pictures Crowds circumarnbulate the Ka ba during the Hajj Muslims praying in London lProfession of Faith shahada lPrayer salat lFasting saum lAlms zakat lPilgrimage The birthplace of Islam Map Arabia in the early seventh century CE uBedouin Arabia uThe Quraysh in Mecca uTribal deities gathered in Ka ba Allah a deus otiosus above them uThe Ka ba and the hajj in preIslamic Arabia uMuhammad merchant of the Quraysh c 570632 Muhammad s Vision and his visions lIn 30s began to withdraw to cave for annual meditation I610zbeginning of Visions in which God appeared to him and spoke through angel Gabriel lQur an recitation comes from these experiences which continued lReligious Vision submission to God and to His will based on social justice and equity Basics of Islamic theology lStrict monotheism with immanent God responsible for all aspects of the world lProphets sent earlier to warn speci c nations Abraham Moses Jesus and others Muhammad is last lLast Judgment souls will be held individually responsible for deeds and spirit behind them God is merciful The umma communigg lDefined by adherence to Islam not tribal loyalty lInitial openness to other monotheists followed by disillusion and demarcation qibla of Mecca not Jerusalem lSocial ethic at core of Islam submission to God requires personal adherence to His ethical code reward or punishment after death lCommunity is locus of realization The Hijra and the triumph in Mecca I622 Migration Hijra to Medina lMuhammad leader of Muslims and arbiter for others lQur anic revelations increasingly concerned with social relations legal code lRaiding parties against Quraysh and other tribes Victory at Badr in 624 lTreaty with Meccans in 628 surrender of Mecca in 630 preIslamic Middle East Map of Middle East c 600 CE The spread of Islamic power Map showing expansion of the Caliphate to c 660 CE 63234 Abu Bakr All Arabia under Muslim rule 63444 Umar Fertile Crescent Egypt much of Iran 64456 Expansion eastward and westward 65661 rst tna civil war 711 Expansion into Spain IConversion initially discouraged among monotheists Abbasid caliphate c 750 CE Map showing Abbasid Caliphate c 750 CE History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 10 10 z 7103 Ancient Near Eastern religions Pictures photograph and model of the Ziggurat of Ur Thanks to the Tanakh studied on the level of history we can be present at the actual birth of God in the human spirit Jean Bott ro Gigstates and gods Picture neoiBabylonian clay image of Marduk lMesopotamia citystates coalesce around temple complexes c 4000 BCE lKings representing gods organize irrigation collect and distribute surplus ght enemies IAS cities conquer their gods become supreme eg Marduk god of Babylon succeeds Assur Baal and Asherah Pictures relief of Baal sculpture ofAsherah lBaal Canaanite storm and rain god lAsherah mother and fertility goddess worshipped in form of wooden pole lHebrews who migrated to Canaan adopted these gods in addition to their own The Tanakh and its histogz lDocumentary Hypothesis Julius Wellhausen 18441918 text is product of complex set of redactions with four main strands I Jahwist uses name Yahweh for God IE Elohist uses name Elohim for God IP Priestly writer concerned with ritual ID Deuteronomist author of second law The God of Abraham and Moses Picture Lorenzo Ghiberti Xam te ofImm lAbraham God s blessing sacri ce of Isaac the Covenant lMoses and the Exodus lThe Covenant With Moses lMonolatry and its discontents J E 922722 BCE The kingdoms of Israel and ludah Picture artists conception of the Temple of Solomon First Temple lRepeated pattern in Tanakh Israelites worship Baal and Asherah suffer return to Yahweh lCovenant With David lSolomon s Temple central ritual site lProphecy and ethics I722 Assyrians destroy Israel History 112 Fall 2003 Handout 3 Professor Ogilvie The humanities an unending conversation In a memorable analogy the literary critic and philosopher Kenneth Burke described the humanities as the unending conversation of history Imagine that you enter a parlor You come late When you arrive others have long preceded you and they are engaged in a heated discussion a discussion too heated for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about In fact the discussion had already begun long before any of them got there so that no one present is quali ed to retrace for you all the steps that had gone before You listen for a while until you decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument then you put in your oar Someone answers you answer him another comes to your defense another aligns himself against you to either the embarrassment or gratification ofyour opponent depending upon the quality ofyour ally s assistance However the discussion is interminable The hour grows late you must depart And you do depart with the discussion still vigorously in progress1 The study of religion is such a conversation In this course you will learn to listen in on this conversation and eventually to participate in it You will listen by reading what scholars of religion have wrote about it along with selected writings from the different religious traditions and selections from modern journalism about religion You will also listen in class to my lectures to discussions among yourselves to guest speakers and to films and recordings By listening you will learn not only what scholars of religion say about it but also how they mlk about religioniwhat technical terms they use among themselves the difference between insider and outsider points ofview and so forth This conversation resembles a lateinight bull session but there are important differences In scholarly disciplines there are rules about what counts as a sound argument and what constitutes valid evidence for that argument Some of those rules are straightforward but others can be learned only through experience As you listen to the different aspects of this course try to pay attention not only to the content but also to the form ofwhat is being said All this listening though is a preparation to your participation As a general education course History 112 is intended to introduce you to the continuing conversation of humanity on is sues of real importance You will have the opportunity and the responsibility to participate in a serious conversation about religion Sometimes this conversation will be informal as in class discussions or response papers Sometimes it will be formal in papers and eXaIns Professor Ogilvie your TA and your fellow students will help you learn how to participate and you will practice in the informal assignments for the course Your success will be assessed through the formal assignments We hope that this will be only the beginning ofyour participation in this unending conversation 1 Kenneth Burke The Philosophy osz39temg Form 2d ed Baton Rouge Louisiana Smte University Press 1967 110711 History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 15 10 23 03 Pa ans ews and Christians Picture interior of the Pantheon in Rome The triumph of the church over paganism was not one of obliteration but of widening embrace and assimilation Rams ay Mac Mullen Announcements lOctober 28 Law School information session with David Peters 78 PM Herter 601 lOctober 29 History Club Ghost Tour of campus meet 7 PM in Herter lobby II will be in Herter on Monday afternoon if you want to talk about dropping the course 111 and 35 The smagogue at Sardis Photograph udaism in the Roman Empire lRoman toleration 70 and 135 destructions were politically motivated l Godfearers and proselytes attended Torah study prayer kept Sabbath and festivals to varying degrees lConversion widespread under pagan empire lTension with early Christianity Christian margrdom Picture artisfs conception ofPolycarp of Smyrna brought before the judge lPagans sacri ce ensures divine favor gods are ckle and easily offended lRefusal to sacri ce was grounds for martyrdom witnessing ILegends of martyrs strengthened faith IChristian historians emphasized martyrdom and miracles I313 CE Edict of Milan ends martyrdom Heresy Christians persecute Christians 2nd century CE gnostics Marcion 325 CE Council of Nicaea Arian heresy is Christ human or divine uPelagianism salvation by bootstrap uArguments over heresy are also struggles for power uHeresy is de ned retrospectively consequence of orthodoxy uln High Middle Ages Inquisition established in West to ght heresy Christian persecution of pagans I313 Edict of Milan I391 Theodosius outlaws sacri ce I399 Sanctuaries start to be destroyed I415 Hypatia of Alexandria lynched IOrganized public paganism eliminated leaving private superstitious practices Converting the barbarians Picture baptism of Clovis king of the Franks by St Remy relief sculpture at the Cathedral of Reims lMissions to barbarians kings converted often through wives people follow reluctantly some new martyrs are produced lFall of Western Roman Empire Church takes on unifying role lMonasteries spread religion in rural areas lResults in West political fragmentation in East Byzantium close churchstate ties of Roman times are sustained The medieval Christian communig Photograph Cathedral ofReims uChurch community of believers imagined community monastery is a microcosm uPilgrimages Jerusalem Aachen Santiago uFestivals and mystery plays reiterate events of Christian history uThe ties that bind the sacraments lMediate between God and Christians ensure salvation lEstablish and sustain community The ews in Christian Europe Photo model of the medieval synagogue in Worms Germany lConstantine prohibits conversion to Judaism lSettlement connected With trade banking helped sustain a scattered community lDevelopment of Talmudic study and mysticism high literacy lPogroms and expulsion begin after First Crusade on large scale European lews 11001500 Map ofjewish expulsion and migration taken from httpfcitcoeduusEeduholocaustgalleryexpulshtm History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 23 11125103 The s outhernization of Christianigg Picture Parishioners on their way to church in Malawi During the past half century the critical centers of the Christian world have moved decisively to Africa to Latin America and to Asia The balance will never shift back Philip Jenkins The center of gravigg shifts southward Picture portrait ofBartolorn de las Casas lColonialism l Missionaries Southern churches emerge from tutelage Photograph of Moses Tay Anglican Archbishop of Singapore lAutonomous churches lIndigenous leaders lAnglican Church is a bellwether Photograph of the consecration of Gene Robinson as Episcopal Bishop of New Hampshire Cultural and social implications lCulture shapes theology and interpretation of Scripture lNo Reformation lFlash points lGlobalization 19705Liberation Theologyand present IHomosexuality and AIDS lRole of women lWho is right Not a question for religious studies to answer Another perspective lHow would Jenkins s article look if it had been written by a southern Christian lWhy does it have an alarmist overtone Challenges facing Christian churches in the West Photograph ofan empty church parking lot in North Carolina lBreak awayand fade away lAccept dominance of southern churches lIs there a third way History 112 Fall 2003 Handout 4 Professor Ogilvie Reading and taking notes Humanities courses require a lot of reading and noteitaking There s no way around it You can learn to read and take notes more effectively though Here are a few tips you should carefully examine Gordon Harvey Writing with 1 ourtex for more inidepth guidelines How to read effectively You should read each assignment three times Don t panic You won t read the same way each time only one of the readings is what you normally think of as reading 1 Read the chapter title section headings and first paragraph ofeach section Try to get a sense of the main words or concepts in the chapter lfyou encounter an unfamiliar word write it on a vocabulary page in your notebook and look it up before going to the next step Read the entire assignment slowly Do not take notes ifyou take notes now you will waste timeitrust mel Try to grasp as much of the material as you can Think about how the main wordsconcepts you encountered in the first reading are related to one another N 9 Review the entire assignment jotting down in your notes the most important concepts and facts and how they are related to one another If something strikes you as interesting or objectionable jot down that point lfyou read this way you will remember more than ifyou just plunge in at the beginning and read to the end It may seem paradoxical but you will also spend less time reading Some of the course readings are primary sources ithat is documents from the religious traditions that we are studying Others are secondary sources scholarly writings about religion or religions Each kind of reading should be approached with specific questions in mind How to read a primary source1 Reading a historical source involves more than simply understanding the words In order to interpret a historical source you need to know who wrote it the purpose for which it was written whether it is reliable and so forth The questions in this handout are a good startingiplace for acquiring this information In some cases you may not be able to answer them without further research but you should at least be aware of the limitations ofyour knowledge 1 Based on Mark Kishlansky How to read a document in Sammy oftye Wm Reading in wertem Jimgum 3rd ed vol 1 New York Longman 1998 pp xii Material in Ziam is quoted verbatim from Kishlansky except that the word document has been replaced by source Firstlevel questions These questions esmblish the basic facts relating to the source 7 Who wrote the retiree Sources were written by people with their own perspectives and interests For example a farmer might have a different View of taxation than a tax collector 2 Who 239 the intended aadz39eme The audience for a source will have different expectations and the author may tailor it to the audience who will read it 3 What 239 the stay line What are the important points the source makes You should be able to summarize it Secondlevel questions These questions go beyond the basic facts to issues of form and motive 7 Why was the retiree written Sources don t simply pop out of thin air They are written for a purpose lfyou know that purpose you will be better able to judge the source 2 What ype afxaaree 239 this An official report ofa battle and a poem about it will have different emphases and different standards of accuracy It is important to judge a source according to appropriate criteria 3 What are the ham assumption hehz39nd thz39x retiree This can be difficult to determine but it is worth the effort One basic assumption behind the Declaration oflndependence for example is that the King of England had certain responsibilities toward his subjects and that they had the right to complain if he neglected those responsibilities Thirdlevel questions These questions relate to interpreting sources 7 Can I hell39eve thz39x Jamie lfyou know who wrote a source who was supposed to read it why it was written and some ofthe basic assumptions behind it you can begin to judge whether its contents are reliable A letter complaining about unfair taxation might not be a reliable source about tax levels 2 What ear I team ahaat the may that predated thz39x Jamie This question can be answered in many ways depending on the questions which interest you Sources reveal much more about a society than their authors intend 3 What does this retiree mean to me Every source communicates something As you read you should ask yourselfwhat it means to you Do you agree or disagree Does it interest you at all Even tax records can interest historians because they provide evidence for an argument Many of the sources we will read in this course have much greater intrinsic interest but their ultimate value to you is a matter only you can decide How to read a secondary source2 A Jeeandag retiree is a text a book chapter article or essay that is written by a scholar in order to help readers understand a subject The adjective secondary reflects the fact that such sources are written on the basis ofprimary sources documents interviews anthropological observations etc in order to elemthe or equlaz39n something to the reader 2 This discussion is based on Wayne C Booth Gregory G Colomb andJoseph M Williams The rraft afrereareh 2d ed Chicago University of Chicago Press 2003 If you are interested in knowing more about how secondary sources are written and how to use them take a look at this book They are the result of rexeo b on primary sources and inteijjretotz39on of them They also summarize and respond to other secondary sources Some secondary sources like textbooks are based mostly on other secondary sources Secondary sources are often not always written by people who know a lot more than you about their subject They are useful ways to bene t from someone else s hardiwon expert knowledge and years or decades of thinking about a subject But they are written by people who have their own interests and goals When you read a secondary source you need to be aware of how those interests and goals affect what the source says The following sets of questions will help you learn effectively from secondary sources 1 What is the source about Who is it written for Most secondary sources have a specific topic for example the origins of Buddhism To use a source you need to identify its topic But they are also written to answer questions that the author wanted to resolve Sometimes these questions are stated openly sometimes though you have to infer what they were Depending on the audience for whom the source was written the questions might be general where did Buddhism come from or specific how are current beliefs about when the Buddha lived affected by the latest research on the history of the Pali language Finally secondary sources are written in the hopes that their answers will help resolve impormnt problems in our undersmnding of religious phenomena problems that interest the audience for which the source was written for specialists in Indian religions the problem might be whether the Jain religion affected the development of Buddhism for a general audience the problem might be how new religions arise and spread The first step in reading a secondary source then is to figure out the topic questions problem and intended audience of the source 2 What does the source claim Most secondary sources make a claim or several claims that answers the source s questions and indicates how the source helps resolve its problem For instance our source on when the Buddha lived might conclude that the traditional chronology is incorrect and that he actually lived about a hundred years later when the Jain religion was well established This would mean that old beliefs about how the two religions are related have to be revised Since a source s claim answers a question you can figure out what questions motivated a source s author by looking at the claims This is useful when the author has not been explicit about the questions that motivated his or her research Even textbooks and dictionary entries in the humanities often make claims though they also present a lot ofbasic factual information 3 How does the source prove its claim The argument that a source makes in support ofits claim depends on the source s audience A reference work like the Comixe Oxford Dittzong of World Religions will often base its claims on expert authority without making any other argument Most sources though appeal not to authority but to reason that is they make a persuasive argument By considering the argument you can decide whether a source supports its claim or not Judging arguments in the scholarly disciplines can be tricky though The rules about what is a good argument and what is a bad argument are not arbitrary but they are not the same for every discipline In fact they result from a consensus among scholars in the field ln religious studies which draws on many different scholarly disciplines there are often heated disputes between professionals about whether an argument is persuasive or not You should pay attention to what writers consider to be good arguments A writer will choose his or her arguments with a particular audience in mind Someone writing for an audience ofbeginners might appeal to authority when writing about things that experts usually agree on On a controversial topic he or she might summarize the competing arguments and indicate which seems more persuasive Writing for a professional audience the saIne author might argue in more detail for his or her claim and attempt to refute the opposing view Do not judge all arguments by the same standards and keep in mind that much knowledge in the humanities is toiy39ettuml that is scholars accept it as true while keeping in mind that later discoveries might require that it be revised 4 How does the source back up its argument Arguments except appeals to authority must be backed up by evidence Sometimes the evidence comes mostly from other secondary sources This is especially true of textbooks and reference works More specialized secondary sources will draw evidence from a combination ofprimary and secondary sources An argument might appear to be persuasive but if it is based on faulty or inadequate evidence it is no good When an author uses secondary sources as evidence you need to ask yourself does the author seem to be using the sources honestly without distorting them Are they recentithat is do they reflect the current state of research Are their authors reliable These are all questions about the Mbolarb literature on the subject and how the author uses it You may not be able to answer these questions right away being able to answer them is a sign that you have begun to enter the scholarly community yourself But you should keep these questions in mind When the author uses primary sources you need to pose a different set of questions Are the sources well chosen Are there other sources that might contradict the argument Does the author know how to interpret the sources convincingly This is especially the case with old sources and with those in foreign languages Again being able to answer these questions confidently is a sign that you have entered a community of scholars But once more you should keep them in mind You also need to ask how the author documents his or her sources Could you find them and check them if you wanted to As with the argument the choice of sources and the form of documentation depend on the audience for a book Most textbooks simply include a list of further reading Most specialized articles include demiled footnotes or citations Other sources fall somewhere on the continuum between these two extremes SUMMARY When reading a secondary source note its topic questions problem and audience claims arguments and evidence lfyou pay attention to these aspects you will learn effectively from secondary sources If you neglect them you are not really reading carefully How to take notes effectively Notes are useful if they are easier to understand than the reading assignment or lecture that they are based on In fact good notes are the record ofyour learning if you take care with your notes you will learn the course material better When you take notes on readings and lectures include these six elements 1 Jot down a full bibliographical reference for the material on which notes are taken That way you can find the original again even years later In a course notebook I suggest you note down sources on the first page of reading notes and then use author and title For lectures note the professor s name course number and title date of the lecture and title State the M question and problem of the assignment Summarize the m that the author makes Summarize the arglment that the author uses to support the claim Include a few examples ofthe evidence that the author uses to support the argument Note your reactions to the reading or lecture Are you convinced Ifyou are unconvinced why not Does the reading or lecture raise any questions that it doesn t 3 answer 9915 In your notes you should carefully distinguish between exact quotations paraphrase and your integpretations reactions and comments One of my professors taught me t e following scheme which works well Enclose exact quotations in quotation marks like this Use normal text for paraphrases like this Enclose your interpretations and comments in square brackets like this Example based on Smart 355 The Victorian anthropologistjanies Frazer argued that religion evolved out of magic Xhy did this change occurP Edward Tylor thought that it began with animism beliefin and practice toward unseen spirits In such schemes polytheism and monotheism were later stages in the process of development Wilhelm Schmitt argued against this view because he thought that simple societies often believed in a High God existing behind or above other gods Both views are generally rejected today Smart 35 How did these thinkers know what early religions were like anyway They were produced by illiterate societies so they can t have left records Make sure your references to sources include the page numbers Also be sure to write down everything you will need to write a correct footnote and bibliography entry later in case you need to cite the source in your paper See Harvey Writing with Sonrees for more details Learning anpori Jerviees DnBois Lioray 701b oor o fers a Note Taeing Woresbop several tirnes eaeb sernester They also o r woresbops in tirne management and test taeing sbonlolyonfeel in need ofaolriee in those areas For more iryro all 5455334 or visit ltbly Wwnrnassednss gt History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 3 9 z 11 z 03 Primal religions Copyright 2003 Brian W Ogilvie All rights reserved Announcements lPlease give your corrected chart of the dimensions to your TA if you don t have it bring it tomorrow lIf you were on the waitlist wait after class to nd out which section you are in lPick up the handout on insider vs outsider approaches Primal religions Picture Vodou sacri ce Haiti Music Talking Heads Papa Legba True 3107263 In manynative religions religion is viewed as embodying the reciprocal relationships between people and the sacredpmaue going on in the world It may not look religious to people in our culture Ba139re Toelken Grotto of PecheMerle France picture Primal religions and the histogz of religious studies lSuccess of 19thcentury science lBelief that religion was a stage in human thought evolution lIdea that simple systems are easier to study IE B Tylor James Frazer Emile Durkheim Sacred and profane lRudolf Otto myxten39zm trmmdum etfauz39nan lEmile Durkheim religion as the organized recognition of the sacred set apart and forbidden lProfane ordinary everyday opposite of sacred gt concept of pollution lBut ritual can make the profane sacred Eliade m lCosmological or creation myth how the world came to be as it is lSpecial case creation of people in general or a particular tribe or group lGenerally how things are the way they are and hope for the future lMyth is malleable in oral cultures in literate cultures managing myth becomes a problem Ritual I I Rites of passage A Van Gennep I 39 gt quot 39 gt 39 39 Victor Turner liminal is dangerous because it is between categories lMalidoma Patrice Some from Fisher example of a rite of passage I Rituals of af iction Victor Turner shades neither alive nor fully are liminal I Eternal return Mircea Eliade ritual as reenactment of mythic events Social order and religion lNdembe S central Africa rituals are performed by those who have been their objects lAranda Australia myths describe landscape they define kinship and marriage patterns llndependent religious authority can challenge political authority political authorities attempt to control religion eg sacred kingship For Friday s discussion lIf you were on the waitlist wait a moment to check your section on this screen lCatch up with this week s reading if necessary lComplete handout on insider vs outsider approaches available at back of room or online History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 8 9130103 Early Chinese Religion Picture 1 a ritual cooking vessel Han Dynasty Picture 2 yiniyang Confucianism is an ethical system and humanistic teaching It is however also a tradition that bears a deep and profound sense of the religious R0dney Taylor The structure of Chinese religion lFamilial religion and ancestor worship lPopular veneration of gods in temples and festivals lImperial religion veneration of Heaven and Earth recognition of important deities lSoteriological traditions 1 Taoism 2 Buddhism 3 Neo Confucianism Basics of Chinese metaphysics lNaturalistic universe lawful but no lawgiver like Hindu amp Buddhist Views lFundamental dualism yang light male active Heaven yin ark female passive Earth lSpirit world with supreme ruler of Heaven lDual soul yang shen and yin kuei lNature corresponds to society and government Oracles and the I Ching Picture 1 Oracle bones Shang Dynasty c 150071050 BCE Picture 2 yarrow stalks traditional means of casting I Ching Trigl39axns and hexagrams Plctures tngmms quotErchlngquot Palm 08 program for castlng hexagrams The family and Chinese relig39on Plcture fatally Venexatlng ancestral splnt stones nu codes ofconduct and ritual for family extended lineage leiao lial piety is motivating ideal lRites for ancestors and rites of passage like marriage bind family together Master Kung Plcture portrait ofConfuclus lConfucian ethic superior being chuntzu Respec ful and benevolent observes Ii lMaslery ofclassics by Han period required to become bureaucrat l0riented toward this world ethics is politics ruler should observe Ii 15 Confucianism a religion Tao Te Ching Te Tao Ching Plcture text ofChaptex 1 IAttributed to Lao Tzu Old Master an fun 1 am L u material Mystieal elliptical text Tan and the world cosmogoml WM atagtam to nght we Nature and the Tao plcture scroll palntlng of nature scene 3 lTao Te Ching 29 The universe is gt THE TEN wousmu sacred You cannot Improve rt MNGS History 112 Fall 2003 Professor Ogilvie Lecture 2 919103 Ways of thinking about religion Announcements lStudents admitted from the waiting list see me before or after class to con rm you Will enroll lReminder handouts are online at http peopleumasseduogilvie 112 Ways of thinking about religion A categorization is a natural way of identifying a kind of object or experience by highlighting certain properties downplaying others and hiding still others Ge0rge Lakoff and Markjohnson Smart s seven dimensions of religion lI ractical and ritual lEXperiential and emotional IN anative or mythic lDoctr39inal and philosophical lEthical and legal lSocial and institutional lMaterial lTake a piece of paper Write your name ID and section at the top and write the dimensions down one si e lFor each dimension write down an example from a religious tradition that is familiar to you Practical and ritual dimension Experiential and emotional dimension Narrative or mythic dimension Doctrinal and philosophical dimension Ethical and legal dimension Social and institutional dimension Material dimension What s special about religion lWorld religions possess all these dimensions in an integrated system lIn many places and times the category of religion by itself has not been conceived because of its systematic extent lThe academic study of religion becomes possible when scholars are able to think outside the system Insider vs outsider approaches lInsider normative lt norm how religion should be practiced What people should believe lOutsider descriptive and analytical how religion is actually practiced What people actually do believe Phenomenology and bracketing lCan a person be religious m1 be a scholar of religion lPhenomenology study of the experiences characteristic of a religious practice or tradition lBracketing setting aside the question of truth The histogz of a tradition Note I did not get to this point Review the discussion in Smart lRoots What elements went into forming a tradition lFormation how were those elements creatively organized lReformation how was the tradition revitalized
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