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Fundamentals Of Mktg

by: Yazmin Bashirian

Fundamentals Of Mktg MARKETNG 301

Yazmin Bashirian
GPA 3.96


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Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yazmin Bashirian on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MARKETNG 301 at University of Massachusetts taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/232207/marketng-301-university-of-massachusetts in Marketing at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Management Exam Review 2 What are the siX challenges to being a star manager 0 Managing for competitive advantage staying ahead of rivals 0 Managing diversityithe future wont resemble the past 0 Managing for globalizationithe expanding management universe 0 Managing for information technology 0 Managing for ethical standards 0 Managing for your own happiness and life goals What is the difference between the Taylor classical and behavorial Mayo viewpoint o Classicaliemphasis on ways to manage work more efficiently o Behavioraliemphasis on importance of understanding human behavior and motivating and encouraging employees toward achievement Know Taylor and Mayoi the best way vs understanding working conditions What is the Hawthorne effect 0 Investigation into whether workplace lighting level affected worker productiving What is the affect of the Hawthome effect 0 Namely that employees worked harder if they received added attention if they thought that managers cared about their welfare and the supervisors paid special attention to them What is Needs based or content perspective under motivating employees 0 Needs baseditheories that emphasize the needs that motivate people What is Maslow s classification of higherlevel needs 0 Selfactualization o Esteem 0 Love What is Maslow s classification of lowerlevel needs 0 Safety 0 Physiological What is McClelland s classification of higher level needs o Achievement 0 Power 0 Affiliation What is McClelland s classi cation of lower level needs 0 Trick questionidoesn t classify them What is Herzberg s classi cation of higher level needs 0 Motivator factors what is Herzberg s classification of lower level needs 0 Hygiene factors What is a process perspective 0 Are concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act What is the eXpectancy theory 0 Suggests that people are motivated by two thingsihow much they want something and how likely they think they are to get it What is the equity theory 0 Focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others What are the three steps to applying the goal setting theory 0 Goals should be speci c 0 Goals should be challenging 0 Goals should be achievable How can you use reinforcement theory to motivate workers 0 Reinforcement is anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited 0 Giving rewardsipositive reinforcement is the use of positive consequences 0 Avoiding unpleasantnessinegative reinforcement is the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior o Withholding rewards7eXtinction is the withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior so that behavior is less likely to occur in the future 0 Applying negative consequences7punishment is the application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior 0 What is job simpli cation o The process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs o What is job enlargement o Consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation o What is job enrichment o Consists of building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility achievement recognition stimulating work and advancement o What is the skim job characteristics 0 Skill variety7how many difference skills does your job require 0 Task identity 7 how many different tasks are required to complete the work 0 Task significance 7 how many other people are affected by your job 0 Autonomy 7 how much discretion does your job give you 0 Feedback how much do you find out how well you re doing 0 What is motivation 0 Positive reinforcement I Reward only desirable behavior I Give rewards as soon as possible I Be clear about what behavior is desired I Have different rewards and recognizable individual differences 0 What is compensation 0 Pay for performance 0 Bonuses 0 Pro t sharing 0 Gainsharing O 0 Stock options Pay for knowledge What is gainsharing 0 What are some 0 0 Is the distribution of savings or gains to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity y ways of quot quot mp1 J The need for worklife balance The need to expand skills The need to matter treat employees well I Thoughtfulness the value of being nice I Worklife bene ts I Surroundings I Skillbuilding and educational opportunities What are the differences between managers and leaders 0 0 Management is about coping with complexity Leadership is about coping with change What are the 5 sources of power 0 O O O O Legitimate poweriwhich all managers have is power that results from managers formal positions within the organization Reward poweriwhich all managers have is power that results from mangers authority to reward their subordinates Coercive power which all managers have results from mangers authority to punish their subordinates Expert power is power resulting from one s specialized information or expertise Referent power is power deriving from one s personal attraction What are the 5 approaches to leadership 0 O O Trait approaches Behavioral approaches Contingency approaches o Fullrange approach 0 Four additional perspectives What is trait theory speci cally o Honest competent forwardlooking inspiring intelligent 0 Gender studiesimotivating others fostering communication producing highquality work and so on 0 Leadership lessons from the Globe proj ectivisionary and inspirational charismatic leaders who are good team builders are best worldwide What trait did Kouzes and Posner nd most desirable in leaders 0 Honesty What is GLOBE global leadership and organizational behavior effectiveness 0 Develop an empirically based theory to describe understand and predict the impact of specific cultural variables on leadership and organizational processes and the effectiveness of these processes What are gender differences in traits o Men72 strategic planning 2 analyzing issues 0 Women75 motivating others fostering communication producing high quality work listening to others 2 strategic planning analyzing issue What is the behavioral approach to leadership 0 Attempt to determine distinctive styles used by effective leaders What is the contingency approach to leadership 0 Believe that effective leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand What are Fiedler s 3 dimensions 0 Leadermember relationsido my subordinates accept me as a leader 0 Task structureido my subordinates perform unambiguous easily understood tasks 0 Position powerido I have power to rewards and punish What are reasons for teams 0 Increased productivity 0 Increased speed 0 Reduced costs O 0 Improved quality Reduced destructive internal competition 0 How do groups and teams differ O O A group is de ned as two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms share collective goals and have a common identity A team is de ned as a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable o What is the difference between informal and formal groups 0 0 Formal groups7create to do productive work7a formal group is a group established to do something productive for the organization and is headed by a leader Informal groups7create for afriendship An informal group is a group formed by people seeking friendship and has no officially appointed leader although a leader may emerge from the membership 0 What is a self managed team 0 Defined as groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains 0 What are the stages of team development 0 O O O O Forming 7 why are we here Storming 7 why are we fighting over who does what and who s in charge Norming 7 can we agree on roles and work as a team Performing 7 can we do the job properly Adjouming 7 can we help members transition out o What are the 7 ways to build a high performance team 0 O 0 Performance goals and feedback Motivation through mutual accountability Size Roles Norms Cohesiveness O Groupthink How can cohesiveness and group think affect a team s performance 0 0 Reduction in alternative ideas Limiting of other information What are the dimensions of diversity internal and external 0 Internal dimensions of diversity are those human differences that exert a powerful sustained effect throughout every stage of our lives What are the workforce trendscategories O O O O O O Ageimore older people inthe workforce Genderimore women working Race and ethnicityimore people of color in he workforce Sexual orientationigay and lesbians become more visible People with differing physical and mental abilities Educational levels mismatches between education and workforce needs What are the barriers to diversity 0 O O O O O Stereotypes and prejudices Fear of reverse discrimination Fear of reverse discrimination Resistance to diversity program priorities Unsupportive social atmosphere Lack of support for family demands What are Hofstede s 4 cultural dimensions 0 O O O Individualism collectivismihow loosely or tightly are people socially bonded Power distanceihow much do people accept inequality in power Uncertainty avoidanceihow strongly do people desire certainty Masculinityfemininity 7 how much do people embrace stereotypical male or female traits What are cultural variations 0 0 Language Interpersonal space 0 Time orientation I Monochromic time 0 Standard American business practiceipreference for doing one thing at atime o Polychromic time I Preference for doing more than one thing at a time


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