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Energy Metabolism

by: Edwardo Schultz

Energy Metabolism KIN 585

Edwardo Schultz
GPA 3.86

Barry Braun

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Barry Braun
Class Notes
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edwardo Schultz on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 585 at University of Massachusetts taught by Barry Braun in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/232210/kin-585-university-of-massachusetts in Kinesiology at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 10/30/15
KIN 585 Energy Metabolism Barry Braun PhD Lecture 17 Questions 1 How much of the energy in the glucose molecule is expended in the process of storing it 2 How could you explain the observation that DIT tends to be higher in physically active individuals 3 Approximately how much energy is stored in the form of body CHO PRO and FAT 4 How much more would a person weigh if all their energy was stored as glycogen instead of as fat KIN 585 Professor Braun Lecture 15 Questions 1 Dietary lipids are mainly in the form of triglyceride TG What is the general structure 2 What are saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3 What types of fatty acids are quotessentialquot What makes them essential 4 How does the ratio ofomega3 to omega6 fatty acids in the diet potentially impact cardiovascular health 5 What is the energy density of triglycerides KIN 585 Professor Braun 6 How are Triglycerides digested and absorbed 7 Where do the products of lipid digestion go after absorption amino acids Vit B s C minerals fatty acids portal vein to LIVER lymph system KIN 585 Barry Braun PhD Lecture 14 Questions 1 As the arterial blood glucose concentration rises pancreatic B cells release insulin into the portal circulation to the liver What happens to insulin in the liver 2 The blood glucose and insulin response to incoming nutrients vary with the composition and content of the carbohydrate and to a lesser extent protein load Draw a schematic diagram showing typical blood glucose and insulin responses to a meal mainly composed of simple sugars versus a meal comprising complex carbohydrates fiber Insulin 3 What is the approximate kM of the glucose transporter GLUT4hexokinase in the fat and muscle and how does it compare with the typical glucose concentration in the blood KIN 585 Barry Braun PhD 4 How is glucose uptake by fat and muscle regulated compared with glucose uptake by the brain 5 How does the binding of insulin lead to the synthesis ofglycogen in muscle Energy Metabolism KIN 585 Dr Barry Braun Lecture 21 Questions 1 What is the top metabolic priority in the fasted not having eaten for gt3 hours state 2 How do the changes in the hormonal environment depicted below alter the activities of phosphorylase and glycogen synthase during the transition from the FED to the FASTED state How do these changes affect glycogen metabolism luca on g g insulin Blood concentration MEAL 2h 4h 6h 8h 10h 3 How do we know that glycogen breakdown cannot be the sole source of blood glucose in the fasted state 4 Why are 3 ofthe steps in gluconeogenesis NOT simply reversals ofglycolysis How are these quotobstaclesquot overcome Energy Metabolism KIN 585 Dr Barry Braun 5 What is the approximate ATP cost ofgluconeogenesis from lactate or alanine From glycerol 6 What is the source ofglycerol What are the potential sources of pyruvate Where does gluconeogenesis occur KIN 585 Energy Metabolism Barry Braun PhD Lecture 18 Questions 1 What are the 3 main components of energy expenditure and what is the energy used for 2 What is energy surplus Energy de cit energy balance 3 What are the major problems with selfreported methods of assessing energy intake and expenditure 4 How could you use oxygen consumption to estimate energy expenditure What major assumption do you have to make 5 The best way to measure energy expenditure is with doublylabeled water What are the MAJOR highlights ofthe technique and how do you convert what is actually measured carbon dioxide production into calories expended HINT see below The subject drinks a glass of water labeled with 780 and 2H The label mixes with body water and is lost from the body over the next 1421 days The key is knowing that the 2H label is lost only in water H20 excretion but the 180 label can be lost in both water and carbon dioxide C02 80 by knowing the difference between the 2 rates of excretion you know the total volume of C02 VCOz produced You can convert VCOz to volume of oxygen consumed V02 if you know the Respiratory Exchange Ratio RER which is the VCOz V02 The RER ranges from 70 total fat oxidation to 100 total KIN 585 Energy Metabolism Barry Braun PhD carbohydrate oxidation Why Because fat oxidation requires 23 02 and produces 16 C02 1623 070 Carbohydrate oxidation requires 6 Oz and produces 6 C02 so 66 10 If you assume a mixture of CH0 and Fat oxidation RER 085 then V02 VCOz085 Then you can convert V02 to kcals using the average value for a mixed diet 483 kcal periter of 02 consumed KIN 585 Energy Metabolism Dr Barry Braun Lecture 31 Questions 1 What is the de nition of exercise and how does it differ from physical activity 2 what is the minimum number of metabolic equivalents METS that constitutes exercise 3 What are the health effects of getting too little nonexercise physical activity eg too much sitting 4 What kinds of movements characterize nonexercise physical activity 5 Are there differences between lean and obese people in the amount of nonexercise physical activity they get 6 What is the major factor hint think nutrition that makes it hard to interpret the studies showing ill effects oftoo little nonexercise physical activity how can you address that experimentally Energy Metabolism ExSci 585 Dr Barry Braun Lecture Questions 24 1 What are the metabolic effects of the increase in epinephrine and norepinephrine in the liver muscle and adipose tissue at the onset of exercise 2 What is substrate cycling and why isn t it a wasteful use ofATP 3 Explain the mechanisms by which blood glucose is elevated at the beginning of exercise 4 Same as 3 but fatty acids instead ofglucose 5 What is the relationship between exercise intensity and blood epinorepi levels 6 Muscle glycogen is the main energy source in the first few minutes of exercise Why Energy Metabolism ExSci 585 Dr Barry Braun 7 Why does blood lactate concentration increase dramatically in the first few minutes of exercise 8 Relative to complete oxidation ofglucose to 002 and H20 is partial oxidation to lactate inefficient Explain why or why not KIN 585 Professor Braun Questions Lecture 6 1 What are the 2 sources for the glucose used in glycolysis 2 What are the final products of glycolysis 3 At the onset of exercise there is a big increase in the breakdown of glycogen What happens to the activity of hexokinase in the glucose gt glu6P reaction 4 Glu6 P gt Frc6P is an equilibrium reaction with AG 06 kcalmole For this reaction to go TO THE RIGHT what do you expect to be true of the quotupstreamquot and quotdownstreamquot reactions a they are also equilibrium reactions b they have a large negative AG c they are coupled to ATP gt ADP d all ofthe above e b and c only 5 The rate ofthe reaction Frc 6 P gtFrc16 PP is regulated by the activity of the enzyme PFK What stimulates PFK What inhibits PFK Kin 585 Professor Braun QUESTIONS Lecture 2 1 Describe in words what is meant by the equation AG AH TAS 2 What is a quotspontaneousquot reaction Is the free energy positive or negative Will raising the temperature make it more or less quotspontaneousquot 3 Is spontaneous human combustion an example of a quotspontaneousquot reaction If so why don39t we all go up in ames 4 What effect do enzymes have on the free energy ofa reaction 5 How do enzymes facilitate the control of metabolism 6 Thinking ahead to lecture 3 How might you use a second reaction to facilitate a nonspontaneous reaction to occur Draw a schematic ofthe process using the reactions A gt B and C gt D as an example Energy Metabolism KIN 585 Dr Barry Braun Lecture 19 Questions 1 What do you need in order to regulate body weight ANSWER A way to assess energy stores and send that information out A processing center to integrate information and direct an appropriate response Systems to change intake and expenditure in the appropriate directions Signal to the processing center reflecting the new state 2 What is the energy signal and how does it work ANSWER Increased fat mass causes an increase in plasma leptin Leptin binds to the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus Leptin binding STIMULATES production of the anorexigenic peptides POMC and dMSH POMC and dMSH increase energy expenditure by raising circulating thyroid hormone and lower food intake by reducing appetite Leptin bindinglNHlBlTS production of the orexigenic peptides NPY and AGRP NPY and AGRP increase food intake by increasing appetite and lowers energy expenditure bv lowerind thvroid hormone 3 So in response to weight loss what would you expect to see Lower fat mass leptin NPH and AGRP appetite food intake and thyroid hormone metabolic rate Energy Metabolism KIN 585 Dr Barry Braun at the same time you would expect to see oMSH and POMC appetite food intake and thyroid hormone metabolic rate So IN RESPONSE TO weight loss you expect energy intake to and energy expenditure to Professor Braun Kin 585 Questions Lecture 4 1 What effect does adding an enzyme have on the AG of a reaction 2 De ne Vmax 3 How can you change Vmax 4 Define Km 5 What does it mean to say that an enzyme with a low km has a high quotsensitivityquot 6 A enzyme with a high km usually has a high quotcapacityquot What does this mean 7 Many metabolic systems combine low and high km enzymes What are the advantages to this design 8 Thinking ahead the answer to this one will not be obvious until next class The concentration of many cellular compounds substrates is very close to the Km ofthe enzyme that catalyzes their reaction What bene t results from this arrangement that makes it a general design feature of metabolic pathways KIN 585 Spring 2008 Dr Barry Braun Questions Lecture 1 To get everyone singing in the same key the questions for lecture 1 are actually an outline of the first lecture Matching Supply and Demand Transfer ofenergy from sun gt plants gt humans gt to the environment requires a lot of intermediate steps and interconversions between radiantchemicalmechanical energy In general plants are nothing like the sun sun is made up of helium and hydrogen with no CHO FAT PRO or water and has a temperature of several million degrees and puts out enough energy to power an entire solar system Plants are mainly composed of water 8090 fiber a lot of complex CHO starch some simple sugars a little protein and almost no fat They put out very little energy less than 10 kcalkg plant weightmin Mammals humans are a lot less watery 5060 have basically no ber very little CHO lt 1 of body weight lots of protein 1525 and lots of fat 1040 We put out a lot of energy relative to plants humans approx 115 kcalkg body weightmin at rest although not as much as the sun Myth 1 It turns out that we are not necessarily what we eat Humans and other animals are designed with the exibility to accommodate huge variations in metabolic rate mainly depending on the speed at which they move Humans can run almost 20 mileshr for short distances and can maintain speeds up to 12 mileshr for a few hours How do bodies provide the energy required to accommodate the range of metabolic demands from sitting in a classroom to hard exercise Resting metabolic rate for the average person is about 1500 kcalday 150024h60min approximately 1 kcalmin Running a 500 mile requires 20kcalmin an increase of 20x Running a marathon in 3h 20min you maintain a metabolic rate of about 13 kcalmin KIN 585 Spring 2008 Dr Barry Braun Challenge 1 provide the energy necessary to maintain the appropriate metabolic rate This is not trivial a need some mechanism to determine how much fuel is needed b some signal must be sent to the tissues in which energy is stored telling them to increase or decrease the breakdown ofthose energy stores 0 Some energy sources must be transported to the appropriate site cytosol or mitochondria of active muscle cells 0 There has to be some way to convert each energy source to a form that can be used to power muscle contraction Challenge 2 Provide a mixture of fuels appropriate to the metabolic demand Too much fat not enough CH0 9 cannot maintain high exercise intensity Too much CHO not enough fat 9 quickly deplete glycogen 9 fatigue Too much protein9 increased protein requirements or lose lean body mass Manv factors will influence the exact fuel mixture a Metabolic rate rest exercise etc b Environmental conditions eg heat cold high altitude 0 Nutritional conditions eg high GHQ diet low CHO diet 0 Sex differences eg male female phase of menstrual cycle e Pathological conditions eg diabetes growth hormone de ciency f Ergogenic compounds eg caffeine creatine Coenzyme Q10 How the body is designed to meet those 2 challenges is going to be the focus of this class The rst quarter of the course will mainly be centered around the mechanics of energy production The second quarter will be focused on the digestion absorption and storage of nutrients The third quarter is mainly related to energy metabolism in the fasting and exercising states The last quarter will be centered on energy balance and how perturbations in that balance alter body composition and potentially impact on overall health KIN 585 Spring 2008 Dr Barry Braun KIN 585 Professor Braun Questions Lecture 8 1 What are the 4 contributors to the quotpoolquot of acetyl coA molecules in the cell and where does each come from 2 PDH catalyzes the formation of acetyl 00A from pyruvate INSIDE THE MITOCHONDRIA What are the other products ofthis reaction 3 The usual suspects NADH NAD and ATP ADP play a role in regulating PDH activity as do acetyl CoA and 00A They do so via another enzyme called PDH kinase High NAD ADP CoA High NADH ATP acetyl CoA decrease PDH kinase activity increase PDH kinase activity PDH is NOT phosphorylated PDH is phosphorylated PDH is ACTIVE PDH is INACTIVE Rapidly make acetyl CoA Do not make much acetyl 00A 4 In what 2 ways does the addition of 00A to a fatty acid resemble phosphorylation of glucose as a first step in being taken up by a cell 5 How does the enzyme CATI function as the ratelimiting step in fatty acid oxidation What is the role of malonyl 00A in this process KIN 585 Professor Braun 6 In what situations do you expect the concentration of malonyl CoA to be high When will it be low 7 How many quotroundsquot of betaoxidation are required to process a 16 carbon fatty acid and what are the products 8 What are the approximate free energy changes associated with the reactions of betaoxidation KIN 585 Professor Braun Questions Lecture 7 1 Fructose 16 P P stimulates pyruvate kinase How does this impact the regulation of glycolysis 2 Explain why the enzymes catalyzing steps 1 hexokinase 3 PFK and 10 pyruvate kinase ofglycolysis are tightly regulated whereas the other enzymes are not 3 At what step is there negative feedback enzyme is inhibited by its product in glycolysis Where is there positive feedback enzyme is stimulated by its product Why is the pathway designed this way 4 What are the inputs to glycolysis and what are the products What has been quotaccomplishedquot in terms of energy production What else has been accomplished 5 What is the approximate free energy change of the pyruvate gt lactate reaction lsthe LDH enzyme regulated 6 In the heart the km of LDH for pyruvate gt lactate is much HIGHER than its km in the opposite direction Why is this appropriate How does the km of LDH in the brain differ and why KIN 585 Spring 2008 Professor Braun Lecture 11 Questions The net yield of glucose oxidation gt 2 pyruvate 23 ATP 2 NADH H in the CYTOSOL The oxidation of 2 pyruvate gt 2 acetyl CoA 2 NADH H in the MITOCHONDRIA The oxidation of 2 acetyl CoA gt 002 H20 6 NADH H 2 FADH2 2 GTP So total in MITOCHONDRIA 8 NADH H 24 ATP 3 ATPNADH or 20ATP 25 ATPNADH 2 FADHZ 4 ATP 2 ATPFADH2 or 3 ATP 15ATPFADH2 2 GTP 2 ATP and from the CYTOSOL 2 NADH H 4 ATP due cost oftransport into MITOS 3 ATP with new formula total for complete glucose oxidation 24 4 2 4 2 3 3637 ATP 20 3 2 3 23 3031 ATP new formula glucose 602 6002 6H20 365 ATP or 305ATP 1 What is the energy yield forthe complete oxidation of glucose per carbon atom 2 What is the energy yield per atom of oxygen KIN 585 Spring 2008 Professor Braun The quotactivationquot of a fatty acid palmitate to fatty acid CoA 2 ATP The net yield of palmitate gt 8 acetyl CoA 7 NADH H 7 FADHZ in the MITOCHONDRIA The oxidation of 8 acetyl CoA gt 002 H20 24 NADH H 8 FADHZ 8 GTP same as ATP So total in MITOCHONDRIA 31 NADH H 93 ATP or 78 ATP using new formula 15 FADH2 30 ATP or 22 ATP using new formula 8 GTP 8 ATP total for complete palmitate oxidation 933082129ATP 78 22 8 2 106 ATP using new formula palmitate 2302 16002 16H20 129 ATP or 106 ATP 3 What is the energy yield forthe complete oxidation of palmitate per carbon atom 4 What is the energy yield per atom of oxygen 5 Which is more quotefficientquot the oxidation of carbohydrate or fat Energy Metabolism KIN 585 Dr Barry Braun Lecture 20 Questions 1 What is the relationship between body fat mass and leptin 2 How is SHORTTERM energy balance for example meal to meal regulated Pancreas 3 What are the effects of carbohydrate or fat on energy regulation for example on appetite and energy expenditure What is the difference between giving the nutrients intravenously directly into the bloodstream versus orally by mouth What might explain the differences EnergyMeIabuhsm KW 585 Dr HamBram 4 2 m g E m E San E a m E m 3 m Rummy m 2 ms mam mm 95 mm 50 m 200 5 Energy Wanna KIN 585 Professor Braun Lecture 12 Questions 1 How does the ATP produced via proton translocation at the inner mitochondrial membrane end up at the sites where it is used 2 How does the creatinecreatineP shuttle help to explain why creatine supplementation improves performance of repeated bouts of high intensity exercise WITHOUT increasing the content of creatineP in the resting muscle 3 What are 2 potential fates ofthe amino acids released by proteolysis in skeletal muscle 4 At what points do the amino acids alanine glutamate valine leucine and isoleucine interact with the energy pathways 5 Briefly explain how amino acids contribute to energy production in skeletal muscle and to glucose availability forthe brain KIN 585 Professor Braun 1 Approximately how many kcalsminute does a person expend at rest About how many kjoules is this 2 What are the major dietary mono and disaccharides 3 What isthe starch polymer composed of and how are the molecules linked 4 What are the major steps in the digestion of carbohydrate 5 How is carbohydrate absorbed 6 Where do the absorbed carbohydrate go and what happens to them there KIN 585 ProfeSSor Braun Reference faod Test food 40 G uchE ex scare mu Lenms ex scare 4 The amuunt Bf earbuhvdrate starch a sugars m the reference and test funds must be the same 3 What Islhe glycemlc load


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