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PSYC 160, Week 11 Notes

by: Brianna Dowell

PSYC 160, Week 11 Notes PSYC 160

Marketplace > James Madison University > Psychlogy > PSYC 160 > PSYC 160 Week 11 Notes
Brianna Dowell
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover chapters eight, nine, and eleven.
Life Span Human Development
Kristen Davidson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Chapter Eight Continued Intelligence 03/21/16 1. Issues with IQ Testing a. Culturally unfair i. Ex. What do you set a teacup on? (A saucer) ii. Bias in these types of questions b. Problem with finding questions suitable for everyone 2. The Bell Curve (1994) a. Controversial book written by Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein b. Argues that Caucasian intelligence is superior to African American c. Stated that the underclass are intellectually deprived and can’t live up to or function at a level that is necessary for the workplace, which leads to poverty and committing crimes to get by. d. Used prison population rates, which have high instances of African Americans, to back up their theory 3. Criticism of The Bell Curve a. Did not take in to account social and educational opportunities for African Americans b. The intellectual gap between Caucasian and African Americans is narrowing c. No evidence that proves low IQs cause crime d. Basically, IQs are unrelated to success in life 4. Stereotype Threat a. Situational threat that confirm group stereotypes b. Ex. Asians are smart or women are bad drivers 5. Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) a. Must meet certain criteria i. Must be evident before age 18 ii. Maximum IQ must be 70 or lower iii. Must have difficulty adapting to everyday life based on age appropriate behavior b. 4 Levels i. Mild  50s - 70 range 1. Low level worker ii. Moderate  35 - 50s range 1. Still able to work but need assistance 2. Can’t function past a 2 ndgrade level iii. Severe  20 - 34 range 1. Can’t take care of themselves iv. Profound  below 25 1. Not functioning 2. Need 24/7 care 6. Causes of Intellectual Disability a. Family history b. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome c. Down syndrome – caused by an extra chromosome 7. Gifted and Talented Children a. High IQ or showing special abilities that are valued in our society b. Exceptionally talented on 1 or 2 areas, but not all around c. Advancing gifted students in school is bad for emotional intelligence d. Kids who are gifted are found to be healthier, better coordinated, and psychologically better adjusted Chapter Nine Social and Emotional Development 1. Social Relationships a. Attachment – close, emotional, and positive bond between parent and child i. Present around 6-7 months b. John Bowlby believed attachment is based on infants need for safety and security 2. The Strange Situation a. Mary Ainsworth built on Bowlby’s theory and created the Strange Situation, which evokes an infant’s reaction to mom (or dad) under stressful conditions b. 8 episodes i. The mom and child are brought in to a room ii. The baby is free to explore their surroundings iii. A stranger comes in to the room and talks to the mom and child iv. The mom leaves the room and the stranger stays in the room v. The mom returns and the stranger leaves vi. The mom leaves again and the child is alone vii. The stranger returns viii. The mom returns and the stranger leaves c. Different levels of attachment: i. Secure attachment = healthy 1. Mom is a secure base for the child 2. Kid may protest when she leaves, but is happy when she returns 3. Was not fearful of stranger ii. Avoidant attachment 1. Child engages in little interaction with mom 2. Exhibits little stress when she leaves and avoid her when she returns 3. Wasn’t fazed by stranger iii. Ambivalent attachment 1. Nervously cling to mom and refuses to explore their surroundings 2. Become distressed when mom leaves, but refuses to be comforted by mom when she returns 3. Will push and kick mom away 4. No clear behavior pattern iv. Disorganized-disoriented attachment 1. Child is dazed and confused 2. Appear fearful around mom. They seek contact, but don’t look at her (similar to borderline p.d.) 3. Lack consistency 4. Often found to be abused and mom is depressed or abuses substances 5. Kids are often standoffish or fearful of the stranger d. A securely attached child does not mean a healthy adult later e. Studies about attachment are often inconsistent f. Infant temperament  born with it 03/26/16 3. Attachment Clinics and Social Services a. Social services gets involved with families and will make a parent and child go to this clinic to determine if parental rights should be terminated b. Often misused against lower class families c. Attachment is only one indicator of the quality of care d. Need to take in to account cultural factors i. Japanese parents rarely leave a child alone ii. Kids who have daycare are used to being left alone with strangers e. Being labeled insecure could just mean you’re independent 4. Emotions in Adulthood a. Disengagement Theory – in late adulthood, adults will psychologically, physically and emotionally slow down i. This is not a negative thing or universal ii. This theory has not accumulated a lot of support b. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory – as you enter late adulthood, you become more content in life i. Often spend time with people they like, which reduces emotional risk ii. Well supported theory c. Activity Theory – maintaining interests in activities that we did in middle age will help successful aging i. Adults are happy because they’re involved ii. If they can’t continue they’re old activity, they will find a replacement activity d. Continuity Theory – do as we always did in order to stay happy i. Ex. doing nothing, working out, golfing e. Adults will adapt better in late adulthood if they have high levels of emotional intelligence 5. Myth about Aging a. Our emotional state is more negative is not true i. Older adults are usually happy and believe they have earned retirement ii. They are better at controlling emotions, because they have more life experiences and less drama iii. Are often less negative than they were in middle adulthood 6. Approaches to Personality a. Traits – personality characteristics that lead us to interpret events in a way that is our own b. Personality remains stable throughout life i. Ex. cranky kid  cranky adult c. Research has found relatively subtle differences between sexes, but greater differences within each sex d. 5 basic clusters known as The Big Five i. Openness – curious vs. interest ii. Conscientiousness – organized, deliberate vs. lacking seriousness iii. Extraversion – introverted vs. extroverted iv. Agreeableness – kind, helpful, open vs. cynical, suspicious v. Neuroticism – anxious, moody vs. stable e. The Big Five is genetically influenced, show up early in life, and is found in most cultures 7. Looking at Twins a. Find that genetics play a bigger role b. Identical twins raised apart still had similar personalities c. Environment reinforces inherited traits Chapter Eleven Moral Development and Aggression 1. Moral Development a. Changes in people’s idea of what is right and wrong and their behavior towards moral issues b. Lifelong and changing c. Greatest upheaval during adolescence, because we’re becoming independent, don’t make the best decisions, and trying to fit in i. Biosocial development is awakening d. Cognitive thinking allows for deep and abstract thinking 2. Moral Reasoning a. Piaget first studied it b. Kohlberg built on Piaget’s work i. Believed it was in stages and universal ii. Based on the justice orientation iii. Would present ethical dilemmas to kids 1. Ex. Husband’s wife is dying from cancer and has the option to steal a cure or let her die c. 3 levels of moral reasoning i. Preconventional – people follow rigid rules based on punishments and rewards 1. Punishment and obedience orientation 2. Reward orientation ii. Conventional – people approach moral problems as members of society 1. Good boy morality 2. Authority and social order maintaining morality iii. Postconventional – people use moral principles that are seen as broader than those of any particular society; most people do not reach this level 1. Morality of contract, individual rights, and democratically accepted law 2. Morality of individual principles and conscience 3. Criticism a. Reflected western society b. Focused on male participants c. Overemphasized rational thought and didn’t take in account religious beliefs 4. Parents Roles in Moral Development a. Parenting styles i. Authoritarian – strict, controlling, set limits to a fault, little verbal exchange 1. “Because, I said so…” 2. Often spank and show rage 3. Kids grow up unhappy, fearful, and have poor communication skills ii. Permissive – few demands, inconsistent, no control 1. Kids do whatever they want and are bad at controlling their own behavior 2. Moody, poor social skills iii. Authoritative – encouraging, few boundaries, communicate 1. Kids are cheerful, self-reliant and cope well with stress iv. Neglectful – not involved 1. Kids grow up resentful, hostile, and have poor self-control


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