HSC160 Week 10 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 160 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Otiam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
HSC 160 WEEK 10 Chapter 10 Fitness Chapter 10 Quiz Bold Questions are Iclicker Questions 1. The Maximum volume of oxygen consumed by the muscles during exercise defines: a. AEROBIC CAPACITY 2. Flexibility is the range of motion around: a. A JOINT OR SERIES OF JOINTS 3. Theresa wants to lower her ratio of fat to her total body weight. She wants to work on her: a. BODY COMPOSITION 4. Miguel is a runner able to sustain moderateintensity, wholebody activity for an extended amount of time. The ability relates to what component of physical fitness? a. CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS 5. The “talktest” measures: a. EXERCISE INTENSITY 6. An example of aerobic exercise is: a. BRISK WALKING 7. Isabella has been lifting 95 pounds while doing leg curls. To become stronger, she began lifting 105 pounds. What principle of strength development does this represent? a. OVERLOAD 8. Which of the following includes sequences of movement specifically designed to increase strength? a. PILATES 9. People with type 2 diabetes: a. CAN IMPROVE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS THROUGH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 10. Overuse injuries can be prevented by: a. MONITORING QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WORKOUTS ______________________________________________________________________________ 101 1. Physical activity: any body movement that works your muscles, uses more energy than when resting, and enhances health. a. 3 categories: i. Physical activity for health 1. Physical inactivity = 6.7% of CHD cases, 8.3% of type 2 diabetes cases, 12.4% of breast cancer cases, and 12.0% of colon cancer cases (10.8 percent of US deaths) ii. Physical activity for fitness 1. Fitness: refers to a set of health and performancerelated attributes 2 . Core Components of Physical Fitness a. Cardiorespiratory fitness: i. The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply body with oxygen ii. Measured by determining aerobic capacity/power (the volume of oxygen the muscles consume during exercise) iii. Run or walk test on treadmill b. Muscular strength i. Refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles is capable of exerting in one contraction c. Muscular endurance i. The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert force repeatedly without fatigue ii. Curl up test (the more repetitions) d. Flexibility i. Refers to the range of motion or the amount of movement possible at a particular joint or series of joints e. Body composition i. The amount and relative proportions and distribution of fat mass and fatfree mass in the body iii. Physical activity for performance 1. Involves improving ability to perform a task 2. Agility, balance, coordination, power, speed, and reaction time 2. Exercise: planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness 102 1. Health benefits of regular physical activity: a. Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease b. Reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes c. Reduced risk of cancer d. Improved bone mass and reduced risk of osteoporosis e. Improved weight control f. Improved immunity g. Improved back strength h. Improved mental health and stress management i. Longer life span 103 2. Initial conditioning stage: begin at levels lower than those recommended for physical fitness 3. Obstacles for physical activity a. Lack of time i. Solution: multitask, chose activities that require less time b. Social influence i. Join a class, plan physical activity dates, invite family & friends c. Lack of motivation/will power/energy i. Give yourself an incentive d. Lack of resources i. Find an activity that requires little to no equipment 104 Types of fitness equipment: 1. Heart rate monitor 2. Pedometer 3. Stability Ball 4. Balance Board 5. Resistance band 6. Medicine ba ll 7. Free weights 8. Elliptical trainer 9. Stair climber 10. Stationary bike 11. Treadmill 105 1. SMART goals: specific, measurable, actionoriented, realistic, and timeorientated a. Specific: i. “I’ll participate in a resistance training program that targets all of the major muscle groups 35 days per week” b. Measurable: i. “I’ll improve my fitness classification to average” c. Actionoriented: i. “I’ll meet with a personal trainer to learn how to safely do resistance and to plan a workout” d. Realistic i. “I’ll increase the weight I can lift by 20 percent” e. Timeoriented i. “I’ll try my new weight program for 8 weeks, then reassess” 2. FITT principle: frequency, intensity, time, and type a. Frequency: i. Refers to how often you must exercise b. Intensity: i. Refers to how hard your workout must be c. Time: i. Or “duration” refers to how many minutes or repetitions of an exercise are required per session d. Type: i. Refers to the kind of exercises performed 106 Cardiorespiratory Fitness 1. FITT requirements: a. The most effective aerobic exercises for building cardiorespiratory fitness are total body activities involving the large muscle group (3 – 5 days per week of vigorous, rhythmic, continuous activity i. F: at least 3 times a week or moderately at least five times a week ii. I: use target heart rate to determine intensity 1. Substitute your age to determine your target heart rate training range, then multiply by 0.64 and 0.94 to determine the lower and upper limits of your target range 2. Talktest iii. T: vigorous activities be performed for at least 20 minutes at a time and moderate activated for at least 30 iv. T: any sort of rhythmic, continuous, and vigorous physical activity that can be done for 20 or more minutes (walk, jog, bike ) b. Incorporate cardiorespiratory fitness into daily life i. You will add more exercise into daily routine ii. Walking or biking can save you money iii. Walking or biking can save you time iv. You can enjoy being outside v. You will make a significant contribution to the reduction of air pollution 107 Muscular Strength and Endurance 1. FITT requirements: a. 23 days per week of exercises that train the major muscle groups, using enough sets and repetitions and enough resistance to maintain or improve muscular strength and endurance i. F: 810 exercises that train the major muscle groups for 23 days a week 1. Reversibility: if exercising stops, the body will decondition ii. I: must know the maximum amount of weight you can lift in one contraction (one repetition maximum) 1. Overload muscles iii. T: measured not in minutes but in repetitions and sets iv. T: body weight or devices that provide a fixed/variable resistance 1. Specificity: certain group of muscles 2. Exercise selection: select 810 exercises for one group of muscles 3. Exercise order: get largemuscle groups before smallmuscle groups, multiple joint before single joint, highintensity before lowintensity 108 Flexibility 1. FITT requirements: a. F: 23 day a week min. for flexibility training b. I: hold static stretching positions at “point of tension” but not pain c. T: hold stretch for 1030 seconds d. T: Static stretching i. Slowly and gradually lengthens a muscles or group of muscles and attached tendons 109 Fitness Plan 1. Develop progressive plan a. Increase frequency duration over time b. Vary type of exercise c. Reevaluate goals and plans each month 2. Design exercise session a. Warm up 515 minutes b. Cardiorespiratory training and/or resistance training c. Cool down 510 minutes / low intensity & stretching 1010 1. Strong Core: a. Yoga, tai chi, and Pilates b. Provides a stable center of gravity & more stable platform for movement c. Reduces chance of injury / mind and body coordination 2. Core Strength Training: a. Involves the muscles of the deep back and abdominal muscles that attach to the spine and pelvis b. Yoga: i. Controlled breathing and static physical exercise ii. Improves flexibility, vitality, posture, agility, coordination, muscular strength, and endurance c. Tai chi: i. Combines stretching, balance, muscular endurance, coordination, and meditation (meditation in motion) d . Pilates i. Combines stretching with movement against resistance ii. Sequences of movements designed to increased strength 1011 1. Asthma: a. regular physical activity strengthens respiratory muscles, improves immune system functioning, and helps in weight maintenance b. Keep inhaler near by 2. Obesity: a. Limitations: heat intolerance, shortness of breath during physical acitivities, lack of flexibility, musculoskeletal injuries b. Activities recommended: 30 minutes or more (walking, swimming, biking / cardiorespiratory and resistancetraining activities) 3. CHD & Hypertension: a. Vigorous activity: increases risk of sudden cardiac death and heart attack 4. Diabetes: a. Physical activity: benefits individuals with diabetes by controlling blood glucose by improving insulin transport into cells, controlling body weight, and reducing risk of heart disease 5. Older Adults: a. Physical activity: increases life expectancy by limiting development and progression of chronic diseases and disabling conditions b. Nonweightbearing activities (cycling and swimming) 1012 Nutrition & Exercise 1. Carbohydrates: a. Stored in muscles and liver as glycogen b. Glycogen: i. Provides energy during physical activity 3. Fats: a. Provide twice the amount of energy in carbohydrates per gram 4. Proteins: a. Important for muscle repair and growth 5. Water: a. Hydration 6. Timing your Food Intake: a. Eat larger meals at least 34 hours before you begin exercise b. Smaller meals (snacking) eaten about an hour before beginning exercise 7. Staying Hydrated: a. The goal of fluid replacement is to prevent excessive dehydration b. Drink before, during, and after exercise c. Hyponatremia: i. Water intoxication, if you drink too much during endurance events 8. Dietary Supplements a. Deliver nutrients needed for muscle recovery as well as some that include additional “performance enhancers” 1013 Injuries 1. Traumatic injuries: occur suddenly and violently, typically by accident 2. Overuse Injuries: occur because of the cumulative, dayafterday stresses placed on tendons, muscles, and joints Common Overuse Injuries 1. Common sites of overuse injuries are the hip, knee, shoulder, and elbow joints a. Plantar Fasciitis i. An inflammation of the tissue that runs from heel to toe on bottom of foot ii. Pain and tenderness under ball of the foot, at the heel, or both b. Shin Splints i. General term for any pain that occurs on the front of part of the lower legs ii. Inside of tibia, muscle irritation and irritation of tissues attaching the muscles to the bone c. Runner’s knee i. Describes a series of problems involving the muscles, tendons, and ligaments of the knee ii. Most common cause is abnormal movements in knee cap & most common in women due to wider pelvis iii. Pain experienced when downward pressure is applied to the kneecap after the knee is straightened fully 1. Pain, swelling, redness, tenderness of kneecap 2. Treatment: (RICE) a. R: rest b. I: ice c. C: compression d. E: elevation 3. Preventing Injury a. Using common sense and identifying and using proper gear and equipment can help you avoid injury i. Appropriate footwear ii. Protective equipment 4. Exercising in the Heat a. Heat Cramps: i. Heatrelated involuntary and forcible muscle contractions that cannot be relaxed ii. Can be prevented by fluids and electrolytes lost during sweating b. Heat exhaustion: i. Mild form of shock caused by excessive water loss due to intense or prolonged exercise in hot/humid environment ii. Nausea, headache, fatigue, dizziness, and faintness iii. Goosebumps/chills, skin is cool and moist c. Heatstroke: i. “sunstroke” lifethreatening condition that occurs when body’s heat production exceeds cooling capacity ii. 105 – 110 degrees F iii. Can cause brain damage, disability, or death iv. Dry, hot, red skin, high temperature & heart rate 5. Exercising in the Cold a. Hypothermia: i. When body temperature drops below 95 degrees ii. To prevent: 1. Analyze weather conditions (wind/humidity), have a friend with you, wear layers, keep head/hands/feet warm, do not become dehydrated
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