PY 352 Intro & Chapter 1 Notes
PY 352 Intro & Chapter 1 Notes 11505
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 216 views.
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Date Created: 01/21/15
Intro to Developmental Psychology 1 Developmental Psychology a b c d e Study of constancy and change throughout life span Study of behavioral patterns and trends that occur through a persons life Complex and involves variety of factors and relationships Research in the field is vast Vital to understand that many factors in uence the changes we observe in humans 2 What you need to know a b Global understanding of all theories that try to describe and explain development Understand processes that underlie the changes in human development Important role of biology plays in human development Important role of context and culture on human development Interdependency and complex interaction between the biological emotional cognitive and social components of development Understand research questions and methods that inform us about human development 3 Periods of Development b c d e Prenatal 9 conception to birth Infancy to toddlerhood 9 birth to 2 yr Early childhood 9 26 yr Middle childhood 9 611 yr Adolescence 9 1118 yr 4 Why is it important a Helps better understand yourself and the people around you b Understand children and why they act the way they do c Helps you know how to interact with children d Understand what is is not normal e Helps create optimized solutions for what is NOT normal 5 VIDEO a How Do Children Thinkquot by Allison Gopnik b Baby thinking like brilliant scientists c How to ask them questions broccoli vs goldfish i If someone acted like they loved broccoli babies would give her broccoli what she wanted ii Babies know we don t all like the same things human nature d Relationship between how long their childhood is and how their brain develops Childhood is the reason for great development in knowledge and learning e Disadvantage is until you re done learning 9 you re useless f Think about babies as same species but different stages of life caterpillars vs butter y The Blicket experiment i Detector 9 wave over not place on box has higher probability ii Make it goquot preschool wave h Christine yellow and red box i Children do experiments in order to figure things out i Adults decide if something is relevant then pay attention and everything else goes dark Research in Developmental Psychology Chapter 1 1 Developmental Psychology a Study of constancy and change through a life span b The field of developmental science i Scientific 9 research to understand ii Applied 9 people use the knowledge they have to apply iii Interdisciplinary 9 variety of disciplines c There are many theories to explain observable changes in a lifespan 2 What is a theory a It is an orderly integrated set of statements that describes explains and predicts behavior b There are many theories explaining the various aspects of development c It provides an organized framework to evaluate behavior d Only If the theory is testable by research e Provides solid basis for actions 3 Basic Issues a Is development continuous or discontinuous i Continuous process of gradually increasing the same type of skills that were present since the beginning ii Discontinuous process which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times b Is there one course of development or many i Context unique combination of personal and environmental aspects that result in different developmental paths ii NO theory says there is just one path c What is the role in nature vs nurture i The genetic and environmental aspects that play significant role in development ii Nature hereditary information received from parents at conception iii Nurture physical and social forces psychological in uence 4 Dynamic System a Development is an ongoing dynamic process from conception to death b It is molded by a network of in uences biological cognitive emotional and social c Lifespan is multidimensional multidirectional highly plastic brains are ready to change if needed plasticity and in uenced by a multitude or different forces d As we get older our brains become less plastic e Five major periods of development 9 prenatal infancy amp toddlerhood early childhood middle childhood and adolescence 5 Science and Development a Scientific study of development dates back to 19th and early 20th century i Darwin 9 Theory of Evolution ii Hall Gesell 9 Normative Approach iii Binet 9 Mental Testing Movement 6 Psychoanalytic Perspectives a Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson b Emphasis on individuals life stories c Con ict between biological drives and social expectations Sigmund Freud ID Largest portion of mind Biological needs and desires Ego Conscious rational part early infancy redirects ID to acceptable ways SuperEgo Conscience ages 36 interaction with caregiver Freud s Psychosexual Stages Babies have pleasure sucking objects Oral Stage Anal Stage Children find pleasure retaining feces urine Control over bodies and environment Phallic Stage Genitals Touch themselves Latency Stage Pay attention to social relations with same sex Freud says this is when identity is formed Genital Stage Pleasure looking at opposite sex Erikson s Psychosocial Stages Basic trust vs mistrust Birth 1 year Anatomy vs shame doubt 13 yr Initiative vs guilt 36 yr Industry vs inferiority 61 1 yr Identity vs role confusion Adolescence Intimacy vs isolation Early adulthood Generativity vs stagnation Middle adulthood Integrity vs despair Old age 7 Behaviorism and Social Learning a Behaviorism directly observable events stimuli and responses are the appropriate focus of study b Classical Conditioning Pavlov s dog one stimulus can provoke another i Food makes salivate with bell ii We need to talkquot makes you instantly nervous c Operant Conditioning Skinner change behavior on punishment vs reward d Social learning imitation emphasis on modeling imitation or observational learning as a source of development 8 Conditioning Video a Classical Conditioning i Dave goes to dentist ii Routine as adult still causes stress iii Stress conditioned response iv Routine conditioned stimulus b Operant Conditioning i Giving Suzie a treat 1 Treat positive reinforcement 2 Bad grade negative reinforcement ii Trouble 1 Time after school positive punishment 2 Cellphone taken away negative punishment 9 Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory a Children actively construct knowledge by manipulating and explores their worlds Mental constructs adapt to better fit the demands of the environment c Development happens through several stages i Sensorimotor baby uses senses and movement to explore the world ii Preschool children preoperationalize symbolic but illogical thinking iii Concrete operational school age children engage in more organized logical reality iv Formal operational thought becomes abstract systematic reasoning of adolescents and adults 10 Information Processing Theory a Human mind is viewed as a computer in which it manipulates symbols b Development is a continuous process 11 Developmental Neuroscience a Brain and behavior b It brings together researchers from psychology biology neuroscience and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and changes in behavior 12 Neuroscience Video Record brain electrolyte activity Electrical juncture from signals on heads EEG 9 very early in life Developing autism before MRI Early intervention for early identification 3 month old 13Common Research Methods a Naturalistic observation to go into natural environment and record the behavior of interest b Structural observation the investigator sets up a situation that evokes the behavior of interest c Selfreport interviews questionnaires and tests i Best to be indirect with kids d Case study brings together a wide range of information about one person e Ethnography method that aims to understand a culture or social group meow 14 General Research Designs a Correlational 9 relationship between participants characteristics and behaviors i Cannot make causal causeeffect inferences ii Correlation is not causal b Experimental 9 randomly assigned participants assigned to treatment conditions i Embodied cognition 9 our cognition depends on how we physically act ii Detects cause effect relationship 15 Experimental Design a Dependent Variable i Response variable ii Measured but not manipulated by the experimenter iii Expected to be in uenced by the independent variable b Independent Variable i Explanatory variable ii Manipulated by experimenter iii Expected to cause changes in another variable DV Developmental Research Longitudinal Same group studied at different times Crosssectional Different groups studied at same times Sequential Compares similar crosssectional or longitudinal studies sequential 16Developmental Designs a Sequential Designs i Compare crosssectional or longitudinal ii Permit longitudinal and crosssectional comparison b Combining experimental and developmental design i Experimental manipulation of experimenter ii Provides evidence of casual associations 17 Rights of Participants Protection from harm Informed consent Privacy Knowledge of results Beneficial treatment gangs