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Intro Biology I

by: Dr. Harrison Metz

Intro Biology I BIOLOGY 100

Dr. Harrison Metz
GPA 3.55


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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Harrison Metz on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 100 at University of Massachusetts taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/232246/biology-100-university-of-massachusetts in Biology at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Using Technology to Facilitate Active Learning in the Large Lecture Hall Randall Phillis Steve Brewer Tom Hoogendyk Steve Goodwin and Elizabeth Connor Changing lar0e classes to engage students as active participants in learning and not passive recipients of Knowledge 1 Especially at the introductory level students expect to the be told the answers Which they should memorize and reproduce for an exam A basic challenge is to transforming students perspectives and make them active participants in figuring things out and not just leaming the facts from the text or professor Learning depends upon the activity of the learner If we engage students in active learning what do we have the students do This question is especially difficult in the large lecture hall setting of most introductory courses Just keeping students awake long enough to take notes is a challenge Engaging students in meaningful activities in the lecture hall is the goal of our redesign Historically we frequently heard from upper level instructors that students e out of ntro not knowing much and were poorly prepared for advanced work The reason for this poor preparation isn39t that mysterious if the instructor just looks out on the students midrlecture dmeir Emmy w meaningfully use the quotml121 n the come we have 1992 45 Faculty 225 majors 2001 29 Faculty 1100 majors The Bottleneck First Year Introductory Biology Secon ear Genet1cs Molecular blology o ooy Evolution Reduction in faculty numbers and ballooning enrollment has created great pressure on faculty in the department Ability to observe and describe nature accurately Ability to construct logical arguments in bio gy T Ability to critique logical arguments in biology Ability to connnunicate ideas and arguments effectively both orally and in writing E Ability to work effectively in a team F Ability to apply problemsolving to learning G Abi ty to apply quantitative reasoning to biological questions In response the faculty developed a set of Learning Goals that focus on skills students must possess to be successful biologists This is quite different from the standard curriculum reform list of content topics students must know 0 700 Students per semester Diverse Student Population 399 Different majors Biochemistry to Equine Studies 5 in AP Biology 8th Grade Health 0 Core aka boring concepts and topics 0 2 sections 2 or more instructors in each 0 Short Straw teaching assignment 0 Straight lecture format Teaching a quality Introductory Biology course is challenging at any research university and these are common problems in presenting the course 0 Introduction of ClassTalk 0 Classroom communication system 0 Brief lecture segments 0 Problem solving 0 Small group discussion directed at answering questions Responses for all students are compiled and displayed 0 Whole class discussion centered on strategy for problem solving We began using a classroom communication system called ClassTalk in 1998 This systems uses a network of connection nodes for TI 83 graphing calculators to allow students to enter responses to questions posed by the instructor All student responses are compiled and can be displayed in a histogram for class discussion Similar systems that are wireless including PRS from EduCue httpwwwEduCuecom can be used in very similar ways The essential feature of these systems is giving students opportunities to have small group discussions about problem solving events during class time that are followed by an instructor guided discussion of problem solving strategy This system was pioneered at UMass by a group in Physics and detailed discussions of the use of classroom communication systems to facilitate conceptual understanding is available at the UMass Physics Education Research Group web site httpumpergphysicsumasseduprojectsASKIT Which of the following is TRUE All cancers are genetic All cancers are inherited 1 2 3 all of the above 4 none of the above Using ClassTalk we could generate discussions about concepts that frequently cause misunderstanding by students We found that these discussions were more successful at clarifying concepts than presenting the issues in lecture format What would happen to the cell cycle if the G1 cyclin inhibitor genes were mutant and did not work Cell division would be normal DNA synthesis would be activated G1 cyclins would never be destroyed 1 2 3 Mitosis would be blocked 4 5 Growth of cells would slow down We could ask students to use causal models in biology to predict the result of some manipulation to a biological system This ability to use causal models is central to the scientific research and is an important skill for students to develop early in their undergraduate careers Because successful solutions to these problems require a Wide array of cognitive skills it is difficult to teach in a lecture and requires repeated practice by students with feedback from peers or the instructor about problem solving strategy T39rLIk racilitates grot dlscussion On discussions that occur between students This is w puzzle over questions present their own ideas discus misunderstandings and evaluate the arguments of classmates As the semester quotm 39 39 39 39 39 and h m e of the most important events during problem solving is the small group here students argue and s their own more sephastreated in their argumentation skills After group discussions students enter their answers through a handheld device 13 The compiled responses of all students are presented in a histogram and used as a focus of discussion Guiding these discussion to elicit the array of ideas and concepts students used is an important instructor skill It is important that the instructor avoids using this as an opportunity to just give the right answer and move on A good discussion from the Whole class can help reveal key misunderstandings and allow all students see strategic approaches they may not have personally used during their small group problem solving discussions l4 0 Students practice critical skills 0 Group discussions increase range of approaches used by individual students Misconceptions are revealed 0 Problem solving strate0 y is emphasized Provides a reason for knowing all this stuff The final point here is especially important Frequently introductory survey courses present long lists of facts and concepts Without a clear cohesive rationale for students to learn beyond it Will be on the test By focusing students on problem solving that requires the use of the facts and concepts and vocabulary they are expected to know students develop a reason for knowing all this stuff 0 Student Preparation for Problem Solving Time for content coverage and discussion 0 Costs of the course 4 faculty support staff TA s After our initial introduction of ClassTalk in the lecture hall we were trying to do too much and some students struggled We were still trying to lecture as well as present problem solving events Students were coming to class without much outside preparation They found lectures to be too brief and the problems solving was difficult Offload basic content to a web site Class Preparation Page readings activities key concepts online quiz 0 Build a database of questions and problems 0 TA training through the web site 0 Reduce faculty from 4 to 2 To solve these problems we asked students to do their homework to be properly prepared for the problem solving events in the classroom To guide this preparation we created a web site that we called the Class Preparation Page Where students were given a list of specific readings a list of key conceptual questions they should be able to answer activities to reinforce the concepts and an online quiz Students were required to complete these activities before class Funding for this project was provided by the Pew Center for Academic Transformation httpWWWcenterrpieduPeWHomehtml ntroductory Biology Eiouuu sin mm mmmv mm nemww uNwEwsm a memmms Arman mm mm Emueem edu Annnuncements New Topic this week as we in visit the web site listed m the lmLs Dav paltlculal anemmn m Figtues 12 4 and 12 5 Preparation Page Cancer The Class Preparation Page is a well designed but fairly simple web site designed to be exible and easy to use for both students and instructors llllrnnudnw BmlunyBInLIW ECrInN2FAlL 1 1 set mm step Retest Hen eutentt W M m new be we eelweeststtzeet ntetntetteesettnz twenenmee twteeenwte twtesumn Applestare hmsennetepe MSN etttetenetnet a 01 ct Ves The Binlngy nf Cencer t 52mm Megptng genes for hteest eeneer mum Haw een htttege he used te teeete e gene an e ehmmesenew Whv ee sene eeneets seen te Hm tn temthes whtte ethets de nnt whet ete the dttterenees ttetween ntutettens enstng tn senette eehs and nttttettens enstng tn gernvhne eehsv ttuttes Ceh stgnehttg pathways How an gtewth teethts stttnuteste e cell to gmwquot whet ete the tetes UfG pmtEmsquot whet ts the tale er the httese eeseeees tn stgnahhg Ptatarancagenes and ensegenes Jamnu enud w een httLege he used to teeete e gene on e ehtetnesetttev whet are the best tetes ufpruturuncugenes tn the eeth How does the mttettett etoee and My etttet mmgr suppressgt genes In whet ways can nurmallv ntttettentng ttttnet supptesset genes ptetent eeh ptehtetettenv l es tut p537 en etgetette stttehtng psat e at the RE tutnut suhptesset gene ene whet ete the ttnpheettens atttthettttng e mutettett tn thts gene The key concepts for the week s material are presented as questions that students should be able to answer and not as a list of facts students should memorize AMDFTH mt tmmmgt Awtemw Awtsuwm Awtem wmsamam wsw mtetmmmh 4 Reading Assignment Read page 2 224 Tsa lead pages 3537351 man would he to esehTThe sTghehhg pathsys Th more depth hgtTTes n 5 11 in she 11 16 sth pmtmns of the sTghehhg pathways um guia 19 13 Th greater deteTT mum Reguil39ed Activities Visit the mhowThg Web sTte Mun3 Cancer ceus ThTs sTtes shows eehceT eeus Th gthe pTucess atthsTah Th eeh Culture The eeus muhe up she have a hTTght halo amuin themjust pHDl a thsah Vuu eeh step thTaugh the pTueess heTTTe by heTTTe Visit the mhowThg Web sTte emnu em Huw Cancer Arisesquotquotquot good meTVTew cf the biology hehThd eeheeT ThTs Ts a teTT eTTTutTht atTeetTTh but theTe Ts hut much Th vnui text It wTTT Dav th spend some tTTTTe thh the eTtTcie Be sure th incl at all thTee iiiustrstmns It Ts possible th Leap thTs hew Wl dUW Open uh VDLH biDWSEi thTe vou TetuTh to the couTse weh sTte th take the thTz T Reading assignments are quite specific and focus on just the text and figures that contain the key concepts models and vocabulary students will need for problem solving Students are also sent to public web sites related to the weekly topic to do related activities or see the breadth of resources available for learning about any given topic 20 lmummge Awucmw Awwwm Awusw Mwammu MSN u meweruMash UL39K 2 Mqu mumu uunas Tlle Duck Practice Testing System for biolloosectionl Iavlnu a nd Hem Lug In Usenlalne I39m mus Passwm Guest Lngjn Check your ussmame and password and txy agzun Questions aboutthe mnse39l Send emallto Dr Phllhs lt1 lullrs bio mass edugt Techmcal Problems Send emadm zluckbio mass ed Steve Brewer of the redesign team has created an open source on line quiz tool called Duck Duck is free and available at httpbcrcbi0umasseduprojectsduck 21 Duck hlnlleegtln 39 Fan2m may Mes Hume e M Np new be we eelMeetewememeeeemeew phtmwuckzduckzcsdshts7d33ampr meme tenementquot Applesuppart tweenquot Meeeeemmpe MSN 3 VVlly are multiple mutations usually required before cells become cancerous There are multiple check gem m the eeu male that need to be overcome There am many Melent mes ofcancei and each regunes a different mutation g 1 Select another quesuen 3Whv are mu Quesuons abounhe coulse7 Send emmlto Dr Pl Technical Problems397 Send emad to duckbio umass edu a nm nmls Iamnu ahnd Duck allows students to see either multiple choice or open ended questions and possible answers Students can select their favorite answer or enter a written response 22 i9 5 m m where be we enMeekewesmeueeseem2ew pmeduckducchsds7cls7d33amp2v Lumen LweHamehge tpueemm Aweeuwm Weem Mmeemmw MSN You said that 3 Why are multiple mutations usually iequnad before cells become emeemuev There ny Mel39emtype ni39cancer and each requires a Meiem mutatinn ere s what the instructor thought There are many different types uf cancers but there is nnt a nne m nne enneepnmleuee between a particular mutatinn an a paruullarcancer1n rm must cancers reqmle a series nf mutatinns tn accumulate in a cell quotmas aunqan us ma Click here to go on to the next question 0 intern After selecting an answer students get feedback that is clearly marked from the instructor The instructor can discuss key concepts or misconceptions that may have led to the answer and can reinforce important ideas in this feedback After reading the feedback students can go back to the original question and select a different answer where they will get additional feedback Students are encouraged to go back and forth as much as they like to explore all of the answers and corresponding feedback from the instructor before they move on to the next question In this way students are encouraged to think about the reasons why an answer may be better or worse than another without experiencing any penalty for selecting the wrong answer 23 sawan mm 3 Why are multiple mutations usually required before cells become cancerous n ma 1 There as multiple checkpoints mum cell cycle diatneedto be overcome 2 There as many were cells um need to get the mutation harm a cancel can develop 3 There are many da eieiit types ofcancer and each requnes a di 39erent mutation nnnqxlups Iavlnu abnd Duck compiles responses from all students taking the quiz for instructor review before class In this way an instructor can use duck to tailor their lecture toward speci c issues students struggled with on the class preparation page 24 m Ezck Fanyd am Meet Hume intern FMM Mm m Hiach hm was eduMuckcaursesbmHEIEI5ecltmn2DandHnnscr vi pmtagesonenckacnostzoonece Wenmeceee nneemne nnesnpm nnestm Metoeomnne msa etteeotmemne tnemncanw Duck Transcript for Meauxel 1 saumuu Begannme 20014 3100 3 Endnme 200171 03101202 Ancwers c mum Stem 2w1nch nf le rounwang stateme39ms ic true All cance e are geneoc All cancers are nnented MunEX 3 39 cantei39nns39 aeqnnee a were nntataon There are many oeeretent ceue tnatneedto getthe mutation before 2 cancer can evelop There are mniopie check points n the ceu cycle that need to be overcome gtInnllnn n mutation leads to 2 di erent cancer Man oeererent envnonnentai condnonc can lead to cancer and each envnonnentai factor causes a di 39erent cancer Many di 39erent ceutyoec n the body can develop nto cancer and each one leads to a di 39eient cancer iaplnu abnd 5 G pxukein are involved in mm stimulating cignaipadcways but t ml inhibiting cignainaamyc eee for example gure 1913 k n gt bus in ynnl39 texthnn 1 3 DucchomePage Hawk Duszoni tttdentpooe Revised 41300 Brewer Want me The specific activities of each student are also available for instructor review Mailing US he web site also has a navigation tree for easy movement to many pages characteristic of many course web sites Introductory Biology ammm mmmw uuiumm WM nauuymuu vvhiiiis bicumas Review Materials Final Exam Final exam answei key LHZ um 714 anewei ke L ciassrau QLHZ um 2r7 answei key QLHZ twin 1 an answer ke L Labmadvr letiewer giactice Emblems 9m nm 1sz answei Lev Jr Miz39ubzclua Review Materials Exam 3 Exam 3 Review Sheet Exam 3 answe Le ClassrTalk Quesliuns Most important and useful for students is a set of review materials that is generated from quizzes and ClassTalk questions These allow students to make use of events in class to prepare for weekly paper quizzes and exams Flnal mmments m mm sap We Hm mam hm hm My hm m we mememum wWnewManama Mm Mmme Awtemm Awtsmm Wesm mmsmhmw MSN What would happeh lf cell lost ltS p53 gene57 em T T The Cell would dle 2 The Cell would Stop dmdhg and arrest at a cell cycle checkpom 3 The Cell would activate DNA repair 4 The Cell would Contw vue to divide mum COMMENTS 953 functions S a repair Control regulator Tn NA from d mage nunqnnus Japlnu aimd espohses were actwated the cell would not Stop the Cell cycle not actwete repair and hot dl l ther Wordsit would Just keep nght on gmhg he best answer 5 4 When added to the review materials pages ClassTalk questions also get instructor comments which can re ect important concepts and include feedback about the class discussion that followed a particular problem event 28 Visit web site to get assignments Read assigned text material Visit assigned web sites and do activities OTake Duck quiz C0me to class 29 Come to class Listen to rationale for problemsquestions 0Discuss solutions with classmates 0Discuss strate for problem solving with whole Classinstructor OTake weekly lmV stakes quiz 30 Visit review page reread text ORead instructor feedback on ClassTalk questionspractice quiz ORework problems OTake exam 31 Classtalk forces me to think deeper and at a higher level I like Classtalk especially the explanations afterwards since it lets me apply the knowledge I have already gained and it helps me understand the 111ate1ial more in depth The weekly quizzes I find beneficial because they are a good VV of knowing how I am understanding the material The one bad thing about classtalk questions is that sometimes you are left still wondering which answer was light Students very much like the system On the mid semester review in the Fall of 2001 there were 168 favorable comments about ClassTalk and 2 negative comments On this review students could discuss anything about the course and 221 students responded I rather like the idea that at least one student was left wondering about something when they left class 32 The course website is extremely helpful I like 9 c 7quot c z 7 i 7 h391v1ng all 1e 1ew material like uizzes and classtalk questions available with the answers The Duck quizzes don t help me very much since I am very unstable about the material in the be gim1ing and I don t get much help from them Thank god you don t teach the class using Powerpoint Again students were very favorable about the web site and re ect on the fact that their understanding of the material develops as they perform the many activities around a topic Because there are many chances for students to practice with the material and early practice with the problems is presented Without penalty for mistakes students develop their skills over time 33 When my professor does Powerpoint 1 have to copy it down so fast that I don t read what it says comprehend it when I read it or listen to the teacher when they try to explain it Powerpoint is a linear presentation tool With a predetermined sequence of slides Problem solving is a non linear task and guiding students through problem solving events with a series of unpredictable connections between ideas brought up by students may be done best with class tools other than a linear sequence of slides 34 Biol 100 Attendance Fall 2001 12 a 6 s e 7 a 910111213161516171E1920212223262526272E29303132 mummu Attendance is outstanding Averaged across the entire semester including the day before Thanksgiving perhaps you can guess which day that was attendance was nearly 90 in the Fall 2001 semester 35 Attendance is well correlated With success r0469 Students who attended 90 of the time or more averaged much higher on exams than students students who attended less than 90 of the time pltlt0 001 36 The web site was well used Though there were strong peaks before each exam there ws strong and consistent use on a daily basis by the 234 students in this section of the course 37 gt 62000 hits over the semester average 400 hits per day 100 studentsday 3 Visits week student Peaks during review prior to exams I like the web site because it s like a home for the coursequot Students used the course on average 3 times a week Ideally once to get the reading assignment once to take the on line quiz and once to review for the weekly quiz 38 Formative Assessment Te39e On line quiz Classtalk Weekly qulZ Summative Assessment E 12 Hour Exams F1nal Exam Total Questions 288 We asked many questions and problems of the students over the semester more than half of which were no stakes or low stakes questions where students could get the problem wrong with little or no penalty This kind of formative assessment is very important for students to move toward a clear understanding of the material with an ability to use the material to solve novel problems 39 Correlates with success in Biology 100 0High School GPA SAT score Independent of success in Biology 100 0Gender 0Underrepresented minority status Honors status As With most introductory university courses high school GPA r0381 plt0001 and Math SAT r0282 plt0001 were correlated With success in the course However once Variation from these factors is controlled there is no significant effect of gender minority status or honors status on success 1 Sister Chromatids a are formed from a single hornolog during DNA replication b are Visible during metaphase separate during anaphase c d have identical alleles e all of the above This question is from an old exam from 1995 before we did any course redesign Multiple choice answers a through d are all text surrounding the bold face word sister chromatids in the textbook This kind of a definition question on exams was common on old exams 2 What would occur if homologous chromosomes segregated during m1tos1s instead of s1ster chromatids a Cell division would be normal b The daughter cells would have too many chromosomes c The daughter cells would have too few chromosomes d The daughter cells would be genetically identical e The daughter cells would be genetically different This question asks students to use a model of chromosome segregation during mitosis to predict the outcome of an error in the process This ability to use a causal model to predict an outcome of some change in conditions requires many cognitive skills including knowing the definitions of the vocabulary words in the question 42 0 Recall of a definition or sequence of events 1 Process manipulation Causes to effects If a process is changedwhat will result Effects from causes If this results what must have occurred Questions can be divided into two simple categories 43 Biol 100 L95 R Phillis RC 026 Exam average 2 62 Biol 100 1995 S Goodwin RC 021 Exam Average 58 Biol 100 2001 R PhillisGoodwin RC 068 Exam average 2 72 Our new exams engage students in much more problem solving and the course outcome is that students perform considerably better than on old exams centered primarily around recall of facts and definitions Dprertest IPostrtest In collaboration With a cognitive science research group at Hampshire College headed by Neil Stillings we designed and administered a pre post test to assess student skill development during the course This test presented causal models students had not seen before and asked them to solve problems using those models Students responded to both multiple choice and open ended questions on these tests Students scores shifted significantly higher on the post test suggesting that the ability to use causal models to solve novel problems was a generalized skill students developed in Biology 100 45 Teclmology mediated act39 39e learning in the classroom 0 Basic content from web directed independent learning W ebsite home for course learning objectives assigmnents on line quiz Duck 0 Student engagement Attendance at 90 Students buy in and engage duiing class V eb site use is high and consistent Challenging curriculum Biology Learning Goals Problem solving skills Manipulation of concepts and processes c Keep student activities tightly in line with ultimate learning goals Constructive Discomfort Expect allow students to fail at first without penalty and to learn from their mistakes Studentcentered classroom Design class time to focus on student attempts to solve problems With instructor guidance in real time 47 J 1 Web Site design template All courses in Biology Micro Biochem Full Redesign Biology 101 Spring Intro Biology Biology 283 Genetics Davis Foundation Grant Intro courses in Economics Management Communications Engineering Statistics The course redesign of Introductory Biology is being used as a model for redesign of many other courses at UMass Recently the Davis Foundation has provided funding to UMass for redesign of introductory courses in several other disciplines using Biology 100 as a model Instructor comments New perspective on teaching focus on trouble spots and problems Can plunge ahead into interesting material without worrying that the basic material was covered No more exam questions that are not problems Difficult to write exams that are hard enough Instructors using the redesign have many positive comments 49 Steve Goodwin Elizabeth Connor Steve Brewer Tom Hoogendyk Bill Gerace UMass Physics Education Research Group Norm Aitken Carol Twigg Carolyn Jarmon Pew Center for Academic Transformation Niel Stillings Marianne Ramierez Laura Wenk Alisa Izumi Hampshire College Many people contributed to this work Our apologies to any we may have overlooked 50


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