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Week 1 Test 3

by: UNT_Scientist

Week 1 Test 3 PSCI 1040


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These notes are for the third test in government it is everything we covered this week
Gloria Cox
Class Notes
Government, UNT, Gloria cox
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 1040 at University of North Texas taught by Gloria Cox in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Goverment in Political Science at University of North Texas.

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Date Created: 03/26/16
Week 1 test 3   Week of March 21 Test date April 13 ●  Chapter 5 Civil rights and equal rights  ○ Pete Seeger   ■ Our representative musically of what the struggle  and hopes that we have gone through  ■ “We shall overcome” considered the anthem of the  civil right movement  ○ Concept of equality  ■ Equality is the least accepted American value  ■ When we believe in it, we tend to construe it  narrowly  ○ Metaphors ■ A place at the table  ● Used to describe the advancement  of Equality  ○ At first it was a few  white men at the beginning a large group now, with great  diversity ● Starting to be used to combat  hunger in America  ○ Government classification  ■ Governments classify people all the time in  HARMLESS ways, such as by age ■ Other kinds of classification are seen as  INVIDIOUS (harmful)  ● Race ● Ethnicity ● National origin  ● Religion  ● Gender  ● Sexual orientation  ● Political views  ■ We use the term DISCRIMINATION to refer to  irrational suspicion or hatred of people, and differential treatment on the  basis of their race, religion, sex, skin color, ethnic background, national  origin, or sexual orientation  ○ Legal foundation of Equality  ■ Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: ● All persons born or naturalized in  the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are  citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.  No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the  privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall  any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without  due process of law; nor deny to any person within its  jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. ○ After the civil war ■ The thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth  Amendments are added to the Constitution  ■ Southern states revived remnants of slavery, like  black codes, and created all kinds of devices to keep blacks (and poor  whites, sometimes) from voting ● literacy test  ● poll taxes  ● white primaries ■ Laws (known as Jim Crow Laws) were passed to  create a segregated society ● Black codes are for just blacks  ● Jim Crow laws are for a segregated  society  ○ Like covenants, the  deed of the house states that the house can only be sold  to white people because the community also had a  covenant the community remains white  ■ The Supreme Court approved segregated facilities  in the 1896 case Plessy v Ferguson  ● Case rules Separate but equal  ○ But in the view of the  Constitution, in the eye of the law, there is in this country  no superior, dominant, ruling class of citizens.  There is no  caste here.  Our Constitution is colorblind and neither  knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.  In respect of  civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law.   The  humblest is the peer of the most powerful.  The law  regards man as man and takes no account of his  surroundings or of his color when his civil rights as  guaranteed by the supreme law of the land are involved.... ○ The arbitrary  separation of citizens, on the basis of race, while they are  on a public highway, is a badge of servitude wholly  inconsistent with the civil freedom and the equality before  the law established by the Constitution.  It cannot be  justified upon any legal grounds ○ Current issues ■ Several members of Congress have asked the  Department of Labor to look into changes that states have made to  Workers comp, which is a state administered program. NPR broadcast a  report last week that states are either not requiring businesses to have it  or allowing a much weaker substitute  ■ Phones calls to and from prison are through  exclusive contracts between prisons and private companies. The routine  amount is about $13 for a fifteen minute call. kickbacks often go to sheriff  and police departments. these departments say they need the  “commissions” to  monitor the phone calls and make sure nothing illegal  is being talked about and that without them they can’t do that job. The  federal government has ruled this illegal.  ○ Test for classifications  ■ The rational based test  ● Is this classification rational? The  burden is on the person who objects to the classification to show why it is not.  ● Does it make sense to divide people  at 21 (those who drink and those who don’t)  ■ The strict scrutiny test  ● This test applies when laws or  practices divide people by race  ● Those passing such a law or using  such a practice must show that it serves a compelling government interest ○ Affirmative action is  the only law to pass this test  ■ Intermediate (heightened) scrutiny test ● This is the in­between category.  dividing people by sex is in this category. thereby allowing for men and women to be treated differently in certain instances, like the  military draft. such classifications must serve an important  government purpose  ○ Burden in on the  government  ■ Most  of these rulings deal with physical things in regards  to women (pregnancy)  ○ Think of the draft only men sign up for the draft not women  ○ Race Discrimination  ■ The united states had slavery for more than 250  years and was one of the last nations to outlaw it  ■ Issue #1: Race discrimination and education  ● The NAACP’s legal defense and  Education Fund was key to bringing suits against the states  ● Thurgood Marshall was crucial to  NAACP  ● Sending black students out of state  ○ Missouri ex rel. Gains v. Canada, 1938  ■ Missou ri had a law school that was reserved for white  students. There was no law school in the state that  admitted black students. When a black student was denied entrance at the University of Missouri. The  student sought a writ of mandamus to be admitted ● w rit of mandamus is a court order to a public official ordering him or her to do what they  are supposed to do  ○ A pplies to public officials  ○ oklahoma state law  school 1946  ■ women denied from law school. Thurgood Marshall fought  for her to go to school. She was the first African  american woman to become the first women on the Oklahoma board of regents  ○ McLaurin v.  Oklahoma State Regents, 1950  ■ A  Student seeking a doctoral degree in Education  was admitted to the University of Oklahoma but  was segregated within the institution ● I t was separate just not equal ○ Sweatt v. Painter  1950 ■ Case  involved University of Texas Law school and its  substandard relative created just for black students. ○ Brown v Board of  education 1954 ■ Why is this case important  ● B ecause the Supreme Court began ruling on  a different question: can separate but equal  ever be equal?  In this case the supreme  court answered that question by saying No: ○ “ We conclude that, in the field of  public education, the doctrine of  “separate but equal” has no place.  Separate educational facilities are  inherently unequal” ● O f course that was not the end of the story. it  took many more years before schools were  actually integrated. and in many of those  cases federal action was needed ● Ruby Bridges in 1960 ○ F irst child to integrate schools in New  Orleans. She is accompanied by  U.S. Marshals ● M assive resistance to the brown ruling  ○ E fforts to shut down schools to  prevent integration  ○ B y 1964 ten years after brown  decision, 98% of black children in  the south still attended all black  schools  ○ C ivil rights act of 1964 cut off federal aid to school districts still practicing  segregation  ■ C ivil rights act of 1964  ■ T itle 2 of the civil rights act of  1964 Makes it an offense to  discriminate against any  customer or patron in a place of public accommodation  because of race, color,  religion or national origin.  ■ T his law was challenged but  the Supreme Court upheld it  in the case of Heart of  Atlanta v United States, due  to the advertisement in other  states it is an interstate  commerce this ends Jim  Crow laws  ■ Issue #2 voting rights ● All manner of obstacles were set up  to keep blacks from voting  ○ Voting was controlled  by the states  ○ White primaries  ■ Gener al elections open to everyone but primaries  exclusively for whites ● 1 923  Governor Ma Ferguson, of Texas,  “Should English be the language of the  state? Well if it was good enough for Jesus  then it's good enough for me”  ● B lacks were forbidden for running and voting  in democratic primaries  ○ R emember we were the “solid south”  being majoritively part of the  Democratic Party ○ T his is unconstitutional per the 15   amendment  ○ R ethought in 1927  ■ N ew law says that the  Democratic Party can make  all decisions on who can and  can't vote in their party  ○ N AACP turn this down via the  Supreme Court in 1944 “the party  couldn’t make that decision because the party is an extension of the  government” ○  Poll taxes  ■ To  vote, one Haide to pay a fee. They were really  small amounts but they were cumulative  ○ Literacy test  ■ Very  difficult to pass ○ Limited registration  ■ Offices open perhaps one to two days per month  ● 1 965 Movement led by SCLC (MLK) and  SNCC with a focus in alabama from Selma  to montgomery (50 miles) . Later known as  Bloody Sunday. Met by Alabama state  troopers on horseback with cattle prods,  tear gas and forced them to go back. 90%  of Americans had a tv and saw photos of it  ● L BJ tells congress to pass the the voting  rights act of 1965  ○ ○ Violence and  intimidation  ○ ■ Issue #3 public accommodations  ● Jim Crow laws created segregated  societies­ shopping districts, hospitals, brothels, churches, hotels  and motels, restaurants, and much more ● 1960 ○ Lunch counter sit­ ins in Greensboro, North Carolina  ■ Four  young men Freshmen at North Carolina A&T they  went to woolworths dime store. Refused service  and order to leave, came back next morning with  25 students, third day 65 students, fourth day 3  white women came to join them from the women's  college, fifths day 300 demonstrators  ● Fourteenth amendment’s equal  protection clause could not be applied to this issue, as it dealt only with government actions. Congress decided to use its power to  regulate interstate and foreign commerce.  ○


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