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Cognitive Psych

by: Danial Kreiger

Cognitive Psych PSYCH 315

Danial Kreiger
GPA 3.75


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Class Notes
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danial Kreiger on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 315 at University of Massachusetts taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/232304/psych-315-university-of-massachusetts in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Write down YOUR def1nitions of attention We ll compare notes and probably see a variety of different concepts being described Ways of thinking about attention IAttention as arousal 1 Selective attention 39 What happens to unattended inputs Conscious and unconscious perception Change blindness Priming U Divided attention Limited resources specific general Response selection Automaticity One morning a big poster outside of Oak School folding tables volunteers new textbooks volunteers told people about a basement rummage bargain sale folding tables New textbooks a rummage sale Inside were long counters on which stuff collected a rummage sale new textbooks folding tables by the kids was shown Price tags were fastened to folding tables volunteers new textbooks rummage all articles Most of the customers bought old but volunteers new textbooks folding tables rummage useful fumitureThe sale was a huge success and sale volunteers new textbook volunteers new money was used to purchase a great many books An experimental procedure for studying selection and division of attention After a while I bin nach hause geh Yesterday I bought a big pumpkin Yesterday I bought 1 Filter theory Broadbent W Attenuation theory Treisman U Late selection theory Sensory gt Messages gt store gt Filter gt Detector To memory gt 39 gt Attended message Figure 42 p 102 Flow diagram of Broadbent39s filter model of attention Sand Messages Traps coarse grains Stops unattended message based on Fine sand Attended physical characteristics only message of voice only a b Figure 43 p 103 a A sieve that lets through small grains of sand and keeps coarse grains from coming through based on the physical characteristic of the size of the sand particles b Broadbent39s model of attention lets through the attended message and keeps the unattended message from getting through based on physical characteristics ofthe message such as the pitch of a person39s voice Attended message gt Messages Attenuator D39c irtlary To memory gt Unattended messages Figure 46 p 106 Flow diagram for Treisman39s attenuation model of selective attention N100 N1 00 with attention quot3939 N100 no attention 1 00 msec Figure 48 p 108 Eventrelated potential ERP recorded when a person is selectively attending to a message solid color line and when the person is not selectively attending dashed black line The N100 wave a negative wave that peaks a t 100 msec is larger when the person is paying attention Figure All messages in A difference between the early and lateselection approaches to selective attention is the characteristics of the messages that are used to accomplish selection Physical Early selection Broadbent39s W F characteristlcs approach is based on physical characteristics Late selection Makay39s approach l is based on meaning Selected Trelsman39s attenuation model message 1 falls in between these two because selection can be i Selected based on physIcal message characteristics meaning or both Meaning Early Late selection selection Attention can both promote and inhibit processing Limited resource models Conscious expections and unconscious priming 39 Posner amp Snyder experiment demonstration High validity cue leads to expectation Which leads to both facilitation and inhibition 39 Low validity cues does not lead to expectation Gives facilitation not inhibition Searchlight metaphor Posner Experiment A classic design Task tap your chair as soon as you see a target Cue an arrow that might be pointing to where the target appears Manipulation validity of arrow Valid invalid neutral no arrowhead Manipulation proportion of valid trials In our demo 80 Posner ndings Automatic priming Facilitation faster than neutral condition when arrow points to Some facilitation even when arrow is uninformative arrow lies 50 of the time automatic facilitation More facilitation when arrow is usuallyvalid usually tells the truth conscious facilitation Posner Findings cont Strategic conscious priming Inhibition slower than neutral when arrow points away from But ONLY in usuallyvalid condition conscious inhibition There is only facilitation not inhibition in the uninformative 5050 condition Figure 427 p 127 Three models of attention a Spotlight model Attention is focused on one area b zoom lens model A spotlight in which the area of attention can be varied s mmg39 to be small or large 2 objectbased a attention Attention is focused on an object and moves with the object Zoom mus omen based If a resesarcher examines the fate of unattended information she is most likely studying a Vigilance b divided attention c selective attention d Visual agnosia The Posner Snyder visual cueing experiment demonstrated in class in which an arrow cue sometimes pointed at a target you had to respond to showed which of the following phenomena a you are unaware of targets you are not attending to b when the cue is usually valid your detection of the target is inhibited on gtrials in which the cue points in the wrong direction c your detection of the target is inhibited on trials in which the cue points in the wrong direction regardless of the validity of the cue d a simple target like pops out and you can respond to it equally quickly regardless of whether or not you have a valid cue about where it will appear Inattention Attentional blink Attending to one stimulus or making one response inhibits attention to the one after it Change blindness change detection Magic demo Movies Relation to eye xations t Henderson amp Hollingworth You ll see a rapid series of letters 100 to 150 msletter Your task was there a J a K or both or neither 7 Result you were likely to miss a target when it immediately follows another target m I We Edu Mew ga Eammumcamy e p aakmavk L Ann WPmemhevsmpadcam a chma heriRe aAed apesmme gms anwemge meaa w m Webmau PF Z p Ne rms2A Peap e VerwPaggs Dawn aad Emmi Eqngvalulalxans 39 vi Back meavd Relaad Hume 525th Netscape Punt Secuuly Shaw Sm Andy s Amazing Card Trick Areyouready7 Iwant you to mentally select any one ofthese m cards at random 7 s 7 a 6 6 quot74 oQ Q A O O 39339 39P 9 O O o 15391quot w a Q 1 e z 9 08 m m m m V w become onethhxt we don t 39T39hmmn ih nrk don t may jDacumemDane m 99 aShnUQ SBZEQMEQOE H quot3947 1 quot 239 m mr o m WM ml I 2 gm Mew gm gammumcam 4p 39 g39aaam s A Luna n hupMmemhmsmpadcamandyhauchmangHm v vwhal sRemed E 39 FveeADUA lnquot vastamMessage Kaullaaw m I w Z phle Dania2 Peap e weuawp39ages rDawmaad hanne s Cangvam ahans 39 39 A a d a Back Fa vayd mm Hume Seamh Nets2562 pm Sammy 5m smv UhOh on Sparky s pistol when you re ready to continue mam Dagumemnane r an ab a i aasanzzamszEgMEQyra Uquot quot quotquot quot V 39 m ggwocomozw Isl I g gm ycw a Qammumcamv ew 39 it39Baukmav ALucahan hupMmemhmsmpadcamandyhauchmagu23Hm 4 wmrmcxacc m armmu m nslanlMeswge Kawasakde El WebM N w Z pme39 E mac Pcapc El chwagcs Dawmaad rmnncc Eangvam ahans m c at w 21 Back F ard Re aad Hume Seavch Netscape Punt Secunly Shun Sml Wow That s Amazing 114 24Q3YodZVV 14 w w v39Y39AA 1 9 39339 111 0 AAQ Chck here to n n ggam HDl jDacumemDane m as asunumwnasnmmora H 39 39F E w ggmcg gonmmw CogLab Change Detection D V icker Nu icker icker Nu icker I Accuracy I Twme scc If a researcher examines the fate of unattended information she is most likely studying A Vigilance B Selective attention C Divided attention D Visual Agnosia The attentional blink experiment demonstrated in class is claimed to show A You are unaware of unattended stimuli but aware of ones you are looking for B You are momentarily inattentive to a stimulus that occurs right after a target stimulus C Your memory for events depends on your ability to subvocally encode them D You are functionally blind in the period of time When the eyes are making a saccade from one location to another Schizophrenia McGhie unable to let normallyautomatic processes go on automatically Maybe unable to control attention selectively v Ordinary skills of living are disrupted Unilateral neglect 1 Parietal lobe damage failure to attend to one hemifield Blindsight V1 area damage but still some residual visual function If you would like to look at any of the demonstrations of inattention and change blindness you can nd a link on the Psych 315 web page under experimental demonstrations or you could go directly to httpViscogbeckmanuiucedudj slabdemoshtml Limited capacity or capacities Automaticity Effects of practice Task speci c capacities Response selector limits Pupil dilation effects Effects of cell phone usage when driving 7 fMRI measures more activity in brain area used for one task When done separately than When done With another task Nonautomaticity quotCell phone use during driving Quadruples accident rate 203 0 of all crashes occur during cell phone use But may not be causal just correlational URI study Eye movements while driving and using cell phone or doing other capacitydemanding tasks t University of Utah Canadian studies Respond e g brake to signal eg red light Remember the Stroop test Automatic processes don t take capacity Don39t interfere with other processes Automatic processes don t need intention Irresistable re ex Automatic processes arecan be unconscious You may be unaware of them 39 Highly practiced tasks may be automatic 9 Stroop task Experimental demonstration of the effects of practice on automaticity The Schneider and Shiffrin experiment Visual search task 14 target items in memory 1 4 items in Visual array Variable mapping different target items each trial Conscious search RT gets longer with more Visual items 7 Constant mapping same target items for hundreds of trials 39y Popout Parallel search automatic mmmm gt Targets Fixation Test stimuli presented point Are any of the targets here Spelke Hirst amp Neisser Writing to dictation reading stories Practice for 6 weeks 7 Learn channel segregation keep two tasks from intefering with each other Imagine capital F mentally walk around it classifying each corner as inside or outside Visually guided response for each corner point to I or O insideoutside in Visual array Linguistic response say inside or outside for each corner Which is harder Why As you work around the F decide whether the first corner is an INSIDE or an OUTSIDE and point to the I or the O on line 1 then do the same for the second corner on line 2 etc 1 O I 2 I O 3 O I 4 O I 5 O I 6 I O 7 I O 8 O I 9 O I 10 I O As you work around the F decide whether the first corner is an INSIDE or an OUTSIDE and point to the I or the O on line 1 then do the same for the second corner on line 2 etc 1 O I 2 I O 3 O I 4 O I 5 O I 6 I O 7 I O 8 O I 9 O I 10 I O As you work around the F decide whether the first corner is an INSIDE or an OUTSIDE and point to the I or the O on line 1 then do the same for the second corner on line 2 etc 1 O I 2 I O 3 O I 4 O I 5 O I 6 I O 7 I O 8 O I 9 O I 10 I O As you work around the F decide whether the first corner is an INSIDE or an OUTSIDE and point to the I or the O on line 1 then do the same for the second corner on line 2 etc 1 O I 2 I O 3 O I 4 O I 5 O I 6 I O 7 I O 8 O I 9 O I 10 I O Some individuals with damage to the parietal lobe are apparently unaware of one side of the world eg the left hemi eld This disorder is called A unilateral neglect B blindsight C split brain syndrome D visual agnosia Your lecturer described some recent research showing the attentional problems caused by cell phone use while driving and interpreted them in terms of A capacity limitation B overuse of the articulatory loop C attenuation theory D Broadbent39s lter theory


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