Intro to Phil of Religion
Intro to Phil of Religion PHIL 383
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Ms. Jada Ernser
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jada Ernser on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 383 at University of Massachusetts taught by Jeffrey Dunn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/232331/phil-383-university-of-massachusetts in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Handout 7 sz39l 383 309 Basie Belief in God Is Belief in God Basic I Set 1 I The basic beliefs I the evidence beliefs I I Set 2 I The nonbasic beliefs I the target beliefs I Cz rd39 Proportion your beliefs to the evidence We have a certain set of basic beliefs that form our evidence We then adjust all our nonbasic beliefs so that they are properly proportioned to our basic beliefs Pmml39 Consider the nonbasic belief God exists Even if your basic evidence beliefs don t support this it is in your interest to have that belief Planiz39nga The belief God exists can itselfbe a basic belief Belief in God is analogous to a perceptual belief or a belief recalled from memory I r Sufficient Warrant SX A belief is sufficiently warranted iff that belief has enough warrant to qualify as knowledge lmInediate Warrant lX The warrant for a beliefis imInediate iff that warrant is not received from another belief Trans fer Warrant TX The warrant for a beliefis transferred iff that warrant is not imInediate I Set 1 I The basic beliefs I TW not required for SW I Set 2 I The nonbasic beliefs I TW required for SW Foundationalism A view is foundationalist iff according to that view some beliefs receive imInediate SW and ii SW is transferred only if the transferring beliefis itself sufficiently warranted Strong Foundationalism SF A view is SF iff it is a foundationalist view and ii beliefs are basic iff they are self evident or incorrigible Argumeni imi awarding ie X F beliefs like 7 have hands are mi burl 1 lf l have hands is a basic belief then it is either selfievident or it is incorrigible 2 l have hands is not selfievident 3 l have hands is not incorri ible C1 Thus it is not the case that l have hands is selfievident or incorrigible Argumeni againxi 3F 1 If SF is true then beliefs in logical truths and beliefs about my current sensations are the only basic beliefs 2 No logical truths can warrant the belief that the earth has been around more than 5 minutes 3 No belief about my current sensations can warrant the belief that the earth has been around more than 5 minutes C1 Thus if SF is true then no basic belief can warrant the belief that the earth has been around more than 5 minutes Handout 7 sz39l 383 309 Bari Belief in God 4 lfno basic belief can warrant the belief that the earth has been around more than 5 minutes then the belief that the earth has been around more than 5 minutes is not warran e 5 The belief that the earth has been around more than 5 minutes is warranted C2 Thus SF is false Weak Foundationalism A view is WF iff it is a foundationalist view and ii basic beliefs need not be incorrigible or selfievident What kinds ofbeliefs are usually basic Beliefs based on perception Beliefs based on memory aprion39 beliefs 289 The gen ll Dim39ny39tqn39s Calvin s idea is that the working of the 53mm diw39m39iaiz39x is triggered or occasioned by a wide variety of circumstances including in particular some of the glories of nature the marvelous impressive beauty of the night sky the timeless roar of the surf that resonates deep within us the majestic grandeur of the mountains the North Cascades say as viewed from Whatcom Pass the ancient brooding presence of the Australian outback the roar of a great waterfall But it isn t only grandeur and majesty that counts he would say the same for the subtle play of sunlight on a field in spring or the dainty articulate beauty of a tiny ower or aspen leaves shimmering and dancing in the breeze Plantinga p 288 IOZI 2 What kinds ofbeliefs are basic for Plantinga Perceptual beliefs Memory beliefs aprion39 beliefs 53mm diw39m39iaiz39x beliefs Plantinga s View If we have a 53mm diviniialz39x then belief in God is a basic belief Thus it is sufficiently warranted even though it is based on no evidence An Evideniz39az39xiArgummi Aguimi B eliefIn God39 1 If there is insufficient evidence for belief in God then belief in God is irrational 2 There is in iif rient evidence for belief in God C Thus belief in God is irrational Handout 7 sz39l 383 309 B51522 Belief in God OhiFK tian 1 The Great Pumpkin Objection In the Charlie Brown comic strip The Great Pumpkin is a holiday figure comparable to Santa Claus or the Easter Bunny that seems to exist only in the imagination of Linus van Pelt Every year Linus sits in a pumpkin patch on Halloween night waiting for the Great Pumpkin to appear lnvariably the Great Pumpkin fails to appear and a humiliated but undefeated Linus vows to wait for him again the following Halloween The Greai Pumpkin Argumeni 1 lfbelief in God can be properly basic then belief in the Great Pumpkin can be properly basic 2 It s not the case that belief in the Great PuInpkin can be propeer basic C Thus belief in God cannot be properly basic Response to the GP objection 1 lfperceptual belief can be properly basic then belief in the Great Pumpkin can be properly basic 2 It s not the case that belief in the Great PuInpkin can be propeer basic C Thus perceptual belief cannot be properly basic 2 Atheistic Beliefs as Basic I Input I Output I Horrendous atrocities I Belief that God does not exist 3 The Problem of Defeaters Defmier 7 There are intelligent people who don t believe that God exists Martin Defmier 2 There are intelligent people who respond to the alleged inputs of the 53mm diviniiaim in a different way eg Buddhists and Hindus Hasker Defmier 3 There is a theory of the origin of theistic belief projection theories that could explain widespread theistic belief in absence of God Hasker Handout 7 sz39l 383 309 The Nature ofGod William Rowe The dominant idea of God in western civilization then is the idea ofa supremely good being creator ofbut separate from and independent of the world all7powerful omnipotent all7knowing omniscient eternal and self7existent 6 Note This God ispemomll Richard Dawkins One ofEinstein39s most eagerly quoted remarks is Science without religion is lame religion without science is blind But Einstein also said It was of course a lie what you read about my religious convictions a lie which is being systematically repeated I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as 3 our science can reveal it What uni es these attributes GUIDING PRINCIPLE God as the supreme being A supreme being i is at least the greatest being conceivable ii is maximally worthy of respect praise and admiration iii is perfect in every respect 7 has all the perfections Some Perfections 1 Maximal power 7 omnipotence P X is omnipotent df X can bring about any smte of affairs 2 Maximal knowledge 7 omniscience P Xis omniscient df for every true propositionp anowsp 3 Maximal goodness7 omnibenevolence P X is maximally good df X never does wrong X always chooses the best options X has all the moral virtues call these the Big Three Essentiality For any thing X and property F X has Fessentially df it is not possible for X to exist without having F Accidentality For any thing X and property F X has Faccidentally df it is possible for X to exist without having F Given our Guiding Principle the Big Three must be had essentially Handout 7 sz39l 383 309 The Nature ofGod More Perfections 4 Necessary Existence xeXists necessarily 09 it is not possible that X fail to eXist 5 Essential Eternality XiS eternal 09 at no time is it true to say X does not exist Two kinds ofeternality God is everlasting 7 God eXists at every time God is outside of time 7 God is atemporal Temporal predicates do not apply to God Still More Perfections 6 Creativity 7 lncorporeality 8 Simplicity 9 lmmutability 10 Omnipresence Working De nition of God XiS God df XiS the essentially omnipotent essentially omniscient essentially perfectly good necessarily existing essentially eternal creator of the universe
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