Introduction To Philosophy
Introduction To Philosophy PHIL 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jada Ernser on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 100 at University of Massachusetts taught by Fred Feldman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/232333/phil-100-university-of-massachusetts in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Philosophy lOOb Handout PT 4 Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2007 Ontological Arguments Dl X is God df X is the being than which none greater can be conceived D2 X exists in reality df X actually really in fact eXists D3 X exists in the intellect df someone thinks about conceives or imagines X Anselm 39s Ontological Axiom If X and y are alike in all respects eXcept that X eXists in reality and y eXists only in the intellect then X is greater than y An Interpretation of Anselm 39s Argument If God eXists only in the intellect then we can conceive of a being greater than God We cannot conceive of a being greater than God Therefore it s not the case that God eXists only in the intellect 12 MT Either God eXists in reality or God eXists only in the intellect Therefore God eXists in reality 34 DS 959 Gaunilo 39s Parody D4 X is Lost Isle df X is the island than whichnone greater can be conceived 1 If Lost Isle eXists only in the intellect then we can conceive of an island greater than Lost Isle 2 We cannot conceive of an island greater than Lost Isle 3 Therefore it s not the case that Lost Isle eXists only in the intellect l2 MT 4 Either Lost Isle eXists in reality or it eXists only in the intellect 5 Therefore Lost Isle eXists in reality 34 DS Philosophy 100A Handout Cl 2 Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2009 Arguments An argument is a sequence of sentences the last of which the conclusion is supposed to follow from the others the premises Some Sample Arguments A 1 The Bible says that God exists 2 If the Bible says that God exists then God exists 3 Therefore God exists P3 1 If the Bible says that God exists then God exists 2 The Bible says that God exists 3 Therefore God exists C 1 The Bible says that Porky Pig exists 2 If the Bible says that Porky Pig exists then Porky Pig exists 3 Therefore Porky Pig exists D 1 The Bible says that Porky Pig exists 2 The Bible is the word of God 3 Therefore Porky Pig exists D1 Argument A is valid df in Virtue of A39s logical form A39s conclusion must be true if A39s premises are all true D2 Argument A is sound df 1 A is valid and 2 all of A39s premises are true Some Common Valid Argument Forms Modus Ponens 1 P 1ifPthenQ 2 if P then Q 2 P 3 therefore Q 3 therefore Q Multiple Modus Ponens Modus Tollens 1 P 1 if P thenQ 2 if P then Q 2 not Q 3 if Q then R 3 therefore not P 4 therefore R