Intro to Phil of Religion
Intro to Phil of Religion PHIL 383
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jada Ernser on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 383 at University of Massachusetts taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/232339/phil-383-university-of-massachusetts in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
The Cosmological Argument Aquinas considers different versions of the cosmological argument from the origins ofmotion causation and necessity Here s an example Acquinas Causation 1 2 3 4 5 6 I exist There must be some sequence of causes for my existence This sequence of causes and effects must either be a an infinite chain of causes and effects or b be anchored in some uncaused cause There can be no infinite chain of causes and effects Therefore my existence is ultimately caused by some uncaused cause Therefore there must be an uncaused cause But why should we accept 4 And why should we think that this uncaused cause is God Reichenbach Explanation FWN 9 5 The universe exists The universe requires an explanation ofits existence This explanation is something other than the universe itself What explains the existence of the universe being must either be a only other contingent beings or b include a noncontingent necessary being Contingent beings alone cannot explain the existence of a contingent being Therefore what explains the existence of the universe being must include a noncontingent necessary being Therefore a necessary being exists Why believe Premise 2 Principle of Sufficient Reason PSR quotN othing exists without sufficient reason for why it exists and not something else Challenging the PSR 1 Maybe the universe quotjust is and requires no explanation Maybe the parts of the universe require explanation but not the whole But why should we say this when the universe itself seems contingent Maybe the origin of the universe the Big Bang is a kind of quantum event for which there is no explanation But this depends on how quantum physics actually works out The PSR is a claim about the complete intelligibility of the universe why should the universe cooperate quotWe have no right to assume that the universe will comply with out intellectual preferences Mackie p 2 25 Why should God be the sole exception to the PSR The Ontological Argument God df the being than which none greater can be conceived Anselm s argument 1 Assume for reductio that God does not exist 2 Therefore the being than which none greater can be conceived exists in the imagination alone 3 It is greater to exist in reality than in the imagination alone 4 We can conceive of God as existing 5 Therefore we can conceive of a greater being than the being than which none greater can be conceived viz a God who exists in reality 6 This is a contradiction We can t conceive of anything greater than the greatest being we can conceive of 7 Therefore God exists Gaunilo s argument 1 Assume for reductio that the perfect island does not exist 2 Therefore the island than which none greater can be conceived exists in the imagination alone 3 It is greater to exist in reality than in the imagination alone 4 We can conceive of the perfect island as existing 5 Therefore we can conceive of an island being than the island than which none greater can be conceived viz a perfect island that exists in reality 6 This is a contradiction We can t conceive of an island greater than the greatest island we can conceive of 7 Therefore the perfect island exists Modal ontological argument 1 It is greater to exist necessarily than contingently 2 It is possible that God exists 3 Therefore it is possible that it is necessary that God exists 4 If something is possibly necessary then it is necessary that God exists SS axiom 5 Therefore God necessarily exists 6 If something necessarily exists than it exists 7 Therefore God exists