Honors Colloquium CHEM 122
Honors Colloquium CHEM 122 CHEM 122
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Drew Flatley on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 122 at University of Massachusetts taught by David Adams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/232342/chem-122-university-of-massachusetts in Chemistry at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chem122H General Chemistry 1 Calorimetry Problems Guidelines COFFEE CUP CALORIMETER CONSTANT PRESSSURE The heat lost or liberated by one substance or reaction is absorbed by another We assume no heat loss to the surroundings Thus qlost qgained Since heat is generally lost from a hot object and absorbed by a cold object qhot qcold Although the quantities of heat are equal their signs are not To make the above equation algebraically equal we must place a negative sign in front of one of the expressions Thus 39qhot qcold mchmAT m4184AT if cold substance is water BOMB Calorimeter CONSTANT VOLUME Heat lost or liberated in combustion reaction Heat gained by calorimeter heat gained by water qlost qgained qrxn qbomb qwater As explained above 39 qrxn qbomb qwater 01 39 qrxn CbombAT T February 11 2008 L Adams CHEM122H Honors General Chemistry 2 Acid Strength and Molecular Structural Features Acid strength is an equilibrium phenomenon it is re ected in the equilibrium constant K3 the higher the K3 the stronger the acid Acid strength is in uenced by the relative stability of the acid and its conjugate base CB In most cases the strength of the acid increases as the stability of its conjugate base increases The more stable the CB the greater Ka and the stronger the acid Q stability is directly related to its ability to disperse its negative charge Binary Acids contain H and one other element eg HZS HCl Main structural features are bond strength important in same group and bond polarity or the electronegativity of X attached to H important in same period Group VII binary acids illustrate the role of bond strength m M w Lidionization constant a HF 19 565 74 x 10392 HCl 09 432 large HBr 08 366 large HI 07 299 large Where HIgtHBrgtHCl The period two hydrides illustrate the role of bond polarity m M w Lidionization constant a HF 19 565 74x10 2 HOH 14 463 18X103916 HNH2 09 391 103935 HCH3 04 413 103950 OXoacids Usually contain H O and one other element eg HOCl H2S04 The strength of 0Xoacids with the same central atom increases with increasing number of O atoms The strength of 0Xoacids with the same number of O atoms increases with increasing central atom electronegativity The chlorine containing 0Xoacids illustrate the role of increasing number of electronegative oxygen atoms Acid name Lid ionization constant Ea H OCl hypochlorous acid 35 X 10398 H OClO chlorous acid 10 X 10392 H OClOz chloric acid large H OClO3 perchloric acid very large The Group VII hypohalous acids illustrate the role of the electronegativity of the central atom nameacid ionization constant Ea H OCl hypochlorous acid 35 X 10398 H OBr hypobromous acid 20 X 10399 HOI hypoiodous acid 20 x 103911 CarbOXylic organic acids contain the carb0Xyl functional group COOH The strength of carb0Xylic acids increases with increasing electronegativity of the attached groups Acid nameacid ionization constant Ea CH3COOH acetic acid 185 X 10395 ClCHzCOOH chloroacetic acid 138 X 10393 ClzCHCOOH dichloroacetic acid 513 X 10392 Cl3CCOOH trichloroacetic acid 224 X 10391 FCHZCOOH uoroacetic acid 219X 10393 DL Adams March 31 2008 Batteries are simply voltaic cells that are packaged for convenient and safe usage They are key components in many familiar devices Although batteries are conceptually simple the development of new lightweight high energy density cells is a complex research area in the field of electrochemistry There are two39 general types of batteries 1 primary cells batteries that cannot be recharged by an external potential and current 2 secondarygells batteries that can be regenerated by applying a potential and passing a current in a direction reverse to that of the discharge In any battery the output voltage is determined by the two halfreactions that make of the cell Furthermore a battery may be rechargeable if the halfcell reactions are reversible gawk Chem Ela mm LLWManqqt Positive Insulating I electrode washer Zh JAM Cf Steel cover L eciq39h 6L 5 Ca Yax 561 Sand cushion h 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