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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Drew Flatley on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 at University of Massachusetts taught by David Adams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/232341/chem-111-university-of-massachusetts in Chemistry at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
CHEM 1 i I 639s 9 M CQW39J a l a gt 2 3 4 WCHES cIIlolllullitlnlllln 1 IIHJHHE x t lt quotE ITEMW Marsung WE MeaSMrcwen39f komrawi a5 1 H7 dad gh h kmw v Rouge WLWIL MW cev39f m39nH 3 stw ca di i39 Wf gwy measure VQQML 23I 1 0m Mow ZASO r 251 famedc D 3 0 ZI ZOD397 CHEMl 11 General Chemistry hos horus Z15 Only one naturally occurring isotope 3115P Isotopic mass 3097376 u This isotope has 15 protons and electrons and 16 neutrons Phosphorus has an atomic weight of 309738 u and molar mass M 3097 grams Phosphorus atoms gain three electrons to form a 3 anion as in P3quot This ion is isoelectronic same of electrons with the argon Ar atom Phosphorus also forms the phosphate P0437 polyatomic ion with oxygen White phosphorus is P4 This form of the element allotrope is stored in water with which it does not react It does however react with oxygen in air to form tetraphosphorus decoxide P4 502 9 P4010 Phosphorus was discovered in 1669 by Hennig Brandt at Hamburg Germany It is a key element in DNA ATP and Ca3PO42 in bone The average daily dietary intake is between 900 1200 mgday the RDA is 800 mg The chief ore is uoroapatite or Ca5PO43F Fluoroapatite is also found in tooth enamel treated with uoride containing vitamins or water There are vast deposits on calcium phosphate Ca3PO42 in the Earth s crust Phosphorus bombs consisting of burning phosphorus were used extensively in WWII the most widespread use in the city of Dresden Germany in July 1943 Phosphorus produces horrific burns that are very slow to heal Trisodium phosphate T SP was found after WWII to greatly enhance the cleaning power of detergents and found large scale use for this purpose TSP is still preferred today by painters and house cleaners Over the past twenty years this use has decreased because of the suspected role of P in environmental pollution due to algae blooms The Massachusetts Legislature has recently banned use of phosphorus in dishwater detergents beginning in July 2010 DL Adams September 19 2008 CHEMl 1 1 General Chemistry 1 ll Rules For Writing Lewis Electrondot Structures H Determine total number and number of pairs of valence electrons Remember to account for ionic charges 2 Arrange atoms in tentative structure a Atom with the lowest electronegativity or present in least quantity usually central b H is ALWAYS a peripheral atom c Most structures symmetrical Co Connect atoms in structure using single electronpair bonds 4 Complete octets of all peripheral atoms except H by adding non bonding electron pairs as needed Assign remaining electron pairs to the central atom 5 If the central atom has less than an octet shift nonbondin pairs from a peripheral atom to a bonding pair between the central atom and the peripheral atom thus making multiple bonds 1 If a central atom has an octet after step 4 structure correct 2 Ifa central atoms has 3 electron pairs 6 valence after step 4 double bond present 3 Ifa central atoms has 2 electron pairs 4 valence after step 4 E or 2 present 5 Insert all formal charges on atoms as appropriate Where Formal charge valence e s in isolated atom valence e s in bonded atom L Adams 6 April 2007 CHEM 111 ParticleWave Interpretation of electronic structure of the atom Electron as PARTICLE WAVE Proposing scientist Neils Bohr Victor deBroglieErwin Schrodiner Precision of known precisely uncertain probable location Electron location Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Description of ORBITS Principle Energy Levels ORBITALS n 1 m1 Electron location 11 volume elements ORBITAL A volume element in space where there is a gt 90quot of locating an electron Schrodinger Eguation solution is the wave function I where 1 2 electron density which may range from 0 to 1 To solve the Schrodinger Equation requires the imposition of three restrictions these are the three quantum numbers n I m A set of three quantum number uniquely describes a solution to the Schrodinger Equation and also uniquely describes one orbital