Honors General Chemistry
Honors General Chemistry CHEM 121
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Drew Flatley on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 121 at University of Massachusetts taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/232357/chem-121-university-of-massachusetts in Chemistry at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Matter Revisited Metal NonMetal Ionic Coordination Compounds Compounds Metal Metal NonMetal NonMetal Covalent Compounds Atomic Substances Honors General Chemistry 1 SUMMARY OF ORBITAL HYBRIDIZATION RULES Hybridization is a phenomenon where individual atomic orbitals associated with the same atom undergo quotmixingquot to yield new or hybrid orbitals During the hybridization process the following are true 1 The number of hybrid orbitals produced equals the number of atomic orbitals mixed For example one quotsquot orbital and 2 quotpquot orbitals yield three hybrid orbitals after hybridization 2 Hybrid orbitals are given symbols and are named according to the number and type of atomic orbitals that go into the hybridization process For example when one quotsquot orbital and two quotpquot orbitals undergo hybridization the resulting three hybrid orbitals are called quotsp2quot hybrid orbitals 4 Hybrid orbitals of the same type such as sp3 have the same shape 5 Hybrid orbitals are strongly directional They are oriented in speci c spatial directions around the atomic nucleus to be as far apart as possible For example the four sp3 hybrid orbitals form a tetrahedron In general the type of hybridization used by a speci c atom in a molecule or ion can be predicted by determining the number of attachments to the atom in question An attachment is de ned as a bonded atom regardless ofthe number of bonds to it or a non bonding pair of electrons not involved in resonance Note there are exceptions to this rule for many situations however this simple rule applies Attachments H Kbridizatitm Shage 3 octahedral dzsp trigonal bipyramid 90 120 tetrahedral 109 50 trigonal planar 1200 linear 1800 DL Adams 26 October 2007 The 25 and the three 2p orbitals on a C atom Orbital hybridization gt Molecular model CH4 Hybridization produces 4 new orbitals the hybrid orbitals that have an energy that is the average at the s and p atomic orbitals tnmmm 397 Four overlapped sp3 orbitals J ENRG Orbital reresentation Each C H bond uses one C atom hybrid orbital and at H atom 1 s orbital H 65 ii methane sp3 carbon sp3 carbon sp3 sp3 sigma bond H V 1096quot xch H lt154 A91 H H p orbitals 7 bond 39 039 bond 39 7r bond ap2 orbitals spa carbon spa carbon Carbon carbon double bond Almost Top view Side view 9 Overlapping unhybridized c sp2 2p orbltals hybrld orbitals a bond H 1 s orbitals c c or bond p orbitals 9 sp orbitals p orbitals LosA 1803 H CEC H H 120 A Carboncarbon triple bond oOEOo C H sp hybridized C 1 bond atom H 15 HCECH orbital c c 11 bond 2 One c c 039 bond Two 00 1 bonds 180 0 O 2 Linear 6 Octoaohedral Figure 3 12 Electron pairs on a sphere FOUR ELECTRON PAIRS Electron Pair Geometry tetrahedral 10950 1075quot 105 Methane CH4 Ammonia NH3 Water H20 4 bond pairs 3 bond pairs 2 bond pairs no lone pairs 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs FIVE ELECTRON PAIRS Electron Pair Geometry trigonal bipyramid mwmwm PF5 5F4 cu3 xer 5 bond pairs 4 bond pairs 3 bond pairs quot 2 bond pairs 39 No lone pairs 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs 3 lane pairs Six ELECTRON PAIRS Electron Pair Geometry octahedral xumruuv l l qpsm pm ul 39r39i 11ir39ru39rsvgiamzi SFs BrF5 6 bond pairs 5 bond pairs 1 No lone pairs 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs Honors General Chemistry 1 1 AXZ 2 AX3 3 AXZE 4 AX4 5 AX3E 6 AXZEZ 7 AX5 8 AX4E 9 AX3E2 10 AX2E3 11AX5 12 AXSE 13 AX4E2 14 AX7 15 AX5E L Adams October 16 2007 Total Electron Pairs 2 7 7 Hybrid Orbitals Used dzsp3 dzsp3 dzsp3 d3sp3 d3sp3 trigonal planar trigonal planar tetrahedral tetrahedral tetrahedral trigonal bipyramid trigonal bipyramid trigonal bipyramid trigonal bipyramid octahedral octahedral octahedral pentagonal bipyramid pentagonal bipyramid Bond Angle s 1 180 120 115 10950 107 105 90 120 87 116 87 180 90 180 88 90 90 72 180 89 71 178 Electronpair Geome and Molecular Shape Molecular Shape linear trigonal planar bent Vshaped tetrahedral trigonal pyramid bent Vshaped trigonal bipyramid seesaw Tshaped linear octahedral square pyramid square planar pentagonal bipyramid regular IF6 octahedral Example s BeClz BF3 N02 CH4 BHa39 NH3 H2 0 PF5 SF4 C1F3 Xer Cle39 SF5 IFS XeF4 C1F439 IF7
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