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Gen Chem Non

by: Dr. Drew Flatley

Gen Chem Non CHEM 101

Dr. Drew Flatley
GPA 3.96


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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Drew Flatley on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Massachusetts taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/232362/chem-101-university-of-massachusetts in Chemistry at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chem Test 1 Study Guide 2142011 114100 PM CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMICAL VIEW OF MA I I ER Matter Can Be Transformed by Nature and Man Mechanically turn wood into a bat Chemically burn wood into water and C02 react acids and alcohols to make polyesters Physically freeze water into ice pressurize carbon into diamond soften spaghetti by boiling it in water Matter Must be Explored at Different Scales to Understand It Macroscopic large enough to be seen felt handled Microscopic must be viewed with the aid of a microscope Nanoscopic of great interests to chemists on the order of a billionth of a meter includes instruments that can manipulate individual atoms The States of Matter The 3 Common States gas liquid solid The 4th State plasma found in flames the outer atmosphere and stars Like a gas with ionized atoms that can conduct electricity and respond to magnetic fields Elemental Matter Most materials we come in contact with are complex mixtures Only occasionally do we encounter elements not combines with some else An example is helium or mercury Elemental matter can not be separated or broken down into something different Elemental matter has unique and consistent set of properties by which it can be identified Pure Substances Elements composed of a single type of atom Compounds composed of different atoms bonded together in the same way molecule pure water for example Compounds can be broken down into their individual elements Mixtures o Heterogeneous their nonuniform composition is visible like chocolate chip cookies or rocks where you can see different crystals o Homogeneous solutions composition is uniform and can be gases liquids or solids like soda air brass copper and zinc Purification by Separation o Individual constituents in a mixture can be purified by various separation techniques usually based on taking advantage of the different physical properties of the constituents such as filtration distillation crystallization etc Changes in Matter o Physical Change doesn t change the identity of the material Examples include changing water into steam with heat or changing charcoal into diamond with pressure o Chemical Change changes the identity of the material usually by a reaction like burning fuel to form water and carbon dioxide or iron reacting with oxygen to form rust or iron oxide o Physical and Chemical Changes usually occur with a change in energy The Importance of Studying Pure Substances o Can improve their performance and extend their utility in a useful way For example many plant natural remedies exist By purifying the components of plant extracts we can identify the pure substance responsible understand its biological properties and create similar substances with greater efficacy and better safety The Structure of Matter Explains Its Properties o Water is solid at 32 degrees F while propane gas used for grilling at tail gate events is a gas o Why Water molecules have a strong affinity for one another propane molecules do not This affinity is known as hydrogen bonding Density Graphite and diamond are both made from pure carbon but their atomic structure is different leading to very different physical properties Common units for mass are grams 9 kilograms Kg pounds lb and tons Common units for volume are cubic centimeters cm3 liters L and milliliters mL Density is mass per unit of volume Simple equations expressing the relationship between these properties are 0 Density MassVolume 0 Volume MassDensity mL 0 Mass Density x Volume example gmL x mL 9 example gmL example ggml 99XmI1 The Chemical Elements Recall that elements can t be broken down further They are made from atoms of the same type The names of the elements can be found on the Periodic Table About 18 of these elements have not been found in nature but have been prepared in labs in very small quantities Properties of Elements The properties of the elements stem from the structure and composition of their atoms Under every day conditions most elements are solids Some like hydrogen helium nitrogen oxygen and chlorine are gases Only two mercury and bromine are liquids The metals are generally shiny and conduct electricity The non metals are not lustrous and do not conduct electricity the more familiar of which include the elemental gases carbon sulfur phosphorus and iodine Elements That are Diatomic o Atoms in some nonmetal elements bond to one another to form twoatom molecules They are called diatomic molecules and include o H2hydrogen 02oxygen N2nitrogen o Cl2chlorine F2fluorine Br2bromine Iziodine Using Symbols to Represent Formulas c There are two notations o Use symbols and subscripts which are called molecular formulas 0 H20 0r C02 o Use symbols and lines which are called structural formulas o H O H or OCO Organic Compounds o In chemistry compounds which are called organic compounds whether they are natural or man made o Carbon especially likes to bond with hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur o Carbon likes to have 4 bonds or lines hydrogen 1 oxygen and sulfur 2 nitrogen 3 and phosphorus 5 Matter Transformation c We use formulas in chemical equations to describe reactions or the transformation of matter o You can write equations with either molecular or structural formulas or both o You can add s for solid I for liquid 9 for gas aq for aqueous but it is optional o Equations must also be balanced CHAPTER 3 ATOMS amp THE PERIODIC TABLE ATOMIC STRUCTURE o Why do atoms bond o Because they can t get no satisfaction c To get satisfaction they share electrons Not any electron can be shared only certain ones Only the Nobel or inert gases are satisfied and have little need to share electrons Satisfaction Electron Sharing or Bonding and Lines Electrons occupy space around the nucleus in orbitals The first orbital allows only 2 electrons The second orbital allows 8 electrons Orbitals like to be filled to be satisfied Hydrogen has 1 electron but would like another so two hydrogen atoms get together and share their electrons so that each atom thinks it has 2 electrons in its first orbital Oxygen is satisfied with 2 electrons in its first orbital but only has 6 in its second orbital It would like 2 more in its second orbital If hydrogen is around then 2 hydrogens and one oxygen can share electrons so that each hydrogen thinks it has 2 electrons in its first orbital and the oxygen thinks it has 8 electrons in its second orbital Overarching Concept History The properties of matter stem from its structure at the atomic and molecular level The manner in which electrons are arranged within the atom play a key role in both the chemical and physical properties 400 BC Leucippus and Democritis argued that there was a limit to the divisibility of matter against the current paradigm Democritis used the Greek work atmos which means uncuttable to describe the ultimate particles of matter 1776 Antoine Lavoisier shows there is no net change in mass following a chemical reaction and calls this the law of conservation of matter 1790 Louis Proust discovered that when compounds are purified they always contain the same elements in the same ratio by mass Specifically that copper carbonate no matter how prepared always had 5 parts copper 4 parts oxygen and one part carbon This was called the law of definite proportions o 1803 John Dalton proposes his atomic theory based on quantitative experiments and the work of Lavoisier and Proust o All matter is made of atoms which are indivisible and indestructible o All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties and different elements have different masses and properties 0 Compounds form when atoms of different elements combine in ratios of small whole numbers 0 Elements and compounds posses a definite arrangements that when rearranged results in chemical change Structure of the Atom o The atom is composed of many different types of subatomic particles Over 60 different types of subatomic particles are known but only 3 are important in current chemistry protons neutrons and electrons Protons and neutrons reside in the core of nucleus of the atom Electrons are found outside the nucleus occupying what we call orbitals or shells Protons and electrons are charged and have the same quantity of charge but the proton is positive and the electron negative o Neutrons have no charge o Protons and neutrons have about the same weight 0 1 atomic mass unit o An electron weighs 1800 times less than a proton or neutron o Early on how these subatomic particles in the atom were arranged was unknown The atom was thought to be a uniform sphere of protons within which electrons circulated in rings and the existence of neutrons was unknown Radioactivity o 1880 Henri Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity in uranium and radium containing ores 1898 Pierre and Marie Curie discovered two radioactive elements radium a d polonium 1899 Marie Curie suggests that radioactive elements emit unusual rays and disintegrate by a phenomenon she called radioactivity A given radioactive element gives off the same type of radioactive particles or rays regardless of whether it is in the pure elemental state or combines with other atoms in compounds About 25 elements exist only in radioactive forms Curie noted that radioactivity was a contradiction to Dalton law of atomic indivisibility Curie and others show that 3 types of radiation can be emitted 0 Alpha particles which are helium atoms that have lost 2 electrons and therefore carry a 2 charge 0 Beta particles which are high energy electrons carrying a 1 charge 0 Gamma rays which carry no charge and have no detectable mass thus behaving like light Not mentioned in Chapter 3 is the fact that other types of radiation exist of which an important one is neutron radiation Neutrons can be used to bombard elements to form new isotopes that in turn emit alpha beta andor gamma radiation Neutron radiation has many uses such as in material analysis imaging medicine forensics and even art authentication Radiation Helps Reveal the Structure of the Atom 1909 Ernest Rutherford bombards gold foil with alpha particles which resulted in mapping out the structure of the atom and showing that the diameter of the atom is about 100000 times greater than the nucleus The Atom The atom is neutral It has no net charge The number of negatively charged electrons around the nucleus equals the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus Atoms are small ranging in diameter from o 1 x 10398 cm to 5 x 10398 cm o Nuclei are extremely dense A matchbox full of atomic nuclei would weigh 25 billion tons More Definitions and Notations o Atomic Number the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Each element has a different atomic number o Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Atomic Mass amp Weight o Atomic mass is relative We know that oxygen has 8 protons and 8 neutrons for a mass of 16 while hydrogen only has 1 proton for a mass of 1 Relative to hydrogen oxygen s mass is 16 times greater c We fix masses by assigning the carbon12 isotope an exact mass of 12 o Atomic mass is found below the element symbol in the periodic table Basic Rules for filling electron energy levels shells and orbitals subshells Each energy level or shell can hold 2n2 electrons There are 7 energy levels numbered 1 through 7 The total number of electrons in the energy levels is as follows Energy level 2n2 total electrons 1 212 2 2 222 4 3 232 18 4 244 32 And so forth Energy levels have subshells or orbitals There are four orbitals s p d f The first energy level has only one orbital s The second energy level and those higher have 2 orbitals s and p The third energy level and those higher have 3 orbitals s p and d The fourth energy level and higher have 4 orbitals s p d and f The maximum number of electrons these orbitals can hold is as follows s2 p2 d10 f14 The highest energy level can not hold more than 8 electrons So you get to element number 18 Argon Ar it has 2 electrons in 1s 2 electrons in 2s 6 electrons in 2p 2 electrons in 35 and 6 electrons in 3p for a total of 18 electrons and a configuration of 8 electrons in the highest energy level which is number 3 Now you go to the next element which is 19 or Potassium K Remember the third energy level has s p and d orbitals so if you were to put the 19th electron in 3d orbital the third energy level would have a total of 9 electrons in it This is forbidden because the highest energy level can not have more than 8 electrons So rather than place the next electron in the 3d orbital it is placed in the s orbital of the 4th energy level or 45 and 3d is left empty Now the highest energy level has only 1 electron which is OK Now you go to element 20 which is Calcium Ca It s 20th electron also goes in 45 45 is an s orbital which can only hold 2 electrons The 45 orbital is now full The electrons of elements 21 through 30 now go into the 3d orbital which can hold a total of 10 electrons Now remember that 35 and 3d are full with 8 electrons But adding more electrons to 3d is OK because there are 2 electrons in 4s and since 4 is the highest energy level and it has less than 8 electrons adding electrons to 3d to bring the total number of electrons in the third energy level to be more than 8 is perfectly OK Why are Line Spectra Produced Line spectra are produced when excited electrons release energy and return to their normal state The energy levels between the excited states and normal or ground states are said to be quantized as opposed to unquantized or smeared or continuous Bohr s Atom In 1913 Bohr used a solar system like model of the atom and using math predicted the wavelength of the lines in the hydrogen line spectrum Later actual measurements were found to agree with Bohr s calculations and the concepts of quantum number and energy levels was validated Bohr received the Nobel prize for this work A fixed number of electrons occupy any one level or shell namely 2n2 where n is the number of the energy level The highest energy level can have no more than 8 electrons excpt for the transition elements which are limited to 2 Maximum Number Energy Level 1 Zn of Electrons 1 21 2 2 221 3 3 23 18 4 242 32 5 251 50 6 261 72 rSchrodinger39S Atom Thinking oteiectrons are oarticies revoiving around tne nucieus iike oianets revoive around tne sun nas iirnitations Better to thka ot eiectrons as Waves Witn a probabiiitv ofoccupving a certain area otsoace around tne nucieus Eacn sneii is composed oforbitais or suosneiis eacn otwnicn can have oniv 2 eiectrons The suosneiis are narned s o rThe Modern Period Tabie Eiernents arranged or atornic number so tnat eiernents Witn sirniiar enernicai and phvsicai orooerties taii togetner in verticai coiurnns caiied groups The first 2 and iast 6 groups are caiied rnain grouo eiernents The rniddie 10 groups are caiied transition eiernents The bottom two rows are tne inner transition eiernents The norizontai rows are caiied oeriods The oeriods reoresent tne order in Wnicn eiectron orbitais are tried periods are not tne sarne iengtn because tne different orbitais noid a different number oteiectrons The d orbitais are being FiHed in tne transition eiernents The f orbitals are being filled in the innertransition elements Most elements are metals elements in groups 12 the transition and innertransition series and some elements in groups 13 to 16 Metals are malleable and can be stretched They have luster and conduct electricity and heat 18 are nonmetals hydrogen the noble gases and some in groups 14 to 17 They lack luster and are poor conductors of electricity and heat They are used as insulators 6 are metalloids the staircase between the metals and non metals in groups 13 to 16 Like metals the have luster They are semiconductors The noble gases in group 18 are nonreactive or inert Periodic Trends Down the Periods GN Lewis proposes that the reactivity of elements depends on the number of their valence electrons Lewis adopts the use of symbols with surrounding dots to represent the elements with their valence electrons Elements in the main groups have the same number of valence electrons and similar properties and reactivity Periodic Trends Across the Periods Left to right metallic 9 nonmetallic Lower left elements Cs are most metallic Upper right elements F are most nonmetallic Atomic radii increases down the periods Atomic radii decreases across periods despite adding electrons because protons are also increasing which pull the electrons closer to the nucleus The further the valence electrons are from the nucleus the easier it is to take them away or give them up bonding When valence electrons are removed from the metals then remaining atoms contains more protons than electrons and carries a positive charge We call these positive ions Nonmetals are smaller making it hard to remove their electrons and easier to accept them When nonmetals accept electrons we have negative ions Properties of Main Group Elements Group 1 are called the alkali metals Alkali ashes of burned plants Lustrous and soft Not found as pure elements in nature because they readily react with nonmetals Form 1 ions or cations Group 2 elements and called alkaline earths They are harder more dense and melt at higher temperatures than the alkali metals Less reactive than the alkali metals All react with oxygen to form metal oxides Form 2 ions Group 17 elements are called halogens from the Greek word meaning salt producing They are diatomic and react with metals to form salts as in the earlier slide Their boiling point increases going down the period fluorine is a gas bromine a liquid iodine a solid They readily accept an electron to form 1 ions or anions Group 18 elements are called noble gases They are called noble because they do not react with common elements They are monoatomic elements that are gases at room temperature CHAPTER 5 CHEMICAL BONDING Types of Bonds There are two types of bonds Ionic Bond valence electron from a metal is donated to a non metal Covalent bond sharing of valence electrons by two nonmetals o Both types of bonds satisfy the octet rule That is to pretend to be noble and have 8 electrons in their highest energy level Electronegativity o The tendency to bond depends on the atom s electronegativity EN o Atoms of high EN attract or accept electrons o EN ranges from 08 for Cs to 40 for F o Atoms of low EN prefer to donate electrons and are called electropositive o EN increases across periods and decreases down groups c When the difference in EN between 2 bonded atoms is great the bond is said to be ionic c When the difference in EN is small the bond is said to be covalent o Group 1 alkali metals and Group 17 halogens elements ready bond together because the difference in their EN is great 0 NaCl EN of Na 09 EN of CI 32 n AEN 23 a When AEN equal to or larger than 2 the bond is considered ionic Ionic Bonds o Compounds with ionic bonds are called ionic compounds Structure of Ionic Compounds o The simplest ratio of oppositely charged ions that gives a neutral unit is called a formula unit such as NaCl or CaCl2 o Ionic crystals are made from a large number of formula units that fit together or pack into a 3D crystalline lattice Properties o Atoms and their corresponding ions have very different properties o Na is soft lustrous and readily reacts with water but NaA has no color and is soluble in water o Brz is a red liquid but Br has no color and conducts electricity Cl2 is a greenyellow poisonous gas but Cl has no color and is not poisonous Naming Binary Ionic Compounds The positive ion is named first using its elemental name The negative ion is named second by altering its elemental name to end in ide Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing Transition Elements Some transition element ions can have more than once charge For example Iron can be Fe2 or Fe3 Roman numerals are used in the name to specify the metal s charge Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are two or more elements combines with a charge Most polyatomics are negative The ammonium cation NH4 is the exception and has a positive charge Covalent Bonds Most compounds are not ionic Most compounds share electrons by covalent bonds and are called molecules Molecular Shape We need to think in 3D Remember like charges repel one another Electrons are all negative and therefore like to repel one another for elbow room Valence electrons whether bonded or as lone pairs will repel one another to give molecules their 3D shape If all the valence electrons of an atom are involved in bonding then they will repel one another to an equal degree to obtain the maximum distance away from each other Valence electrons that are not involved in bonding ie lone pairs repel bonded pair electrons a little more rIntermolecular We k v Ltfme Molecule Bonds Pairs f CH4 4 o Fo c po disturbance of their valence electron densities which 639 m E m neral Strength polar covalent lt 3 1 ttraction a of Intermolecular Forces nonrpolar covalent ionic L39 handy I Electron Angle Molecular Pair I b degrees Geometry 39Geometry 1095 tetrahedral tetrahedral 107 trigunal tetrahedral pyramidal 1045 bent tetrahedral ntermolecularforces exist between molecules that affect rt v required to pull two another is only about 1 of methane rary is uneven lt Inte molecular forces govern the states of matter 2142011 114100 PM 2142011 114100 PM


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