Honors Colloquium CHEM 122
Honors Colloquium CHEM 122 CHEM 122
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Drew Flatley on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 122 at University of Massachusetts taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see /class/232358/chem-122-university-of-massachusetts in Chemistry at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Atomic Structure 22 An atom of Fe has two 43 electrons and six 3d electrons How many unpaired electrons would there be in the Fe ion A one B two C three D four 23 Which of these species isarc paramagnetic Ti Fe2 Zn A Fe2 only B Znquot only C Ti4 and Fe only D Fe and Zn only 24 Which of these electron diagrams could represent the ground state of the p valence electrons of carbon A E B T L C T D T T 25 The existence of discrete quantized energy levels in an atom may be inferred from A experiments on the photoelectric effect B diffraction of electrons by crystals C X ray diffraction by crystals D atomic line spectra 26 Which emission line in the hydrogen spectrum occurs at the highest frequency A 1123 9112 B n4 gtn2 C n7 n5 D n10 gtn8 27 Which set of quantum numbers is correct and consistent with n 439 A 3 m 3 mA2y2 B 4 m2 mA 12 C I 2 m 3 m D l 3 m 2 3 my 2 1 28 When an atom of an electropositive atom becomes an ion it A gains electrons B becomes larger C emits an alpha particle D does none of these 29 The orbitals of 2p electrons are often represented as being A elliptical B tetrahedral C dumbbell shaped D spherical 30 Helium gHe has two electrons in the 15 orbital When it becomes singly ionized forming He A its spectrum resembles that of the hydrogen spectrum B the remaining electron is easier to remove C the nuclear charge has decreased by one D it has lost one atomic mass unit Descriptive Chemistry Periodicity 20 2 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 The radii of the tons in this series decrease because lon Ionic Radii NM 0095 nm Mgquot 0065 nm Al H050 nm A the elements are In the same P Tlntl B the effective nuclear charge is increasing C the atomic radius of Na decreases from Na to A D the first ionization energies increase from Na to Al The species 7 Ne and Nnquot all have the same number ol electrons Which is the predicted order when they are arranng in order ol decreasing SIZC largest first A F gt Ne gtNa B NC gt Na gtF C Na gtF gtNe D F gtNa39 gtNe Which isoelectronic ion is the s39mar exl39 A AI R Na39 C n D 03 What happens when a bromine atom becomes a bromide ion A A posilive ion is formed B The bromine nucleus acquires a negative charge C The bromide ion is larger than the bromine atom D The atomic number of bromine is decreased by one Which ion has the largest radiusl A er B Fquot C K D Cu3 Which of these elements has the highest electronegativity A oxygen B iodine C cesium D lithium Which element is more electronegative than arsenic and less eleetronegative than sulfur A chlorine B phosphorus C tin D oxygen List the eiements Ca Si and K in order of lllr 39 1s39illg electronegatirity A Ca ltK ltSi B K ltSi lt Ca C Si lt Ca lt K D K lt Ca ltSi Which pair of elements is listed in order 0 decreasing first ionization energy A Na Mg B Mg A C Al Si D Si P 100 Molecular Structure and Bonding 21 22 23 24 25 26 The fact that PttNH zClg exists in IWo different isomeric forms offers evidence that the geometry is t A octahedral B C tetrahedral D l square planar trigonal planar Which species has both covalent and ionic bonds A NHBF B no c NaKS D MgtCNil When the carbon carbon bonds in ethane CH ethene CZHJL and benzene 1H are arranged in order of increasing length shortest bonds first it what is the correct order A Cth lt C23HJ lt C H B C ChH6 lt CIH4 lt C2H D czui lt CjH lt chrt CgHJ lt CH6 lt Cth These two electron dot formulas for carbon dioxide both satisfy the octet rule but one is preferred over the other Which of the statements identifies the preferred structure and also the reason it is preferred oco ozzco Structure 1 Structure 2 A Structure 1 is preferred because the triple bond is stronger than the double bond 13 Structure 1 is preferred because the formal charge on carbon is negative C Structure 2 is preferred because the formal charge on each atom is zero D Structure 2 is preferred because the bonds are equal Which element is most likely to form a triple bond A Pb B F C N D S 3 It H Which is an isomer of H E O Cf lfrH L7 H H H w t it t m t r HE gg O H H Cf O V H H H H C t if D If H H C OClI H H C1 i H H H H H H u 1 quot 3 y P 9 c N o A 3 4 4 H1 g mnplc m n unmmmd kmmn m cmmhn 4 hquot 110 muhmuhw 39l h1 vnnmnund w A1 C0 B CH C NHx ID Hgt0 A39013m39n uumhcr cquuh the number m A1 huvnu m nus muh ul ulums HI huhrule m we nmh n1 0 CD nmrhlcs In W mule nl39mm hlex D all I lhc ahm39c Thu number ur mum n hm g M39Mummum n lhc mm as he numhm39 uf mm m LA N 1 gul mugnesmm 1B 9 I g M39magncslum C I l g nl39nmgnesinm D IX 5 ol39nmgnesxum Agting1c mr eculcul n ucrmmcumpmmu hm 11 nmwoflJX h g wmmvmuc comes c1nseltm the muss ul39u mole m Ihix chmpmmcl A ngmol39 BI mum I0 150gnnl 4D ZUUg mnlquot Formula Molar Mass mm mm or KCIO wm pmdm 4w g m mvgcn g 011 lht dccnmpm lmn1KCIO in L nmplcm 1225 gvmol A M 1m 45 m 1125 D 350 What IS Ihe mnxxmum may of uhxmmum chhmdc Formula Molar Mass mar could be xhuuncd hnm you nwl u39h1rlux 7 a m 4 cmmujs mm mm ahnnmumgtuHaIequotTlnx1Ihc Bag quot8 r quotW halanx39cd cqnmiou rm 1 mum Al 1333 3quot A1450 BnCI A 31mm ZAICI 1A 50 g LB 80 C 534 1 134 g A xcHumluincd Hiulhmg xpparmm um pmaxgxum mpcmidu K0 In cnmCIl he mm dioxide and mum In exhach Au mm Mygcm a thvn by lhn cunlmn 39 2H0ac 4KHCOHH My me many moleculm ol axygen gm will he pmduccd from he 00468 g of urhon dmxidc that 15 mm m a 13pm mmm39 A 4 x hf m u ltUquotquot 1C 35 x In D 19 x10 A lmxlmc wnlmnmg l HIHI Mr F and 4 mm Uf 5 xx wowed w 1cm 39I39hu equnuon Icpmems lhc rcacrmn lhul hm plat 1F 5 SF How mun mulc or F rcwrun after 3 mnl ny huvL reacted w 1 1 3 CI 1 D U when LW 3 m a mmtlu mud n reduced wuh mew hdmgcn J 054 g or he muml lt pmducr 39hul w th memlhc nudc AI A330 3 CuVO 0 K51 m T120 How many mum of ier react X ilh 175 mm of oxyguh um The equuhon lnr he renclmn 4 4Fe4r1 gom A I mol B 75 mnl C 213 lnul DI lt25 mnl 28 States of 11 The graph shows how the vapm39prcsxure 01 a ltqutd changes ith lcmpemlurc Sclact the chmcc that be lnLlICalelt the Llcutce nl correctness or tltts statement quot7779 mm boiling ml1f oftw liquid 5 78 r Vapor l rcwurL mm Hg A The statement ls true B The sLuIcment is probabl true uddmonal data would be HECtlcd t39nra futul dcttsion CI The ututcment 1x probably false additional data would be uecdcd for a mtl decision D The slntemcnt ts false 12 Wlut t t lhc molar mu m an idea gut il a O 622 g mmple ofthts gm nurupies u wlume 0300 mL at 15 39C and 789 mm Hg A 448 gmttlquot B 489 gmnl CI 505 g nml DI 545 gmol 39 13 which set at tempcn um and 11lele condttmns will came a g4 IO exhtbtt the greatest dcvmtmn from ttlmt galt hcmvtmt A NO rC and 4 illlquot B 00 quotC39 and 2 atm Ct 400 39C and 4 tttnt 10 l C and 2 mm J4 A SUI mL gas sample is Ollected mu water at a IN meE 140 M 25 T pxcmtrc 01 710 mlnllg an J 39 hat ISI elum or m dry k Is at STP STP 1 atm and 1 39CJ 3 quotquotHE 739 Z 239 w W 4024gtlt 98 11 500x 740 4 760 27 760 39 7 t7quot 7 0 suox quot O x m 5th 0 740 Zl 298 7H 24 15 which lingmm I eprcacnls the most concentrated solution7 repretemt u mlute partiulc md a represents a water molecule I 11 III IV A I ll n to tn D IV39 Energetics 20 cm H N 1 u 3 21 N Equot 26 w What IS the emhulpy change for thts reaction Compound 1mm COClm an enthalpy chatth fur lhts rc 1307 mochw a 25cm 3Com U36 lhc gncn heats wt lormatton to calculate thc action SS 9 k A 694 H 1B 354 0 k C DI 73917 kl L39smg the givcn Ihcrmuchemtcal dam what N quot I this reaclinn 2CHOHm 019 gt HCIH OyVv 2H5 Compnund AHK kJ mnIquot A 583 k B 513 kJ Hgm A 2g rmt a Hg m ZAgm 1A A 5 RJ B 40 kl t For whtch at these prncesses Is the vuhm 0 AS expected tn he ncgutnc ugar ts dtssolved in wutert IL Steam ts mdcnscd mt C uCOz is decompmed mm Cut and CO A Ian 1 lund III uni C II only D II and III tml Hvr whtch pm is the enlropy chng per mulc the largest at constant tenmctuturu A HIGH 1011 In H 4amp0 C H20 Hpm m qum A H30 In wlnch process h enth demented My JJSSDIY Inf sugar in xatcr Ht cxpanding a gas Cl evapmuug a un to net1mg taler thn a quid exaporata whtch is two ubutll the signs m the enthalpy and clumpy changes At AH H pnsilitc AS is postttve 3 AH 15 postnve AS 1 ncgtttixu C JHt 1fguli 35is positive ID AHL negatth AS H nt gatnc A funicular chemtcnl rcuction M u negatn39e AH and it ncg tlhc AS Which Mdlemem N correctquot 1A Thc renulwn n spontaneous at tttl tcmpcralurm B The reaction is nonspuntuncous M all tentpet39uturca C The reaction hcuamcs Spontaneuux m lCTnpchurt increases In Tue rcm lttm hummus spontanenu v tcmpmuurc Alcct cmm Dynamics 21L ll 22 23 24 7 A uuulm murmurs hc MC 01 u Icucuon h A Chungmg lhc maulmnmn ohm rmumn B morcasmg he aclnalwn energy It 1 rwdmn 1C mvmumg lhc mnccnlmnm M nnu nr mwu nt39 th39 prudLth 1D dccmmng the difference m n lullw an39Ig ol hr mmmus Lmd plmlum Conmdur lhc rcuuwn Cljnq 115 4 Sm v ZHRW m W The raw equanon Ior Khlsreaunon 1 mm L 01 um Winch uf39 Lhcsc mcdmmsrm I5 mr am cunxmcm mm Hm mtg cqmuvn l CL H a H 1 4 1 HS 139 HS gtH39 1 S nimm mm II 115 H 115 AM cthhnunn CIHS 2CVH39 9 Mkml 1A CD lonlv B Hun Bmh I and 11 DD Ncuhcr 1 ur II A ucrlzun rmclmn hm A All 5 H 4nd un Lumullnn cucugv M W H r alulyl 1 Immd lhal lumen th Acllmuun cnc m the mnmrd rcacunn h 15 H Whul us mu wuumnn cncrgy 011GC mum rcaculm m he pr cncc 0f this same melpl A 25 k B 60 H 00 1D IOOkJ Whm ls he xelanmvshvp beween me equlhhruun consmm mg m a rcacunn and 1h vme covmnnm rm he mnmrd A and rcvexse Ag reacnunc M f Auk B Cu 1quot17 Du K I k It the halan 01 a rcacuon I ndcpcndcm m wnu39nlrulmn lhc mman um he order n ltecnnd m39dex 7cm rm ex A I and 11 only In I and 111 mm m Innly rm n unl lmual rah dam 101 he rcacunn 39 Ewcnmcm H4 mij Rum m 1 2H o Clausa zncm I H mm 1 n mo M 2 5 x10 uc gncn m hemble mm mhe 2 quot030 003 M l 5 K W 39 rxucluwtmIhmreaumn 3 won M mm M 3 x m 4 HHISO M 00010 M 0 lt X10 L w xulcH39H Bu mmzurw 3 I39 1Iek H D1 vulcMH3HCH ISO 0 39lmt lt III cum flcmm mg mm SU11quotanmemind u cqutlthnum l hc mucntmttun 01 SO tissrcmca man than Ihk lit nlmllvn n O A m Ht mucuntruuun HI 50 mambo ntntc than tlw mm mlmnmt nr 0 C THC mncunlmunn ISO and O temmn quotII mm D Thr LOIIL EIHrMIOH M 80 And 0 dcvruzm squall 4 Comidur um mum ummt viz n rtmmm mnpmtura and Uhlnh39 mu PC t w CL How L39le the pmtmn m ctlttthhttttm 1m thts t mtttmt be hlIclt1tgtlWt gl1t39 A nddttmn m u txtmyt B mmwut out A0 udd ttmn nt39 tm mm gas at mnsmm Hlul C tDJ renth m PH 15 39utmdct mt rcnctmn heat JSU trC u SC quothtl Lhu aill an an increase In the prenmc I39 SO uhcn tkllllhl lun ilt rsrmnhlhht d At IncrL ASm g r39ne mutton mmpcmlun B lecrehlng tht ulumc ur HIC cuntatner to I uddlng mmc mum Case m rcmtt mg mmt of me Cam l6 tn mm r39 m would rm IIC39ChC m prcwurt ttt unnunnt tutttpemlute Itutc nu cilutjl n the minute Anmtmh of the substances pmme tn the cquthhnum mmurel AH uhxtunuux trc M L39 A 2 39OO2N0hcut B ham N92NO tC 39Z 1 ZNHR Item 1 1CD O 3 1C0 heat 17 The HleCrK39u t umc vl the cqutlthrtmn tnnstmtt for any chemical ultungc l tmt lt d by chmtgmg the IA nulurc nl39 1h mtult ctmccmmlinn t the products 1C he prt xxurt D the tctttpcmturc 116 01th carbmt and pax cnux turth dumdu atc played m t L39Ik39hftl wan and tlltttxed to some t equthhrtum M a high tcmpumturu acntrdmg m mts equatmn Cu K hml gt H lhc prcxsttrc on the schm 1 illL TtLhL d And the temperature kept A nsluul hut ull be the resultquot 1ttttmttuntui CO mll tttcrcase anI Ihul nl i and 31 ml Jccrmsc LU m The amount at CO in dL L I k v and tltal NT and 0 mil HLI C 2 t The mmuul or such ul 11C t39 subgtztnrugt WI tncrcnsc DJ The MHOUHI t each of the thIcc mhxtunt m rtll dunquot Electrochemistry and Redox 10 Balance this ionic equation for a redox reaction using only whole number coefficients MnO utl Fezhuq H3Ouq gt anWaq chvuq H20I What is the coefficient for Fe2 in the balanced equation A 1 B 3 C 4 D 5 11 When this oxidation reduction equation is balanced in acidic solution using only whole number coefficients what is the coefficient for Sm C307Ltuq sthzq gt CTU SLY A 4 B 3 C 2 D l 12 Which of these ions is the best Standard Reduction Potentials E reducing agent F63uq e gt Fezwuq 077 V CU2H 67 gt CUI1I 015 V A Fe B Fe C Cu D or 13 A quantity of a powdered mixture of Standard Reduction Potentials E zinc and iron is added to a solution 16 qu ee pehmq 177 V containing Fe2 and Zn2 ions each at F 2 2 F 0 44 V unit activity What reaction will occur CW 1 e w Cm 39 anmq 287 Zn 076 V A Zinc ions will oxidize Fe to Fe B Fe2 ions will be oxidized to Fe3 ions C Zinc ions will be reduced to Zinc metal D Zinc metal will reduce Fe ions 14 Two metals are represented by the Standard Reduction Potentials E symbols L and Z Which is the best LBW 26 L 076 V 7 oxtdizmg agent listed 217114 87 Zm 080 V A L B L C 2 D Z 15 Which combination of reactants will Standard Reduction Potentials E produce the greatest voltage based on Cuyuq gt Cum 052 V 1 7 these standard electrode potentials thmq 287 thmq 0 1 5 V Cr3aq 87 CFHMQ 04l V A Cu and Sn2 B or and Cr C Cu and Sn D Sn and Cr 16 What is the standard electrode Standard Reduction Potentials E potential for a voltaic cell constructed Crhmq 3879 CM 74 V in the appropriate way from these two Coqu 26 COW OI28 V half cells A l 02 V B 046 V C 064 V D 102 V 17 What is the standard cell potential E Standard Reduction Potentials E0 01 his reaCllO Mn2uq 2e gt Mm 1 l 8 V 3M0 ZAUCl mI gt AuCl uq 39 Aum 4Cl aq 100 V 3Mnluq 2Aur 8Cluq A 018 V B 28V C 28V D 554V 86 Chapter 7 Spontaneous Processes and Thermodynamic Equilibrium Equations Summary A Second Law Review statements summarized on web page Entropy S a measure of disorder Energy Temperature dqu d8 T ASUniverse Assystem Assurmundings gt 0 Direction of spontaneous change B Third Law lim Spure crystalline substance 0 T7 0 K The entropy disorder of a pure crystalline substance goes to zero at zero Kelvin There is an absolute zero for the entropy of a substance NOT TRUE FOR ENERGY Can define Absolute Entropy for any substance at given temperature Get from heat capacity vs temperature measurements Compare S0 solid liquid gas and as temperature increases O Physical Changes HeatC001 substance AS nCplnTzT1 Phase Change Asphase Athase Tphase Equilibrium process if done at temperature of phase change NOTE NOT STANDARD TEMPERATURE HEAT CAPACITY INDEPENDENT OF TEMP Compare Asphase for melting boiling subliming U Chemical Reaction ASOrxn Z n Soproducts Z n Soreactants Standard Absolute Entropies listed in thermodynamic tables 1 Surroundings Assummndings 7 AH T CONSTANTPRESSUREAND TEMPERATURE F Gibbs Free Energy Derived energy from Second Law G E H 7 TS Asuniverse Assystem Assurmundings Assystem from C or D above Asmvme AS 7 AHT gt 0 Multiply through by 7T iTASumverse AH 7 TAS AG GIBBS FREE ENERGY ASsurroundings AHT SPONTANEOUS CONSTANT T amp P Tells direction of spontaneous change at constant T amp P We can show that AG Wn0nexpansion Energy available to do nonexpansion work Chapter 7 7 Equation Summary Page 2 AG AH 7 TAS GIBBS HELMHOLTZ EQUATION AG lt 0 SPONTANEOUS AG 0 EQUILIBRIUM AG gt 0 NOTSPONTANEOUSgt SPONTANEOUS REVERSE DIRECTION F Standard Gibbs Free Energy of reaction AGorxn From Standard Gibbs Free Energies of Formation AGOrxn Z n AG0fpr0ducts Z n AG0freactants From Standard Enthalpies of Formation and Standard Absolute Entropies AGquotrxn AHOM TASOrxn Tells how far toward products the system is at equilibrium AGorxn lt 0 PRODUCT FAVORED SPONTANEOUS UNDER STANDARD STATE CONDITIONS AGorxn gt 0 REACTANT FA VORED NOT SPONTANEOUS UNDER STANDARD STATE CONDITIONS G Interpreting AG 2 AH 7 TAS CONSTANT TEMP ampPRESSURE AH lt 0 Exothermic Favorable why Enthalpy driven AS gt 0 Favorable why Entropy driven Angas gt 0 or more mixed up products Four Cases Case AG AH iTAS Interpretation ALL TEMPS SPONTANEOUS ALL TEMPS LOW TEMP SPONTANEOUS AT LOW TEMP HIGH TEMP LOW TEMP SPONTANEOUS AT HIGH TEMP HIGH TEMP 4 ALL TEMPS NOT SPONTANEOUS ANY TEMP MUST BE DRIVEN BY EXTERNAL INFLUENCE For cases 2 amp 3 Temperature at which AG changes sign AG 0 T AH AS assuming AH and AS are independent OfT Chapter 6 Thermodynamics The First Law Equations Summary A First Law Review Statements summarized on web page I ntermll Energy U Derived energy Enthulpy H ANYSYSTEM AU AUsummwlings H E U PV ISOLATED SYSTEM AU 0 AH AU APV CLOSED SYSTEM AU q w FOR PRESSURE VOLUME WORK ONLY w 7 l Pexth AT CONSTANT FRESSURE w 713mm AT CONSTANTPRESSURE APV PAV AT CONSTANT VOLUME W 0 AUq0q AHAUPAV q iPAV PAV q AU qV AH lp HEATABSORBED OR RELEASED AT CONSTANT VOLUME HEAT ABSORBED OR RELEASEDAT CONSTANT PRESSURE B Heat or Cool Substance q CAT m Cs AT n Cn AT C calorimetry qpmcess qwater qcalorimeter MEASURE HEAT FLOW FOR CHEMICAL REACTION OR PHYSICAL CHANGE TRANSFER TO SOMETHING EASY TO MEASURE a CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE IN WATER HEAT LOST BY CHANGE HEAT GAINED BY WATER AND CALORIMETER I BOMB CALORIMETER CONSTANT VOLUME q qv AU qcalmmem large I quotCOFFEE CUP CALORIMETER CONSTANT PRESSURE q qp AH qcalmmeter man D Phase Change q n Athase CONSTANTPRESSURE TEMPERATURE CONSTANT gt Avg KE constant PE changes AH ision ltlt AHvaporization lt AHsublimation Sketch a general heating curve Label Show how to calculate q for each step E Calculating Standard Enthalpy 0f Reaction Review def Smndard state standardformation reaction BASED ON HESS39S LAW FROM STANDARD ENTHALPIES OF FORMATION AHOrxn Z ni AHO products 2 nj AH0freactants FROM BOND ENERGIES AHOrxn z Z n BEreactants 2 nj BEproducts Em BREAK E0 MAKE If BE reactants gt products If BE reactants lt products Sketch a reaction coordinate diagram endo exothermic Label
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