Human Anatomy&Physiology I
Human Anatomy&Physiology I ZOOL 251
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alycia Langworth on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOOL 251 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Ann Gathers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/232367/zool-251-the-university-of-tennessee-martin in Animal Science at The University of Tennessee - Martin.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chapter 5 topics Compare and contrast catabolic and anabolic reactions Compare and contrast endergonic and exergonic reactions Compare and contrast hydrolysis and condensation Compare and contrast degradative and biosynthetic Define metabolism Define potential energy Define kinetic energy Define activation energy for a chemical reaction Define AG for a chemical reaction What are enzymes What are substrates How do enzymes affect the activation energy What effect do enzymes have on the rate of a reaction or activity What effect do enzymes have on the AG ofa chemical reaction What effect does increasing temperature have on a chemical reaction without an enzyme present and in the presence of an enzyme Draw a graph illustrating the effect of temperature on the reaction rate or activity At high temperatures what effect accounts for the observed change in activity or reaction rate What are cofactors What are the two types of cofactors Provide examples What effect does increasing substrate concentration have on a chemical reaction without an enzymes present and in the presence of an enzyme Draw a graph illustrating the effect of substrate concentration on the reaction rate or activity At high substrate concentrations what effect accounts for the change in activity or reaction rate What are inhibitors What are the two types of inhibitors What effect does each inhibitor have on enzyme activity and how does each accomplish this effect ie where does each bind Describe feedback inhibition what does it do How does it work What inhibitors are needed Why is it important What is ATP and why is it important What specific reaction is used to produce ATP from ADP What are the two mechanisms for the production ofATP discussed and in which pathways or reactions do we find each What are two differences between respiration and fermentation Define oxidation Define reduction I really want you to understand the relationship between oxidation and reduction reactions and be able to tell me what is being reduced and what is being oxidized for glycolysis krebs cycle electron transport and fermentation Is NAD to NADH a reduction or oxidation How can you tell Is NADH to NAD a reduction or oxidation How can you tell What does energy conservation refer to in relationship to the production or NADH during glycolysis and krebs cycle What are the three componentspathways needed for aerobic respiration In what order do they occur What occurs during glycolysis Per 1 glucose what are the exact number of products How much ATP was consumed and how much ATP was produced during glycolysis What is the net gain in ATP from 1 glucose during glycolysis What mechanism was used to produce ATP during glycolsysis Is glucose oxidized or reduced during glycolysis What is reducedoxidized when glucose is reducedoxidized Compare the EntnerDoudoroff pathway to glycolsysis What is the purpose of the pentose phosphate pathway What occurs during the krebs cycle Per 1 glucose what are the exact number of products What is the net gain in ATP from 1 glucose during the krebs cycle excluding any ATP made during glycolsysis What is being reduced during the krebs cycle and what is being oxidized The electron transport system accomplishes two things One of these is something called cofactor regeneration What does this term mean The electron transport system accomplishes two things One of these is the production of ATP How many ATP are produced from electron transport from 1 glucose excluding any ATP produced during glycolysis and krebs cycle How many ATP are produced from 1 NADH How many ATP are produced from 1 FADHZ What enzyme is responsible for the actual synthesis ofATP from electron transport What happens during electron transport What is oxidized and what is reduced How are protons involved in this process Where are the protons going during electron transport and during ATP production Compare aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation in terms of relative ATP production Define heterotroph Define autotroph Define chemotroph Define phototroph What purpose does the fermentation of pyruvate have What are the two most common types of fermentations and what are the exact number ofproducts per 1 glucose What is the net ATP production from the overall fermentation process from 1 glucose How is the catabolic breakdown of lipids and proteins related to the utilization of glucose How is the biosynthesis of macromolecules related to the catabolic breakdown of glucose Chapter 8 topics What is the product of replication What is being used to make the product of replication What are the products of transcription What is the function for each transcription product What is being used to make the product of transcription What is the product of translation What is being used to make the product of transcription Compare and contrast replication and transcription The addition ofnew nucleotides to the growing nucleic acid strand happens at which end of the molecule during replication and transcription What are the steps involved in the replication process Why is replication said to be a semiconservative process Compare and contrast the leading and lagging strands during the replication process What is a gene What is a promoter and what is a terminator What is a codon Compare sense and IIOIISCIISC COClOIIS How is the genetic code redundant What structures are used in the translation process List the three sites inside a ribosome and brie y describe what each one is involved in What are the types of frameshift mutations and what are their effects What are the types of substitution mutations and what are their effects Chapter 6 topics Per cell dry weight how much carbon nitrogen sulfur and phosphorus is present What are sources of carbon What are the three ways that microbes can gain nitrogen Define obligate aerobe Define facultative anaerobe Define microaerophile Define obligate anaerobe Define aerotolerant anaerobe What kinds of environments would each be able to grow and what kind of metabolism might they use Write out the chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzyme superoxide dismutase Write out the chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzymes catalase What is a candle jar used for Define psychrophile Define mesophile Define thermophile Why are mesophiles and psychrotrophs important for human considerations Which types of microorganisms like neutral pH and which like acidic pH If a solution is hypertonic what is its solute concentration relative to the cell cytoplasm Which direction will water move when a cell is in a hypertonic environment What effect does this have on a cell with and without a cell wall List any specific names associated with this phenomenon Ifa solution is hypotonic what is its solute concentration relative to the cell cytoplasm Which direction will water move when a cell is in a hypotonic environment What effect does this have on a cell with and without a cell wall List any specific names associated with this phenomenon Define halophile Define inoculum Define aspectic techniques Compare and contrast broth medium to agar medium What are the two main reasons why agar is a good solidifying agent Compare and contrast compleX and chemicallydefined media which one would you expect to allow faster growth Compare and contrast selective and differential media What are some examples and selective differential and complex media used in lab What is the purpose of the streak plate method What is the purpose of the spread plate and pour plate methods Compare and contrast spread plate pour plate and the filtration method for counting microbes Define binary fission What does exponential growth refer to Define turbidity and what is it a measure of What is a generation and what is generation time What are the four phases of the growth curve Draw a graph illustrating a typical growth curve What happens during each phase of the growth curve Compare and contrast Viable and nonViable cells What is a spectrophotometer used for Calculate the cell concentration for a plating experiment Is spread plating pour plating and filtration plating counting Viable cells nonViable cells or both When using a spectrophotomer to obtain a single turbidity measurement are you counting the Viable cells nonViable cells or both Calculate number of generations when given a starting cell number and an ending cell number Calculate the ending cell number when given a starting cell number and the number of generations What type of microbes is MPN used to identify What does MPN stand for Is MPN counting the Viable cells nonViable cells or both In direct microscopic cell counting are you counting the Viable cells the nonViable cells or both Chapter 7 topics Define sterilization Define disinfection Compare disinfectants and antiseptics Compare and contrast bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal How are you able to determine if an antimicrobial agent is either bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal What does a 1log reduction in cell concentration mean What does a 2log reduction in cell concentration mean What does a 3log reduction in cell concentration mean When Lysol commercials say that it is 999 effective what does this mean What would 90 and 99 effective mean What four things will affect how well antimicrobial agents work Describe the process of filtration as an antimicrobial method What things are typically made microbefree using filtration Describe the process of using osmotic pressure as an antimicrobial method Describe the process of using desiccation as an antimicrobial method Describe the process of using dry heat as an antimicrobial method Which physical methods are antimicrobial due to protein denaturation effects Which chemical methods are antimicrobial due to protein denaturation effects Which physical methods are antimicrobial due to DNA damaging effects What is the specific damage or means of damage caused by the physical methods listed above Describe the effectiveness of the physical methods listed above Which chemical methods are antimicrobial due to DNA damaging effects Which physical methods are antimicrobial due to membrane disruptiondamage Which chemical methods are antimicrobial due to membrane disruptiondamage Describe the antimicrobial action of soap and detergents Identify two common five food preservatives mentioned in lecture Describe the disk diffusion method setup What specifically is being measured using the disk diffusion method What information is gained from the disk diffusion method Comment ofthe relative resistance to antimicrobial methods by the following groups endospores mycobacteria gram negative bacteria gram positive bacteria