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Gen Bacteriology

by: Quincy Little

Gen Bacteriology MBIO 251

Quincy Little

GPA 3.64

Matthew Pritchett

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Matthew Pritchett
Class Notes
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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quincy Little on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MBIO 251 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Matthew Pritchett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/232378/mbio-251-the-university-of-tennessee-martin in Microbiology at The University of Tennessee - Martin.

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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Atomic structure Bonding and importance of electrons 39 Four macromolecules Why study chemisi39ry Life is chemistry Chemical reactions drive life Microbes make energy using chemical reactions Microbes reproduce and divide using chemical reactions Knowing chemical reactions Control regulate and prevent the growth of microorganisms Certain enzymes and chemical reactions can be used in identification No39rur39e39s complexity Cells are The smallest unit of life Cells are made of molecules There are four important macromolecules Molecules are made of atoms An atom has three subatomic particles Electron shells Proton p Nucleus new a Electron 91 0 0 Figure 21 STRUCTURAL MOLECULAR DIAGRAM 0F ATOMIC STRUCTURE FORMULA FORMULA 9 gt or H H Hz T Hydrogen atom Hydrogen atom Hydrogen molecule a 0 39 0 wquot c 1 H c H CH4 1 I O H G Carbon atom Hydrogen atoms Methane molecule 1 Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Inc pubHshing as Benjamin Cummings Importance of protons There are 92 naturally occurring elemen39l39s Unique atomic number for each element Number of protons i mm mmfma unnumwmm mum manhunmm nun amumnmmm Mum Ewan an mum nhumnmmm nhum umuuuMmm quothum umumqucg Mun uVuNanTam m nnmh unuhnmmm an mmuvnmmu yuan 4ampummmussmum 1Hsnnm uman Importance of Neutrons Most elements have isotopes Same number of protons Different mostly more number of neutrons Common isotopes Of carbon 126 136 14C radioactive Of iodine 1271 1251 radioactive 1311 and 1331 radioactive Importance of Electrons Basis for bonding Elements join together for stability Basis for chemical reactions Reactions break and form bonds Why do elements bond together Electrons surround nucleus in shells 2 in first shell 8 in second shell 8 in third shell Full valence shell or orbital is most stable Valence refers to the outermost shell Getting a full shell Different bond formation strategies Lose 3 or less electrons Gain 3 or more electrons Share 2 electrons The number of electrons in the outer orbital affects the bonding type Types of Bonds Ionic bond mostly for salts Electrons are transferred Combination of ions have a charge Positive cation gt lost electrons Negative anion gt gained electrons Sodium ion Chloride ion Sodium chloride molecule Na Cl l Na Cl M NaCI Copyright 2007 Peaisan Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Bonds a lame band Elegirans am iransfg md Covalent bond Stronger Than ionic bonds Electrons are shared Shared electrons orbit The nuclei of both a roms Types of Bonds 39 Ionic band electrons transferred Covalent band electrons shared Hydrogen bond Electrons are not shared or Transferred Partial positivepartial negative interaction About hydrogen bonds Weakest easily formed and broken Serves to strengthen and stabilize large molecules Usually present in high amounts Found in many biologically important compounds in cells DNA RNA proteins etc Hydrogen bonding is a consequence of electronegativity Polar covalent bonding Unequal sharing of electrons due to electronegativity differences O gt C and O gt H NgtCandNgtH I CH ltin quot Electronegativity 3 Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Inc pubhshing as Benjamin Cummm s Tendency to attract electrons Hydrogen bonding A partial negative oxygen or nitrogen counterbalances a partial positive hydrogen 9 Hydrogen 9 bond b Inorganic compounds Water One of the most important and abundant molecules in biological systems Water is a polar molecule Uneven charge distribution Slightly negative oxygen atom Slightly positive hydrogen atoms Water is an excellent solvent Nonpolar hydrophobic do not dissolve Polar hydrophilic substances dissolve dissociate or separate Cations and anions become the solutes D KEY Chloride ion 3 Sodium ion dissolved in water Sodium ion 3quot Oxygen 4 Sodium chloride crystal Hydrogen b Chloride ion dissolved in water Water is involved in many chemical reactions as a product or reactant Key reactant in digestive processes Important source of hydrogen and oxygen CHZOH CHZOH H HOCH2 o H a Dehydration H H 0 H HOCH2 o H Ho 75 H Ho jCHZOH 5W HO OH H OWHZOH H20 H OH OH H M Hydw39ySis H 0H OH H Glucose H20 Fructose Sucrose Water C6H1205 CBH1205 c121422011 7 20m Pearson Education inc Water is an excellent temperature buffer Have to break hydrogen bonds to get individual water molecules to move Takes a great deal of heat to increase water temperature More easily maintains a constant temperature Water dissociates into H and OH39 Ionization dissociation Basis of pH scale is H concentration NaOH NaCl a Acid b Base 0 Salt Copyrlgmazum FearsnnE umlon Inc pH scale Stomach acid pH scale 2 Lemon juice 3 Grapefruit juice H concentration 4 Tomato iuice 10 fold difference in H concentration corresponds to a pH change of 1 6 Urine Milk 7 Pure water Human blood Seawater Milk of magnesia Household ammonia Household bleach Oven cleaner 14 Limewater Basic solution cupyngm mam Pearson Enumimm inc Buffers pH fluctuates as living organisms Take up nutrients Carry out chemical reactions Excrete wastes Buffers maintain pH Bicarbonate is a common example Organic Compounds Contain carbon hydrogen oxygen Carbon bonds are very important for life Chain of carbon atoms called a carbon skeleton Functional groups Specific groups commonly involved in reactions Responsible for characteristic chemical properties Amino carboxyl carbonyl phosphate sulfhydryl hydroxyl Properties of carbon Four electrons in its outer shell Form straight chains branched chains and rings Carbon chainsrings form the basis of many organic compounds in living cells Examples DNA proteins vitamins sugars Four important macromolecules Carbohydrates Nucleic acids Lipids Proteins CHEOH CHZOH O H HOCH2 o H ta Dehydration H H H HOCH2 o H HO 3 CHZOH e HO O CHZOH H20 H OH 5 OH H M Hydm39ys39s H OH OH H Glucose H20 Fructose Sucrose Water CSH1205 C5H120 S c12quotI22011 Copyngm 2an Pearson Educalxon me ISOMERS Same chemical formula Different structurearrangement Simple isomers are shown above using glucose and fructose Carbohydrates Large organic compounds Sugars starch Used in a number of imporfam molecules Have the basic formula of CHZOrl Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Simple sugars Glucose is The main energysupplying molecule Disaccharides Two Mal rose beer sugar glucose glucose Sucrose Table sugar glucose fruc rose Lac rose milk sugar glucose galac rose Types of Carbohydrates Polysocchorides Formed of many monosocchor39ides Usually insoluble and not sweef Storage molecules Glycogen starch S39rr39uc39rurol molecules Peptidoglycon cellulose chitin Structural polysaccharides are linear straight rigid not easily broken down Family snands men by 39WWDQEquot band Storage polysaccharides are helical flexible easily broken down Paa el swarms lumen Dy mmgen was tquot 9 3 3196 n 90 3913 391 quotp 7 39 522mm v V I Unbvancned helix l avnenmwlm mamas miner Dy pepuao bands NWVIEW on w Highly branched helices Lipids Essential for membrane structure and function Are mostly nonpolar and insoluble Can be used as energy storage Three types Fats Glycerol 12 or 3 fatty acids Energy storage molecule Have a nonpolar tail region hydrophobic Monoglyceride 1 FA quot2ng Diglyceride 2 FA Triglyceride 3 FA nliviiviHHHHHl r 2 n l n l n l r l l l 7 n l 9 I 1 n l o l A m Fauy acid palmilic acid C snmcoon 20 a Glycerol Ester linkage itquotl l39 39Tl39Wlf39l l39l39l39M OFCK 3K I fiei iitfitfit H Palmllic acid C SHS CODH H20 HHHHHHHHHHHHHHH quotM Ed OHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH Hlllllllllllllllll lllllllllllllllll E d quot20 HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH Salumled o H H H H H H H H aisconliguraliun u I l l I l y l l o crcrcicicicrcicwer l l l I i I i 0 H H H H H H H C I 7 Iy c I cMoleculeorial riglyueride Ir 1 1 A 2 a y 5 1y Uleic acid cancooH H O unsmurmed Phospholipids Glycerol 2 fatty acids 1 phosphate Major plasma membrane component Have a polar head region hydrophilic Have a nonpolar rail region hydrophobic Precursor to several hormones Steroids Structurally different from other lipids Distinctive Fourring structure Important plasma membrane component Cholesterol inserts between FA chains Affects membrane fluidity and permeability H3C Proteins Most diverse in terms of shapes Cells are 50 protein Proteins function as Enzymes Transport Communication Protection etc Amino Acids Building blocks of proteins cen rral carbon alpha carbon carboxyl group amino group R group side chain There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids The R group is different for all amino acids Stereoisomer s Mirror Occasionally found in nature Peptidoglycan Lamino acid Damino acid Found in proteins Left hand I Right hand E ucalnn inc CupynghiEEam Peavson a i Peptide bond links two amino acids joins carboxyl of one to the amino of another Peptide bond H H i H l H O H 4 I 0 HR o Ha I 1 l 0 m c c u C c gt l llFCCNCC H20 iHn I Qmi I OH 1 OH H CH3 39 H CH3 Glycine K Alanine Glycylalanine Water H20 a dipeptide Joining of 2 to make 1 building up Water is released as a product Condensation reaction Other uses for amino acids Metabolized for energy Converted into needed biomolecules Serotonin controls a lot of things like anger appetite etc Levels of Protein Structure Primary amino acid sequence Secondary localized folding Tertiary overall 3D shape Quaternary combine 2 or more proteins Primary protein structure The amino acid sequence Starts at the amino N terminus Ends at the carboxyl C terminus a Primary structure polypeptide strand Cowright mum Feavsun Educaivun Inn Secondary s rr39uc rur39es Hydrogen bonding between backbone Two Types Alpha Helices BetaPleated shee39l39s Hydrogen bond C O H e N 1 Secondary suuclure heix and pleated sheets with three polypeptide strands Helix Pleated sheet Copynghl mam Pierson Educanon nu Tertiary structure Bonding between R groups Overall 3dimensional structure Hydrophobic interaction Polypeptide strand c Tertiary structure lolded helix and pleated sheet Disulfide bridge between cysteine mo ecu es 0 i t ll CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 NH quotO C CH2 ionic bond Details of bonds associated with tertiary structure Copyngnl 2010 Peavsen Education in Quaternary structure two or more polypeptidesproteins in a single unit Bacterial RNAP Archaeal RNAP Eukaryal RNAP ll Watson and Crick Nucleic Acids Structure of DNA Avery MacLeod and McCarty Genes encoded in DNA ch 8 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid Nitrogencontaining bases 0 N H l H H Cytosine C Uracil U Py n dhes B NANHZ H Guanine G Adenine A Purines Figure 41 Biological Science Zle 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc RNA Ribose Uracil Single stranded OH OH Ribose Figure 41 h Biological Science 2e DNA Deoxyr39ibose Thymine Double stranded Deoxyribose 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc


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