Gen Bacteriology MBIO 251
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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quincy Little on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MBIO 251 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Michael Kempf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/232379/mbio-251-the-university-of-tennessee-martin in Microbiology at The University of Tennessee - Martin.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Ch 5 Microbial Metabolism 1 What is metabolism 2 What are the mechanisms and factors that influence enzymes 3 How is energy ATP produced in microbial cells 4 What are the inputs and outputs of glycolysis Krebs cycle electron transport chain and fermentation How much ATP is produced in each process Ch 5 Microbial Metabolism 5 What are the similarities and differences between aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation 6 What are the catabolic processes for lipids and proteins 7 How are catabolic and anabolic processes linked in the cell 8 How are microbes classified based on their carbon and energy sources Microbial metabolism Catabolism provides building blocks amp energy for anabolism Simple molecules such as glucose 123 amino acids glycerol and fatty acids ATP Anabolic reactions transfer energy from ATP to complex molecules Catabolic reactions transfer energy from complex molecules ADP i Complex molecules such as starch Heal proteins and lipids fenBased Enzymes Reaction wilhoul enzyme Biological catalysts Increase rate of reaction not speed 1 Lowers activation energy Not permanently altered Reaction wilh enzyme 7 Ranclnnl lnilial energy level Specific active site 1 substrate per enzyme 3D structure Final energy level uaseu Model of enzyme activity Enzym esubstrate complex Temporary Active complex site Subetrate 7 0 0 a Enzyme Enzymersubslrate complex Substrate in active site quotTransformquot 0 b t t v su s rarer Products 9 o a Enz ready yme Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity Cellular controls Synthesis How much enzyme present in cell Activity How active is present enzyme Factors influencing enzyme activity Substrate concentration Active sites filled max activity Not saturated under normal cell i conditions E II Subslrals concdnlrllion 439 k l2 cnnnenlmllnn wm increases umil the active sites on all e enzyme mnheculus are 1mm ai h pain he maximum r 90f reaction is reached Factors influencing enzyme activity Temperature Break hydrogen bonds denaturation Lose structure lose function a r E 75 a 2 i E a u ui w 15 20 25 an 35 40 45 so Temleralure 39G a3939empav m The enzymatic inactivated Al inis paint the reaction vale iaiia steeply Factors influencing enzyme activity I Acids and bases H OH disrupt ionic bonds and H bonds denaturation Lose structure lose function a 1 3 5 a u E gt n w b pH The enzyme illustrated is most active ataboul pH 50 Competitive inhibitors I N39o mgl Binding action 0 w h Compete for actlve a u strata mme n ms I Competil39 S Ite Substrate quot quot 39 Shapestructure similar to substrate Noncompetitive inhibitors Do not compete for active site Allosteric inhibition Poisons Narmai aiming Action 0 at Subslmlc Enzyme Inhibitors Altered Substrate 3 SIKE Nun competitive APSE inhibitor 539 e F Feedback inhibition quotEndproduct inhibition Substrate MW Stop cell from wasting resources paman Making product does not need Endproduct of pathway stops pathway Allosteric inhibition of 1st enzyme quotShut down assembly line by stopping first workerquot 2mm 3 Endmound Energy production overview ATP energy carrier Oxidationreduction phosnms O O 0 ATP generation Highenergy V pnos phate bonds Adenosine triphosphate OxidationReduction Reactions Oxidation Reduction Removal of electrons Gain of electrons Reduction A oxidized B reduced 1 Oxidation Oxidation dehydrogenation Oxidation remove e Reduction gain e Dehydrogenation Hydrogenation Loss of H ampe39 Gain H Lose H Reduction HH 5x Jlti N L 39J a momma IQ Q J x 1 x x H Organic molecule NAD coenzyme Oxidized NADH H prolon that inc udes electron carrier organic reducw elech on molecu 9 carrier atoms H Oxidation Oxidationreduction LEO GER OIL RIG Oxidation produce E Photosynthesis Lose 939 6C02 6H20 9 C6H1206 602 Dehydrogenation Gain oxygen CO2 reduced to glucose Water oxidized to 2 Oxidationreduction LEO GER OIL RIG 0 Reduction require E Respiration Gain e39 C6H1206 602 a 6302 6H20 Gain hydrogen Lose oxygen Glucose oxidized to CO 2 O2 reduced to H20 3 ways to generate ATP 0 Phosphorylation addition of phosphate group 0 Substratelevel phosphorylation SLP Oxidative phosphorylation chemiosmosis Photophosphorylation Adenosine Q Q H20 Adenosine 7 Water triphosphate Adenosinei ia Gi Energy Adenosine Inorganic diphosphate phosphate Overview of Respiration amp Fermentation Aerobic respiration Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC chemiosmosis Produce ATP NADH Anaerobic respiration Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC chemiosmosis Fermentation Glycolysis only Glycolysis EmbdenMeyerhmc pathway Oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid Splitting sugar Carbohydrate catabolism 1 Glucose 6C split to 2 pyruvic acid 3C Cytoplasm L GIVCOIYSiS Inputs 39 Inputs 1gucose6C 2ATP 2 NAD L Glycolysis Outputs Net Gain Outputs 2 pyruvic acid 3C 4 ATP SLP 2 NADH 1 glucose molecule oxidized to 2 pyruvic acid pyruvate Ne t gain 2 ATP 2 NADH L Overview of Respiration amp Fermentation Aerobic respiration Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC chemiosmosis Produce ATP NADH Anaerobic respiration Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC chemiosmosis Fermentation Glycolysis only After Glycolysis Respiratio 2 Pyruvic acid from 1 glucose Krebs cycle cytoplasm L Electron transport chain 3 amp chemiosmosis CM Aerobic 02 final e acceptor Anaerobic 02 NOT final e acceptor After Glycolysis Fermentation 2 Pyruvic acid from 1 glucose Fermentation Final e acceptor Organic molecule Krebs Cycle Inputs 2 Pyruvic acid 1 glucose 39 8 NAD 39 2 FAD Shows 1 turn of cycle 1 pyruvic acid L Krebs Cycle Outputs Net Gains OutputNet Gain 6 CO2 2 ATP SLP 8 NADH 2 FADH2 Shows 1 turn of cycle 1 pyruvic acid Where is all the ATP From 1 glucose so far 4ATP 10 NADH 2 FADH2 How to obtain energy from electrons in NADH and FADH2 Electron Transport Chain amp Chemiosmosis Electron transport Chemiosm osis Electron Transport Chain amp Chemiosmosis Electrons flow down ETC redox reactions H pumped outside of cell H enters cell through ATP synthase Produces ATP ETC amp Chemiosmosis Schematic Perlpluumlv same a pmkarvnle or lnermemhrane 3pm cl eukaryme NADH w N mum mamgnnm Cvkwhmrwe M C J39Dchmmn A amnme complex oxmass complex symnm How much ATP is generated Input Output NET NETATP produced Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 NADH 2 NADH 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvate 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvate Krebs Cycle 2 ATP 2 ATP 39 I 8 NADH 8 NADH my 2 FADH2 2 FADH2 2 Pyruvate 6 CO2 2 Pyruvate 6 co2 i TOTAL Majority of ATP comes from ETC Input Output NET NETATP produced Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2ATP 2 NADH 2 NADH GATP 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvate 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvate Krebs Cycle 2ATP 2ATP 2ATP 8 NADH 8 NADH 24ATP 2 FADH2 2 FADH2 4ATP 2 Pyruvate 6 CO2 2 Pyruvate 6 co2 i TOTAL 38ATP Summary prokaryotic aerobic respiration m Fig 517 Anaerobic Respiration Electron Acceptor Products NO nitrate NOZ nitrite N20 nitrous oxide N2 nitrogen gas H20 5042 sulfate H25 hydrogen sulfide H20 C032carbonate CH4methaneHZO L Respiration Aerobic respiration 38 ATP from 1 glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC chemiosmosis 02 final 2 acceptor Anaerobic respiration 2ltXlt38ATPfroml glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC chemiosmosis 02 NOT final 2 acceptor Fermentation Elycolysis Organic molecule final e acceptor Does not require oxygen May occur in presence of 02 No Krebs cycle or ETC Glucose 2 mm 2 ADP 2 NADH p 2 AYP z Fyluvic acid Glycolysis only 2 ATP only Regenerates NAD for mm orderivative glycolysrs Forman39on ul lememalian andwmducls Fermentation endproducts Escher h Emambacrer 1 m Salmonella Pmplonlc acld ulyrlc acld Elhanal EmannL lactic acetic acld butaml acetone lacuc actd animfnrmlc acid 02 and H2 sapvopyl almno sum hmaneuiol acetaln and col acetic acid co and H2 sea and H Streptococcus Sacchammym pmpmmmmrium Clasmdmm Organism Laclobscillus yeast Bacillus Lactic acid FINIIIIIIlIIian ndpmducm I Homolactic fermentation Heterolactic fermentation ac1ic acid ony lactic acid and other compounds Industrial Uses for Fermentation Products Inmiltmlm cm mun u mu m EAcinlm atmuulmuw nDi an Anew uml Bulmml Mammarth unhmvml we Glycum Wunmtuumat mumm cm Am Mmm Fm Wmmn L Ner mu anrumnwmnwm un n m stamina Manda nun mu Ruin t Mnmsn Manage Malt M r Maul mm m m y mummy a mwmw mum I s 1 WWW Wuwnwws Aammmw muer mmnnmm nmnnmw nu mmme WWW mm s mm mm MexWW m mmwm EN 55 EnemyFranquotan Prunes Ambic mamm knsnimlmll chlcmalmn Final Hydrogen Gmwllu Eum lluna Elenirun Mum Amm uiar UXWEH Acmmc nr anaerobic Aerobic amp Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation Type a Phosphnlylallnn um n 65mm An Subduieridvti and man Gulisiuierievri and owning m Malecules Pmdune par Gluuuse Mulecule 3h gumin an vkilr m Vdmhie lluwzr mm mm mm 21 Catabolism of Fats and Proteins mm llnids Polysaccharides 9 Monosaccharides glycolysis Proteins glycolysis and Krebs cycle Lipids glycolysis and acetyI CoA Krebs cycle Integration of catabolism and anabolism Carbohydrates amp polysaccharides G39Ym39ysis and Li ids I cerol Krebs Cyde and fay acids Nucleotides Glycolysis and Glycolysis Krebs cycle Amphibolic pathways function in both anabolism and Glycolysis and catabolism ie dual Krebs cycle purpose pathways Amino acids Prokaryotes Metabolic Diversity human Hanan Photosynthen39c pigmems in coniunclion with Ham Light ea 39c resplrallun NO 5 anaem Glucose elemental sullur ammonia or nydmgen gas 7 3mm Chemical 12 compound 39ermenlaliun respirallun Carbon and Energy Sources carbon Energy source source Phototroph Light Chemotroph Lithotroph Inorganic chemolithotroph compound Organotroph Organic chemoorganotroph compound Autotroph CO2 Heterotroph Organic k 39 compounds moorganoheterotroph E Energy Carbon NutrItIonaItype source source Example Oxygenic Cyanobacteria plants Photoautotroph Light CO2 Anoxygenic Green purple bacteria Photoheterotro h Li ht organic Green purple p g compds nonsulfur bacteria Chemoautotroph Inorganic CO Ironoxidizing Chemolithoautotroph 00mpds 2 acteria Animals protozoa fungi Chemoheterotroph Organic Organic bacteria compds compds Medically important bacteria 2 handouts either handout in class or on Blackboard How much ATP is generated Metabolic diversity L How much ATP is generated Input Output NET NETATP produced Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 NADH 2 NADH 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvate 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvate Krebs Cycle 2 ATP 2 ATP 39 8 NADH 8 NADH 2 FADHZ 2 FADHZ 2 Pyruvate 6 CO2 2 Pyruvate 6 co2 i TOTAL
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