Individual Taxation ACCT 431
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Date Created: 10/30/15
CHAPTER 17 THE FEDERAL GIFT AND ESTATE TAXES Based on West Federal Taxation nmnrah39nh Partner hin Estates amp Trusts 2001 ed TRANSFER TAXES IN GENERAL Excise taxes or transfer taxes are based on the value of the property transferred not the income derived from the property We cover two main excises taxes Federal Gift Tax and Federal Estate Tax A NATURE OF TAXES p172 Estate tax is federally imposed tax on the right of a person to pass property at his death and is charged to the Estate Except for a marital relationship the kinship of the decedent to the beneficiary has no effect on the amount of tax due Inheritance tax is imposed by some states on the right to receive property at death and is charged to the heirs Generally the closer the relationship of the decedent to the beneficiary the lower the tax owed Federal Gift Tax is imposed on the ability to transfer appreciated property before death and is charged to the donor giver If the donor fails to pay the property transferred will stand good for the tax which means the donee becomes liable Some states have a state gift tax too Renouncing one s US citizenship will not relieve him of his liability to pay tax 1 Persons Subject to the Tax a Federal Gift Tax 1 US citizens are subject to the tax regardless of residence 2 US residents are subject to the tax 3 Noncitizens and nonresidents are subject to gift tax on property located in the US 4 Gifts to corporations are usually deem ed to be gifts to shareholders 5 Gifts from corporations are usually deemed to be gifts from shareholders b Federal Estate Tax 7 Determine status of decedent at time of death 1 US citizens are subject to the tax regardless of residence 2 US residents are subject to the tax 3 Noncitizens and nonresidents are subject to estate tax for property located within the US and will fall under a special section of the IRC 2 Formula for Gift Tax 7 Tax is generally not imposed on the entire gift Must first determine the taxable gift Taxpayer must keep records on yearly gifts to comply with the lifetime gift rules see unified tax credit below Beginning in 1982 taxpayers receive an annual gift exclusion of 10000 per year 3 Formula for the Federal Estate Tax 7 Taxpayers should keep records of taxable gifts made since 1976 These gifts must be added and compared to the allowable lifetime gift exemption 4 Role of the Unified Tax Credit a Concept of a tax credit was seen in 431 Tax liability is determined then tax credits are applied and reduce the taxes owed dollar for dollar b A taxpayer s lifetime taxable gifts are added up each year to determine if he owes any tax As long as he is under the allowable exemption see Table 171 no tax is owed VALUATION FOR ESTATE AND GIFT TAX PURPOSES p178 1 For gift tax purposes the value of the property is determined as of the date of the transfer 2 For estate tax purposes the executor makes an election to determine value of property but must use the same date for all property in the estate 1 PROBLEM 32 33 C 37 Primary valuation date PVD value of property on date of death b Alternate valuation date AVD 2032 value on 6 month anniversary of the date of death 1 If an asset is disposed of prior to the 6 month anniversary that asset is valued as of the date of disposition 2 AVD is only available if a Form 706 Fed l Estate Tax Return is filed AND b total estate value is less than would be using PVD AND c total estate tax is less than would be usin PVD Special use valuation 7 usually seen only with closely held businesses or farms KEY PROPERTY CONCEPTS pl79 Must understand differences in the types of ownership interests 1 Undivided Ownership 7 Four types a oint tenancy 7 Used with unmarried individuals Right of survivorship exists b Tenancy by the entirety 7 Used only in marriages Right of survivorship exists c Tenancy in common 7 No right of survivorship exists At the death of the first tenant his share is passed on through his estate d Community property 7 Seen only in community property states LA TX NM AZ CA WA ID NV WI AK If property is acquired after the marriage both parties have an ownership interest All other states follow common law marriage system where rights of spouses are determined differently Partial Interests 7 Seen with life estates and remainder interests Separates the income of the property from the principal of the property II THE FEDERAL GIFT TAX A GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS p 1710 1 5 Requirements for a Gift 7 must satisfy these 5 elements a Donor competent to make a gift b Donee capable of receiving and possessing property c Donative intent on behalf of donor d Actual or constructive delivery of property to donee or his representative e Acceptance of gift by donee Incomplete Transfers 7 Donor must give up all rights to gift for taxable transfer to occur Revocable trusts are not gifts Irrevocable trusts are gifts Business vs Personal Setting 7 Gifts are presumed in personal setting but not in business setting Look to relationship of parties Transactions occurring due to a marriage are gifts not business deals Certain Excluded Transfers a Transfers to political organizations b Tuition payments made to an educational organization on another s behalf c Medical payments made to the medical provider on another s behalf d Obligations to support parents paying for child s education Lifetime vs Death Transfers 7 Donor must relinquish all his interest in the property prior to death for a gift to occur39 otherwise property is considered to pass after death TRANSFERS SUBJECT TO THE GIFT TAX pl712 1 Gift Loans 7 Remember imputed interest concepts Gift loans are those that charge a below market rate of interest judged against a certain floating fed l rate a The interest that should have been charged is considered a gift 2 b The interest that should have been charged is included in donor s gross income c Donee may get a tax deduction equal to the interest that should have been paid 2 Certain Property Settlements 2516 7 Transfers incident to a divorce or settling of marital rights are not subject to gift tax as long as the final decree is filed within a certain period 3 Disclaimers 2518 7 If an individual disclaims an inheritance which should be in writing within 9 months of the individual s right to the property the property he would have received will be passed to someone else This process is sometime beneficial if the disclaiming party already has significant assets 4 Other Transfers Subject to Gift Tax 7 Examples shown later in chapter ANNUAL EXCLUSION p1713 1 In General a First 10000 of present interests gifts right to immediate and complete control and enjoyment of property made to any one person during a calendar year is excluded from gift taxes b Future interest transfers do not qualify for the exclusion c When assets are placed in a trust must consider the authority of the trustee to make distributions to determine whether an interest is considered present or future 2 Trust for Minors 7 If the beneficiary of a trust is under age 21 and has no right to the trust funds without Trustee approval his interest in the trust may still be a present interest if these req ts are satisfied a Both the trust income and principal can be distributed by Trustee for benefit of beneficiary prior to his 215t birthday b Any portion of income and principal remaining in the trust is paid to beneficiary at age 21 c If beneficiary dies before reaching age 21 principal and income are paid to the estate of the beneficiary or as minor directs DEDUCTIONS p1715 Consider both the charitable deduction and the marital deduction both seen later in chapter COMPUTING THE FEDERAL GIFT TAX p1715 1 The Unified Transfer Tax Rate Schedule Top tax rate for gift and estate taxes is 55 Lower rates are phasedout for larger estates Remember that 123176 is important in determining the correct tax rate 2 The Deemed Paid Adjustment 7 Concerns the gift taxes on all prior transfers previously paid by the taxpayer whether transfers were made before or after 123176 3 The Election to Split Gifts by Married Persons 2513 7 Even if spouses live in a common law state such as TN and one spouse has significant assets and the other spouse does not they may give property belonging to husband and take a 20000 exclusion as well as tap into each one s lifetime unified credit so that no taxes are owed Requirements to split a gift between spouses a Spouses must be legally married to each other at the time of the gift b Must indicate on their separate gift tax returns their consent to split the gift c Both must be citizens or residents of the US as of the date of the gift PROCEDURAL MATTERS p 1717 1 The Federal Gift Tax Return 7 Must file Form 709 or Form 709A for marital gift splitting for any year where the annual gift exclusion is exceeded or taxpayer gives a future interest 3 2 III THE FEDERAL A Return is due on April 153911 following the year of the gift ESTATE TAX GROSS ESTATE pl718 Includes all property subject to the Federal estate tax The probate estate which is usually smaller is controlled by state law and usually consists only of the property that passes under a person39s will at death The gross estate is made up of the following items 1 2 Property Owned by the Decedent 2033 Dower and Curtesy Interest 2034 Common law principles a Dower life estate interest for a surv1ving widow in her husband39s estate with the remainder passing to their children at her death b Curtesy life estate interest for a surviving widower in his wife39s estate with the remainder passing to their children at his death c These principles are no longer seen in most states Instead states have opted for statutory language which deals with a surviving spouse39s rights to marital property Adjustments for Gifts Made within Three Years of Death 2035 Any gift taxes paid on gifts within 3 years from the date of death are included in the gross estate A tax on a tax Transfers with a Retained Life Estate 2036 Gross estate includes value of property transferred by the deceased before his death if he retains either a the use of the property of the income from it b the right either alone or with another to direct who shall possess the property or its income Revocable Transfers 203 8 Gross estate includes value of property transferred if decedent retains the right to alter am end revoke or terminate the transfer of that property Look for the decedent39s control either as trustee or as individual who can appoint a trustee Annuities 2039 Definition One or more payments stretching over a period of time a Straightlife annuity all payments are terminated at the death of the annuitant person covered by the annuity Nothing is included in the gross estate of the annuitant at his death b Survivorship annuity the payments are decreased at the death of the annuitant and a smaller sum is payable to another designated person Must include in the decedent39s gross estate the cost of obtaining the same type annuity for the benefit of the survivor 1 Exception If decedent did not pay for the entire cost of the annuity only a portion of the replacement cost is to be included in the gross estate Joint Interests 2040 and 2511 a In ownership interests having a right of survivorship I T amp TBE 1 Property is excluded from decedent39s probate estate 2 Property may however be a part of decedent39s gross estate unless the surviving cotenant can prove he contributed from his own funds not gifted funds to purchase 3 The portion includable in the decedent39s gross estate is the percentage of his contribution to the total cost of the property multiplied by the FMV of the property 4 4 In tenancies by the entirety joint marital ownership interests the first spouse to die automatically includes 12 of the value of the property in his gross estate however the marital deduction will negate any estate tax consequences of this inclusion b In ownership interest not having a right of survivorship tenancies in common or community property interests 1 The decedent39s gross estate generally includes only the value of the property passing through the decedent39s probate estate 2 All tenants presumed to own share unless otherwise stated on property s title c A gift will result when property is placed in multiple names unless each owner can prove he contributed the same percentage to the purchase price as his ownership interest re ects Exceptions 1 Bank accounts gift only results when noncontributing party access the funds in the bank account not when his name is added to the ownership of the account 2 Savings bonds gift only results when noncontributing party cashes out the bond not when his name is added to the ownership of the instrument 8 Powers of Appointment 2041 and 2514 a Definition power given to individual who determines the present or future property owner b Two types of powers 1 General An individual is granted power to name himself his creditors or his estate as the recipient of assets 2 Special An individual is granted power to name any one other than himself his creditors or his estate as the recipient of assets c Three possible outcomes to a power of appointment Exercise of power Lapse of power Release of power Tax treatment of assets will vary so be careful 9 Life Insurance 2042 a Included in the gross value of the estate if 1 Proceeds are received by the estate either because the estate is the named beneficiary or because the life insurance has no qualifying beneficiary 2 Proceeds are received by another for the benefit of the estate If the proceeds are payable to a beneficiary and to be used in part to satisfy obligations of the estate the proceeds are includable in the estate to the extent of the beneficiary s obligation 3 Decedent had an ownership interest in the policy on the life of another such as the ability to receive any economic benefits of the policy change beneficiaries pledge the policy as collateral for a loan and surrender or cancel the policy b Be careful of gift tax problems when the purchaser of the policy is not the owner B TAXABLE ESTATE p1729 Taxable estate Gross Estate the following items 1 Expenses Indebtedness and Taxes 2053 7 Deductions are allowed for the following items a uneral expenses 7 burial plot vault gravestone perpetual care fee transportation b Administration expenses of estate 7 Commissions by executor or administrator attorney s and accountant s fees court costs selling expenses of the property c Claims filed against the estate 7 Property taxes accrued prior to death unpaid income or gift taxes enforceable obligations of the decedent d Unpaid mortgages 2 Losses 2054 7 Depends on when the loss occurs a Before death 7 deduction is taken on Form 1040 b After death but before distribution 7 deduction is taken on Estate Return and is not subject to the 100 or 10 limit as would be on Form 1040 5 c If after death and after distribution 7 deduction belongs to recipient of the property 3 Transfers to Charity 2055 and 2522 7 1f decedent made a charitable testamentary bequest to the gov t or a qualified charity or a veteran s association then estate gets a deduction The amount of the bequest is mandatory 4 Marital Deduction 2056 2056A and 2523 a GENERAL RULE Congress recognizes spouses as one economic unit for estate tax purposes therefore a transfer tax on property within a marriage is only owed once either at the death of the first spouse or the death of the surviving spouse b Property that qualifies for a marital deduction is owned by the deceased spouse that passes to the surviving spouse at death c Disclaimers may affect the total amount available for marital deduction d When decedent leaves an asset to his spouse that is subject to a mortgage the marital deduction is only available for the net value of the asset e Decedent s assets that give a terminable interest to the spouse do not receive a marital deduction A term1nable interest is an interest in property that terminates upon the happening of an event or upon the failure of an event to happen Exceptions 1f decedent grants a general power of appointment in the spouse then the marital deduction is allowed 2 An executor may elect a QTIP provision and thereby qualify for the marital deduction if a decedent passes lifetime income from assets to his spouse b spouse is paid said income at least annuall c no person has the power to change the recipient of the lifetime income f A decedent who is a nonresident alien with a US citizen spouse qualifies for the marital deduction g A decedent who is a US citizen with a nonresident alien spouse will not qualify for the marital deduction 5 Qualified FamilyOwned Business Deduction 2057 a Additional deduction allowed for up to 675k only for estate tax purposes so that small businesses are not forced to liquidate in order to pay taxes b QFOBI Exemption Equivalent must not exceed 13 million c QFOBI must not exceed 50 of total gross estate d QFOBI must satisfy these tests 1 decedent owned and materially participated at least 5 out of the 8 years prior to death 2 qualified heir must materially participate at least 5 out of 10 years after decedent s death e Recapture up to 100 of the deduction is possible if requirements are not satisfied f QFOBI is an election made by executor COMPUTING THE FEDERAL ESTATE TAX p1737 1 Determine the taxable estate as outlined above 2 Add any post 1976 gifts to the result for determination of the tax base ESTATE TAX CREDITS p1737 1 Unified Tax Credit 2010 7 Amount of credit depends on the year of transfer Must make an adjustment if any taxable gifts were made after 9876 and before 1177 Phaseout of this unified tax credit begins for estates over 10 million 2 Credit for State Death Taxes 2011 7 Federal estate tax laws allow a limited credit for death taxes paid to a state which is equal to the lesser of a Actual tax paid or b Amount provided for in the appendix p A10 7 States arrange for the higher tax 6