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General Chemistry

by: Alfonso Ernser Jr.

General Chemistry CHEM 121

Alfonso Ernser Jr.

GPA 3.52

Katherine Stumpo

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Katherine Stumpo
Class Notes
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alfonso Ernser Jr. on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 121 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Katherine Stumpo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/232385/chem-121-the-university-of-tennessee-martin in Chemistry at The University of Tennessee - Martin.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chapter 8 Periodic Properties ofthe Elements 0 201a Pmlsuv Edumlion lm Let39s continue the theme of properties of macroscopic substances being explained by the properties of the particles that compose them HimpesoramsyyAmealarAmam 1st Ed Nvalchro ChBFzgel 82 Development of the Periodic Table Remember Mendeleev amp W Cc H711 Vi Fropcr 5 r5 Wr b at OV M IZMIM 07 791 Periodic property Fife A 1 771 HZ PYOPCV H 8 MN m ow zm m Womb MW 0 Mendelevium named after Mendeleev o The crater Mendeleev on the moon named after Mendeleev Ch 8 Page 2 Mendeleev39s Predictions Gailium ekaraiuminum Garmanium summon Mcndcictv x r ML miricL prcdtclcd Aural prediclc 1mm liq I mpcr piul crtin h Atomic run them mi mm m7 nnu Amnm nus Aimul 72 now 72M ainu Melting puinl Low 2m c Dcmrly 55 gLmquot 535 gcm Dunin 3 gtm 59 gun anmu or wide XL 3603 Fm mum at xlm 120 Furlnuiu niclriuridc x01l FugCh lnrlnuta or himldc XCI3 Gnch 2010 Pearson Education Inc Another case of what is observed but no explanation of why We can use quantum mechanics to explain trends in the periodic table 0118qu 83 Electron Confiqurations Electron configuration AtSW t OtL m 0 C l V WW ow o MothS Ground state WW 8 gymV63 8171 X2 3 I mg em out 4quot 015 6 W1 ovawe 2 Ma S Electron Sgin H 5 We can use an orbital diagram to represent electron configuration Ayrow airmen1 S WV50145 S in m up 0quot quotP 5P Spin dorm Another quantum number spin quantum number I ms MI ML 3 iz or 72 WW3 IAN8 10L Pauld WI Iggy f He 83 Ell IS Pauli Exclusion Principle No 2 electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers s orbital 2 6 p orbital 6 C dorbital 0 forbital Ch 8 Page 6 Sublevel Splitting in Multielectron Atoms Sublevels occur because of deviations in the Schrodinger equation In a hydrogen atom orbital energy depends only on Ex 33 3p 3d all have the same energy L gt Ar gun z vale But in a multielectron atom energy depends on f Ex 65 orbilwl lt EWMM lt Efdovbi l lt Zztt 0mm Ch 8 Page 7 Penetration and Shielding 715 For multielectron atoms any one electron experiences both the positive charge of the nucleus and the negative charge of the other electrons Total radial probability Penetration of 25 Repulsion of one electron by the other 2 electrons is shielding as in from the feeling the full charge ofthe nucleus l l l 200 400 600 S 0 r pm Radial distribution fxn The 2s orbital penetrates into the 1s orbital where shielding of electrons is less effective Experiences 3 7 I lull 3 charge 9 E 1 9 c rucirus Experiences Nucleus netchaige at about 1 a a lb a 20m Fenianquot Educ 1mm Km Ch 8 Page a General Energy Ordering of Orbitals for Multielectron Atoms O Wk 04 2 T1 7 57 42d 35 L 31 1 4P 4P 4P T 3 3 3 wc w on 1 d d d 1 3p 3p 3p squng M 0 0U wank 3quot y 6 bnergy E E E Q Weth VLM WW m gm 4 5 was Ms lt 501 T WM ohx kvmu 1s MES w Won mm was Aufbau and Hund We fill energy levels from the lowest to the highest Sublevels fill from low to high s p d f 0 Ex Li 1s22s1 When filling degenerate levels place 1 electron in each before pairing 0 Ex C 1s22s12p2 Ch 8 Page 10 Electron Confiqurations A listing of subshells in order of filling with number of electrons written as a superscript Ex Kr 36 e39 Shorthand notation Write previous noble gas in brackets then continue Kr Rb Ch 8 Page 11 Fillinq the Orbitals Ch 8 Page 12 Example 81 Write the full ground state orbital diagram and electron configuration of magnesium Ch 8 Page 13 Practice Write the full ground state electron configuration of potassium and manganese Ch 8 Page 14 84 Valence Electrons In an atom the electrons on the are the key to interaction These are the electrons in the 0 These are called electrons Electrons in shells are called electrons This explains why we have periodic trends 0 All group 1A elements have the same number of electrons oExNa11e39 Ch 8 Page 15 Orbital Blocks in the Periodic Table Group number corresponds to the number of valence electrons The number of columns in each quotblockquot is the maximum number of electrons a sublevel can hold The period number corresponds to the principle energy level of the valence electrons o d amp f block exceptions Ch 8 Page 16 Chagter 8 Orbital Blocks of the Periodic Table m cups I rblm39k clams D prblock clemum I Iblnck mmm D blm39k clcmcma m 39nd is 9 a 1 m 6 m m w 53 7o 7 Lmlhn dc c p Pm m in Gd 39l39b Dy Ho Er 1m Vb Lu mm m oam new am new mm mr39 mmquot 5321 my mlquot 24 MW w M 11 93 w as as 97 5393 99 Ian I m V HVIIIJ W Th PA U Np Pu Am Cm Bk C E Fm Md Nu LI 7 39 yaw 9er mm 713 795m 7333 7551 7151 7251 mpw 2010 Pearsun Education Inc 0118 Page 17 Example 1A 8A 3A 4A 5A 6A7 at14gtme Ch 8 Page 18 Transition Elements Trends differ from maingroup elements Principle energy level is one less than valence shell 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn 452MI 4523612 4523513 451315 4523d5 452362 6 4523417 4523d8 45136110 452 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Y Zr N1 M0 Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd 5524d1 552411 55 4d4 55 5514515 551w 55w 4d 551m 552M Ch 8 Page 19 Practice Use the periodic table to write the short electron configuration and short orbital diagram for each of the following Na atomic no 11 Te atomic no 52 Tc atomic no 43 Ch 8 Page 20 85 Explaininq the Periodic Table Let39s look closer at groups with similar properties Noble gases 0 8 valence electrons Except He 0 Especially nonreactive Stable electron configuration Ch 8 Page 21 8A He 15 10 Ne 2532p6 18 3533p6 36 4534p 54 5535p 86 6526176 Noble gases Groups 1 amp 7 Alkali Metals o 1 more electron than noble gases 0 Tend to lose that 1 electron Form 1 cation Now have noble gas configuration Halogens o 1 less electron than noble gases 0 Tend to gain 1 electron Form 1 anion Now have noble gas configuration Alkali metals m min Pearson 21mm 1n ChXPagEZZ L Halogens mum Pearson Edumhnn In Electron Confiquration and Element Properties The number of valence electrons largely determines element Since valence electrons follow a periodic pattern element properties should also be periodic Ch 8 Page 23 Electron Con guration and lon Charge Elements That Form Ions with Predictable Charges 2010 Pearson Education inc Charges are predictable based on quotwantingquot noble gas con guration ch 8 Page 24 86 Periodic Trends Measurinq atomic radius Van derWaaIs radius Covalent radius Atomic radius Ch 8 Page 25 Atomic Radii Atomic Radii Alkali metals Period 5 Period 4 transition transition elements eiemems Radius pm Noble gases 30 40 Atomic number 2010 Pearson Education Inc Ch 8 Page 25 Effective Nuclear Charqe Remember shielding Effective nuclear charge Zeff Zeff Ch 8 Page 27 Examgle 85 Choose the larger atom Explain 1 NorF 2 CorGe 3 N or Al 4 Al or Ge Ch 8 Page 28 Practice Choose the larger atom in each pair CorO LiorK CorA Seor Atomic Radii in Transition Metals Increase in size the group Roughly the same size the period Ch 8 Page 30 87 Electron Confiqurations Maqnetic Properties Ionic Radii and Ionization Energy Let39s look at ions now just gaining or losing an electron Cations EX AI atom Ali ion Fe atom Fe2 ion Fe3 ion Ch 8 Page 31 Maqnetic Properties When electrons are unpaired the atom or ion will have a magnetic field 0 When all electrons are paired the atom or ion will not have a magnetic field 0 Ch 8 Page 32 Example 86 Write the electron configuration and determine whether the Fe atom and Fe3 ion are paramagnetic or diamagnetic Practice Determine whether the following are paramagnetic or diamagnetic Mn 803 Ch 8 Page 34 Ionic Radii Electron configuration changes with ions Radius will as well Cations lose electrons are than the neutral atom Anions gain electrons are than the neutral atom lsoelectronic species same number of electrons Ch 8 Page 35 Chapter 8 Emma u 0 u m m 0 x w m A m m m m m Gmup ZA us 2010 Pearson Ed Radix ofAtoms and Their Cations pm In ucation Inc chz Page 5 arm 6A n CD u 71 m 3 IN N 9 Nadya of Moms and Their Anions Pm 6mm 7A 7 M U I 9939 m m u m n xu n n 2010 Pearson Education Inc Examgle 87 Choose the larger of each pair S or 82 Ca or Ca2 Br or Kr Ch 8 Page 37 m Order the following sets by size smallest to largest Zr4 Ti4 Hf4 Nat Mgzt F Ne l Br Ga3 In Ionization Enerqv The minimum energy needed to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase 0 Value is always positive it always takes energy The energy required to remove the electron 0 Ex Nag gt Nag 1e39 IE1 496 kJmol The energy required to remove the electron 0 Ex Nag gt Na2g 1e39 IE2 4560 kJmol Ch 8 Page 39 Trends in First Ionization Enerqv A larger Zeff means it takes more to remove an electron When an electron is farther from the nucleus it takes energy to remove First IE down the group o Valence electrons farther from nucleus First IE across a period o Zeff increases Ch 8 Page 40 Chapter 8 First Ionization Energies Noble gases Period 5 transition elements Ionization energy klmoi Alkali metals 10 20 30 40 50 Atomic number 2010 Pearson Education Int Ch 8 Page w Choose the atom in each pair with the higher first ionization energy 1 AlorS 2 As or Sb 3 N or Si 4 O or Cl


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