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by: Alfred Yundt


Alfred Yundt
GPA 3.53


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alfred Yundt on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 2013 at University of Arkansas taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/232387/soci-2013-university-of-arkansas in Sociology at University of Arkansas.

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Date Created: 10/30/15
Week 1 What is sociology What is sociology Study of social interactions society not individual Social structures order39 analysis of life chances The study of human groups and societies includes anthropology economics political science Maps of geographical variations Watch soccer matches on coast say coke in Texas sunshower Suicide example Egoistic alone Altruistic martyr Anornic sudden change Fatalistic overregulation prison Sociological perspective examples Many things thought to be natural actually socially constructed Social order Created by socialization due to norms beliefs values Culture shock eg doingnothing People will think you re strange for doing nothing not part of our culture Refers to different customs of different cultures subcultures What a sociologist is does example Suspend preconceptions assumptions question everything Sociology as a social science Based a lot on hypotheses data collections statistics Sociological imagination Application of imaginative thought to the asking of sociological questions Sociological inquiry process amp bene ts How does the individual matter What extent is determined by social status Week 2 Socialization amp Social Structure Socialization examples Lifelong process of developing sense of self Learn to become a functioning member of society Inteinalization of societst values beliefs norms taught in childhoodcoming to college Social reproduction Passage ofnorms to next generation ex Hog call Social isolation cases of Genie Anna Isabelle Depriving a child of socialization in first six years causes permanent damage need human contact for normal socialization Anna product of incest left partially isolated in attic small recovery Isabelle blind deaf mother much more recovery Genie left in room alone until 13 little recovery Biological need for human interaction Stages of child development lVlead amp Piaget Play imitation Game role of others self7consciousnes s T awareness of self lVle relation of self to others Organized game stage generalized other 7 cops and robbers Sensorimotor touch 02 preoperational egocentric 277 concrete operational literal 7711 formal operationalmorals 1 1715 Primary amp secondary socialization Primary Family friends peers Secondary School church work Socialization agents examples Family school mass media religion work Social identity The social characteristics that are attributed to an individual by others Social roles Socially de ned expectations of an individual in a given status or social position Role strain Student has to be hard working studious fun involved Role confusion con ict Being torn between so many roles eg parent spouse employee not sure of role Social interaction The process by which we act and react to those around us Social institutions Class race gender religion Social structure Framework for social interactions Durable patterns of human relations Generated amp reproduced in social interactions Accumulated amp transformed historically Expressed through lived bodily practices De ned by culturallyimeaningful cognitive categories Motivated by normative amp moral valuations guides Controlled amp reinforced by regulative sanctions Promotes cooperation amp conformity Discourages resistance amp opposition Results in hierarchy of social statuses Social status ascribed achieved Ascribed status of race gender age 7 cannot change Achieved status you work on 7 education level Social strati cation How individualsgroups are divided in society and the inequalities that result Structure inequalities Social inequalities that result in differences in wealthpower Systems of strati cation Rankings apply to groups of people who share characteristics but don t necessarily identify with one another Social strati cation in the US Rich have better things classier taste different gender or ethnic strati cation as well Week 3 Culture amp Society Society A group of people who live in a certain area subject to common authority and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups Culture what why matters Way of life and customs Norms values of what is right wrong Cultural analysis focal institutions All societies have to deal with death family courts religion Cultural conformity social control Internalize norms through socialization taught in childhood appearance of normalcy Social control sanctioning of society punishment Cultural diversity examples Use of friend treatment of pets old people communication styles Cultural conflict Cultural diversity can result in misunderstandings conflict Cultural stereotyping Categorizing people and their behaviors Ethnocentrism When people believe their ethnicityculture is the best 7 all else wrong Cultural universalism When a culture doesn t acknowledge any other cultures at all American culture Multiculturalism joining of many cultures Cultural tastes amp preferences examples Style is not arbitrary re ectspreserves status sets groups apart Ex iPhone vs Android Nature and nurture genes environment Behavior base on both genes and environment Twin studies Study identical twins compare with fraternal Molecular genetic studies Genome mapping link gene to speci c disorders traits Simple in uenced by single gene environmental factor Complex in uenced by multiple genes and environmental factors 48 of identical twins both have schizophrenia Depression linked to short allele Sociobiology Combo of nature and nurture how they matter in society Environmental factors can trigger inhibit genetic predispositions Cultural norms Normalcy in a society culture traditions way of doing things Multiculturalism vs assimilation Assimilation Process by which different cultures are absorbed into one melting pot Multiculturalism Groups retain distinct cultures but share politics economy salad Subcultures examples Groups with counterculture norms values way of showing norms in a safe way Ex hipsters Goths jocks Diverse subcultures Goths jocks nerds hipsters 7 usually based on tastesclothing preferences Subcultural group processes identity construction impression management Learn about subculture beforehand39 preparing for the presentation of one s social role Stages of subculture immersion presocializaiton neophyte modeling confirmation Presocialization indirect exposure Neophyte stereotype rookie mistakes Modeling mimic established members Confirmation inigroup acceptance ostracism Example climbers Week 4 Social Groups amp Social Networks Social groups Collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who share a common sense of identity Example classmates Social aggregate Collection of people together in the same place but do not interact or identify with one another Example People waiting on a bus Social category status Status the social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of society normally have distinct lifestyles patterns of behavior s tyles Group size dyad triad etc Dyad group of two people unstable deeper connection Triad group of three people more stable less involved Political relations within a triad Much more stable than a dyad third person acts as mediator Group conformity Asch experiments 7 lines amp elevator Group consensus of choosing lines even if wrong Authority obedience experiment Electric shock experiment People give in to authority Groupthink Process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans of action that go against the group consensus Different length lines example Reference group A group that provides a standard for judging one s attitudes or behaviors Inigroups outigroups Inigroup sense of loyalty and respect we belong ex military Outigroup antagonism toward other groups those people ex hate groups Cliques as castes High school systems like castes avoid eating with inferiors Social network examples Study relationships between people formal or informal Example network of study friends work friends Network structure connections contagion homophily transitivity ow Connection who is connected to whom family coworkers Contagion ow of info ows across ties germs fashion ex phone call Homophily associate with people who resemble ourselves love of being alike Transitivity relationship when all members know each other Network in uences bidirectional We in uence our network and our network in uences us We control the density of interconnections We control how central we are in the network Six degrees of separation Example if you mail a letter six stems to contact any one person Three degrees of in uence Our in uence dissipates after three degrees three people out Network outcomes emergence creativity situational amp positional inequality Connected to everyone Network emergence Creativity of networks Network inequality


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