Adv Micro Electronics
Adv Micro Electronics PHYS 497
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Gerhold I on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 497 at Texas A&M University - Commerce taught by Carlos Bertulani in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/232400/phys-497-texas-a-m-university-commerce in Physical Science at Texas A&M University - Commerce.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
The sun shines 385 x 1033 er39gs 385 x 1026 Wa s for a leasT 45 bio years sTar forms denSiTy and TemperaTure increase in iTs cenTer Fusion of hydrogen OH is The firsT long Term nuclear energy source ThaT can igniTe WiTh39 only hydrogen available for example in a firsT generaTion sTar righT afTer iT39s formaTion The ppI chain is The only possible sequence of reacTions all oTher reacTion sequences require The presence of caTalysT nuclei 3 or 4body reacTions are Too unlikely chain has To proceed by sTeps of 2body reacTions or decays is uns ra be d abundance is Too low 4Li is unstable d abundance is Too low m 4 e gt4He2p d d not going because Yd is small as dp leads 139o r39apid desTr39uc I39ion 3He 3He goes because Y3He ge139s large as There is no other r39apid desTr39uc I39ion The 99 chain a chair of reactions quotbaf e neckquot pe 39 39 pm 39 146210 Reaction network jfur e rates constant const because of lar e quotreservoirquot p 9 conditions constant as well Abundance of nucleus 2 evolves according to Z 11112 Y2 23 NA lt UV gt1 gt2 H4 vl 1 5111 production destruction iH39FIeJh Offcar Some Time bundan ci39ei Y 2123 Yl 39lz ngjed sfeady flaw longer Time and wi rh resul r for Y2 I733 Yl qz and so on So 39in s ready flow Yi i H1 const Yl qz or39 0C 239 s ready flow abundance des l ruc rion m re W f egglv flow equilibrium For 9 consT dY 2 Z 12123 dt has The soluTion 1720 72 Y2imtme tT2 wiTh 72 equilibrium abundance Yzjnitial iniTial abundance independently of The iniTial abundance The equilibrium is approached on a exponenTial Timescale equal To The lifeTime of The nucleus A licaTion Ichgisn ame I d sTeady flow abundance Ydldw constYplpp Yd lp j YPEPNAltOVgtPP Y d g YPpNAltavgtdP ltavgtpp lt 5 38 gtlt103922 keV barn Therefore equilibrium dabundance exTremely small of The order of 4 x 103918 in The sun equilibrium reached wiThin lifeTime of d in The sun NAltcvgtPd 10392 cm3smole rd 1YppNA lt0vgtpd 2s 3H6 6 uilibr39ium abunda n 39 itl egnfii cal particles fuse Fan MHMHE obviously NOT constan r sirla zairs e EEHWDN A lt 0quot gt3He3He but depends strongly on 3He iTSelf BUT equations can be solved 3He euilibr39ium abundance ABUNDANCE RAJHD l Illlllllll J I I I 5 10 Te 50 100 500 1000 STELLAR TEMPERATURE T6 3He has a much higher equilibrium abundance Than d Therefore 3He3He possible 3H6 euilibr39ium abundance TIME REQUIRED FOR 3H2 TO REACH 99 af099 0F EQUILIBRIUM n O llllll TIME If Iy 8 ll lllllllllllllllllllll I 10 To 20 30 STELLAR TEMPERATURE T6 Taken from Clay ron39s book w39 I begnf prod ced if can serve as ca ralysf of The ppII and ppIII chains Dim4 46 ppIII sun 002 Lifetimes of nuclei in chain LIFETIMES AT EQUILIBRIUM IyI gIA11I 1 13mt3He1 100 7 X HozI3HEI 10 5 I 1 s 1011 I I I l I n I 0 10 To 20 30 SR siaquot dquoteys STELLAR TEMPERATURE T6 Electron ca ture deca of Be only possible decay mode Earth 0 Capture of bound Kelectron 112 77 days Sun 0 Ionized fraction Capture of continuum electrons depends on density and temperature 12 T 6 T12 7738 472x108 s p1XH 120 days 0 Not completely ionized fraction capture of bound Kelectron 21 correction in sun Summer chains 14 86 3He3He2p4He 3Heoz 39y7Be 14 002 Bee 117Li 7Bep39y8B 7Lipo4He 8Be u8Be II III 8 Becv4He Why do addi l ional 99 chains ma I39Ter 2 3H pp domina l es Timescale BUT 1 1H Elli ppI produces 12 4He per39 pp r39eac rion ppIIIIII produces 1 4He per39 pp reaction 0 1 gt double burning rate cycle 999 10 Ll Neao 0 Extension 2 F9 0 Extension 3 08 N7 66 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 neu rr39on number All ini rial abundances wi rhin a cycle serve as ca ralys rs and accumula re a r larges r r Ex rended cycles in rr39oduce ou rside ma rer39ial in ro CN cycle Oxygen i equotv Cycle 2 I M Cycle 4 1300 a 1 7 99 chain vs CNO Ccle Density100 grcms ZZsun 108 El l l I I I I I l I I l I I I I l l I I l l I I E 5 E E amp 1 g CNO cycles 9 1o4 9 E 3 E T E lt13 a SP 51 1 a C 2 3 PP chains 3 2 1 E a 10 E E C E E OJ 5 10quot s E I gt 9 1 8 0 gr E Lu 3 a E 02 I l I I I I l l I l I I I I I I I I I I l I I I I I I I I I I I I 5x106 107 15x107 2x1 07 25x1o7 3x107 35x1o7 4x107 Temperature K Neutrino emission 86 14 sHe3He2p4He 3Hea39y7Be E039086 M 4 BQ7 Li 7Bep 8 7Lipo 4He 8BeQ8J I 8Be04 4He 7 l quot1 loss 21 ppII loss 4 ppIII loss 28 002 ltEgt674 Mev no l39e39 ltEgtQ 0272673 1 Total loss 23 19 2 eufr39ino energies from 732 elecTr39on capture 732 e 9 7Li v8 Extke l J ExtkeV J 0 3V quot 7 f I Be quot Ev o x t T jjd L I Eho Hang k V l m J42 39 e ELE ETRUN 39W E CAPTURE E g I V I 1 o 3 7Li 10m Neutrino Flux Be SuperK SNO lGalhum l Chlorlne l 10quot I I I v m Bahcall Pinsonnenult 2000 11 p 10 pp i1 1 Neutrino Energy MeV Continuous fluxes in cm2sMeV Discr39e l39e fluxes in cm2s 2 Willis Astimnorrii n s39emitted from sun are not the photons created by nuclear reactions heat is transported by absorption and emission of photons plus convection to the surface over timescales of 10 Mio years But neutrinos escape Every second 10 Bio solar neutrinos pass through your thumbnail But hard to detect they pass through 1 x 1033 9 solar material largely undisturbed 739QfgiyllilrilaLJ i rv irms 4 111954 John iBahcall and Ray Davis have the idea to detect solar neutrinos fusing the reaction 37C1 Vg gt37Ar 6 39 1967 Homestake experiment starts taking data 100000 Gallons of cleaning fluid in a tank 4850 feet underground 37Ar extracted chemically every few months single atoms and decay counted in counting station 35 days halflife event rate 1 neutrino capture per day l 1968 First results only 34 of predicted neutrino flux solar neutrino problem is born for next 20 years no other detector Neutrino production in solar core T25 gt nuclear energy source of sun directly and unambiguously confirmed gt solar models precise enough so that deficit points to serious problem WaTer Cerenkov deTecTor z e gt z 6 high energy compared To resT mass produces Cerenkov radiaTion when Traveling in waTer can get direction Vx Vx neuTral Z currenT NC e e39 charged currenT CC Neu rrinos really coming from The Sun Super Kamiokande de139ec ror Cherenkovlight wavefront c0 speed of light in vacuum Eff Day Jiunei5 1998 NeuTr ino image of The sun by SuperKamiokande nexT sTep in neuTr ino asTr39onomy adli fferen r energy Thresholds all show deficiT To sTandard solar model Homestake SAGE GALLEX GNO Kamiokande Super Kamiokande J J V vta only all flavors buT VT vH only 16 of V6 cross secTion because no CC only NC 1 Haitiansmixrm quot that is conserved there are only 2 types of neutrinos and both it nos are stable 11 12 00 t 39 Owe have an electron Va and muon VH neutrino which are both mixtures of v1 and v2 mass eigenstates Vet0 2 v6 vlcosG vzsinG VHCEZO E v v1sin6 vzcosG Since we don39t know beforehand how quotmixedquot the neutrinos are we use 9 to describe the mixture The mass eigenstates v1 and v2 propagate through space with energy E1 and E2 according to iE21 quotIEIT 0056 V2 gt6 sin 6 ts 16 v gteit H cos6 Neutrino oscilla l iOhSm fr fnos iare r39ela39rivi s ric E gtgt m 2p I Z r r m mEV c056 w1th Am2 2 ml2 m22 II i39obabili ry of observing a v6 of x c139 given Tha l a nm was produced a TO is PVH gt Velt VeIVHtgt I2 III nd Equotquot for bo139h neu fr ino components we can write Neutrino Osci Ilarions M E in MBVV39WC can write The above as 2 PV gt V8 2 sin2 26 sin2 sin2 26 sin2 V 7 7 E A 2 V 2 127Am observing a vLL at x given Tha l a VM was produced a 139 0 is PVH gt VHlt VHIVH39gt 2 VI 7390 127xAm2 E VII V PV gt V 1 sin2 263in2 r otherquot experiments emf experiments experimen rs Homework 1 Using eq I prove eq II 2 Using eq III prove IV 3 Using eq VI prove VII 394 As of 2007 who is The best value of Am2 from all known experiments Provide a Table with best values from each experiment Hin139 consul l39 The in139erne r Neu rrino oscillations I quotil frdVelling from sun 1390 ear39l39h no experiment in heavy water l p e Cerenkov 91 6 gt U e Cerenkov 1 d p n U ncap rure by 35Cl y sca139139er Cerenkov key NC independent of flavor should always equal solar model prediction if oscillations explain The solar neu rrino problem Difference between CC and ES indica139es addi l39ional flavors presen r v detection A Eb i metrzsurie me39n r of ve energy spec rr39um ukdire c r ibnal sensi rivi39ry oc 113cosq lt only Measure ro fal 8B n flux from The sun pnvx Equal cr39oss sec rion for all v rypes I Cerenkov Light I V neutrino g electron o e O gt circa O y neutrEno Cotquotkm Ugh tiacaron mulr mo g C L2 Dauloron IE1 prozons V nuutrv no 791 4 y 39 Deuxemn mron 1 35C Sudbury Neutrino Observatory 34 Puzzle solved in two other experiments Klan e 7e pbrquott s evidence for vH gt vr oscillations ed by cosmic ray interaction with the atmosphere D nepor39tsevideni ce for disappearance of electron s from reactOrs quotsw a single solution fOr oscillation parameters that is consistent all solar neutrino experiments and the KamLAND results KamLAND Reactor prouduces Ue from beta decay of radioactive material in core Detection in liquid scintillator tank in Kamiokande mine 180 km away gt check whether neutrinos disappear 10 4 I x a 08 1 I 6 gtE Savannah River r o 06 O Bugey 339quot I z X Rovno quot Q Goesgen 39 0394 A Krasnoyark D Palo Verde 02 I Chooz KamLAND 00 I I I I I 101 102 103 104 105 Distance to Reactor m dashed BeST fi f LMA Sin22 0833 sz 55 X 105 6V2 Shaded 95 CL LMA from solar39 neufr ino daTa Leptons Anti Leptons Electric Electric Flavor Charge Flavor Charge electron electron V9 neutrino 0 V3 neutrino 0 e electron i 3 electron 1 muon muon Vl neutrino 0 V9 neutrino 0 p muon 1 u muon 1 tau quot39 tau VT neutrino O 15 neutrino 0 I tau 1 1 tau 1 2 Am2 5x10 5eV2 Nof enough mass 7 0 accounf for le MISS g Mass of le Universe hydrostatic equilibrium energy 39 47er39 dT r dr radia l ive energy Transfer 3Kp E of G39o rs39ez 47Zp7392 mass and an equa39fibn of stare BUT solution not 139rivial especially as s K in general depend strongly on composition Temperature and density 0 Sun T Density Convective 1 zone ma 106 K glcma quotme LG Radiative if iuLace zone 100 0006 000 100 100 090 060 0009 0999 100 000 127 0035 0996 100 1 070 130 012 0990 100 060 242 040 097 100 050 342 13 092 100 040 474 41 062 100 030 665 13 063 099 39 020 935 36 034 091 999 010 1265 35 0073 040 0 quot 000 1462 134 0000 000 2001 BrooksCole PublishingITP thahks 1390 l l39f 3 one does not have to rely solely on theoretical Calculations but can measure the internal structure of the sun oscillations with periods of 1 20 minutes max 01 ms lei on work Group Con 39nuous monitoring of SUH39s surface and a rmospher39e from The ground and WM SOHO ESA center Longwavelength wave penetrates deeper Solar 39l39emer39afur39e 1 Core I u IHHI 1 llIlHll Temperature K I YIllll1 104 x I Illlh 103 r l v I 1 RadiativeZone 1 Convec ve Zone 11m I IIIHHI ll1n P 0 e N l e Solar densif 1 39 39 39 r 1 r r 1 Radiative Zone Convective Zone 102 x 100 Water 1 6 N bensny gmcm S b I 10quot 00 02 04 06 08 Hydmgen pm l39e Con vec rlve zone consT abundances II Ivlllll I ll l 1M L2 31 ELL ill 1 LI Chr39iSTenSenDalsgaar39d Space Science Review 85 1998 19 45
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