ANT 347 Week of Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Gibson on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 349 at Syracuse University taught by C. DeCorse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
ANT 349 The Quintessential Caveman? Paleolithic Caves • Important as shelters • Shanidar Cave, Iraq • Cave in Clan of the Cave Bear Cave sites: Also important archaeologically More accesible • better preserved • better stratigraphic sequences Upper Paleolithic Elaboration of Material Culture Upper Paleolithic Life • Effective communicators • Efficient technology/hunting Lower Paleolithic Social organization • Small Bands • Need for cooperation Cultural Developments Cave Bear Cult? • Cave Bear bones are found in archaeological sites. • Evidence of ritual activity? Limited Evidence of “ritual” • Clear evidence for both altruism and ritual activity Grotto Guattari Skull in Italy Neanderthal Ritual Cannibalism? Poor excavation and Documentation; teeth marks postmortem Neandertal Burials La Ferrassie, France Shanidar Cave Upper Paleolithic Art Cave Paintings: France, Spain, Africa and North America The Neolithic The “New Stone” Age: Polished stone tools Change from food collecting to food production Domestication: Artificial selection: Control and modification pf a plant or animal species to meet human needs Neolithic Origins Earliest “Good” evidence 12,000 BP 2000 BP most of world’s Population agriculturalists Dramatic Change: 10,000 years ago people were hunter gatherers Domestication took place in many different areas The Civilized State “The neolithic pattern of small, largely autonomous farming villages became radically altered. Social and political systems were transformed we call these developments ‘Civilizations’” (Feder and Park, p. 297) The First “Agricultural States” Complex administrative systems to control agricultural surpluses. States: • Food and labor surplus provides for individuals NOT directly involved in food production • Institutionalized bureaucracy • High degree of social inequality • Slater and state sanctioned use of force Officials and Craftsmen Power and status of rulers expressed in architecture, exotic trade materials, art, and language. Introduction to Ancient Egypt: The Nile Valley PreDynastic Egypt • Paleolithic 300,000 BP • Domestication 8,000 BP • Ceramics 60004650 BP • Mummies 5400 BP Unification of Egypt: 5100 BP The Namar Palette Old Kingdom 26822181 BC Construction of pyramids and Sphinx Great pyramids (4th dynasty) Middle Kingdom 20551650 BC Capital Thebes, Expansion: Conquest of Mesopotamia New Kingdom 15501069 Karnak Burial in the Valley of the Kings Tutankhamun 18th Dynasty Ramses I and II 19th Dynasty Late Period and Decline 747332 BC Late Period Control by Kushite Kings )747656BC; 25th Dynasty) Invasions by Persians, greeks, and finally Rome (30 BC Roman Period) The origins of Egyptology Ancient Egypt: Not forgotten • Known from Bible and Classical Greek and Roman writers • Late 4th century: Christianity only legal religion St.Mark’sVenice A.D. 1250 Joseph sending his brothers to get grain The pyramids were granaries The Sphinx Pharaoh Chephan 2650 BC Napoleon in Cairo French Capture of Egypt 1798 Egypt ruled by Ottoman Turks Fascination with Egypt Commission of the Arts and Sciences Mapping of Monuments What treasures should be taken? English Occupation: French Surrender 1801 Growing interest in Egyptian antiquities The Rape of the Nile Giovanni Battista Belzoni (17781823) Born in Padua, Italy Circus strong man, illusionist, salesman Raiders of the Lost Ark, 1981 Belzoni: A foundation for future work? Scramble for Antiquities Antiquities Trade Translation of Hieroglyphics A “Lost” Language: Modern Egyptians speak Arabic (Semitic Language) Ancient Egyptian was Hamitic Jean Francois Champollion (1790 1832) The Rosetta Stoned Trilingual inscription 196 BC Priests of Memphis praising King Ptolemy Epiphanies A New Era Auguste Mariette (18211881) 1858 Head Egyptian Antiquities Service Originally Studied manuscripts, but ended up digging Appointment opposed by dealers and diplomats Howard Carter (18731939) Systematic survey of the Valley; Tombs carefully documented Mummies in the movies The Mummy Universal Pictures, 1932 Established Boris Karloff as a Hollywood icon First in long series of “mummy” films The Mummys Hand The Mummys Tomb The Mummys Ghost The Mummys Curse
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