Intro Grp Dynamics & Procedure
Intro Grp Dynamics & Procedure COUN 528
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COUN 528 Handout 2 SEMINAR IN GROUP COUNSELING Stages of Group Dynamics Characteristics of the Opening Stage Allan Dye PhD INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIORS A Physical 1 Maximum distance 2 Tight constructed postures 3 Restlessness 4 Breathing shallow rapid 5 Little eye contact B Verbal 1 Silence or minimal amount 2 Waiting room talk impersonal topics a Low disclosure b Safe inquiry c Minimal attending C Emotional 1 Anxiety defensiveness fear 2 Resentment hostility anger 3 Anticipation excitement joy COMMON DILEMMAS A Silence B Dominating C Intellectualizing D Dumping E Power Plays F Hostility toward 1 Members 2 Leader III Resistance Distracting preventing Refusal to participate Flight Con icting expectations Too disturbed LEADERSHIP ISSUES ORIGINS OF FEELINGS A C Anxiety 1 Ignorance of a Goals personal and group b ActiVities c Structure d Roles Personal other members leader e Focus f Communication 2 control of self disclosure Resentment Fear 3quot1 Anticipation 4gtP t Ego threat Manipulation Impatience Disclosure Fantasies of failure New social situation Being heard at last Help with problems New strategies perspectives VI CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROUP omwcowgt Random seating Maximum distance between members Individualistic non connected Low grade communication Focused on leader Goal uncertainty or confusion Predominantly negative emotions non focused GOALS METH A Relaxation Participation of members Self presentation by members Preliminary establishment of appropriate norms re communications topic focus tempo ODS Inform statement of typical goals activities structure roles 1 Answer questions 2 Discussion Involve in low risk activities 1 Self presentational activities 2 Introductions 3 Rounds eg expectations goals awarenesses Reassure Personal statement Contact each person visually or in conversation Use model basic individual attending skills Provide structure P9P Teach Model attending behaviors 2 Respond to and reinforce appropriate disclosing and attending behaviors Vll E Observe individual and group dynamics CAUTIONS A Excessive disclosures by members B Individual stress reactions C Over involvement in or avoidance of leader role D Personal defensiveness I III SEMINAR IN GROUP COUNSELING Characteristics of the Early Stage Allan Dye PhD INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIORS A Physical 1 Safe interpersonal distance 2 Territorial behavior 3 Upright posture competing energies crossed arms and legs laced fingers etc 4 Frequent postural shifting 5 Breathing shallow but regular 6 Fair amount of eye movement and focus changing Verbal Lots by some little or none by many Safe topics frequently metaphorical Personal disclosure descriptive Low levels of exchange first impressions inquiry Some probing concerning identities roles processes U PP Nt Emotional 1 Low levels of anxiety regarding the setting 2 Some evidence of personal feeling states usually implied rather than expressed 3 Situationally specific reactions to others COMMON DILEMMAS QWWUOWP Resistance non participation Hostility toward setting other members leader Premature disclosures nature andor amount Inadequate communication skills Request for explicit instructions Participatory imbalance Miscellaneous stress reactions Con icting expectations LEADERSHIP ISSUES ORIGINS OF FEELINGS A Same as in Opening Stage I SEMINAR IN GROUP COUNSELING Characteristics of the Middle Stage Allan Dye PhD INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR A Physical 1 Relatively more idiosyncratic than conforming 2 Frequent changes in proximity posture 3 Vestiges of territoriality owned space group configuration may be of sociometric significance 4 Frequent transitions from relaxed to tight breathing posture facial expression 5 Sustained eye contact 6 Periodic touching or holding Verbal Personally relevant topics 2 Metaphorical conversations related to both individual and group t themes Wide range of volume intensity 4 Interpersonal conversations characterized by directness disclosure U Emotional 1 Origins usually internal or related to awareness of specific others vs the setting or quotthe group 2 Potentially wide range of experiencing and expressing COMMON THEMES 010003 Relationships partner parent children colleagues Authority Responsibility internality externality Guilt Sexuality Intimacy III E Rejection G Non awareness wants feelings sensations GOALS A Provide freedom and security for disclosing B Maximum use of group39s collective resources C Individual discovery awareness learning METHODS A Monitor attending and communicating processes B lndividual counseling as appropriate C Sponsorconduct awareness activities D Sponsorconduct experimental behavior E Encourage assign out of group applications E Freedom security client centered G Experience contact awareness Gestalt H Trials applications behavioral CAUTIONS A Lack of functional readiness B Overuse of techniques C Projection as interpersonal con ict D Pressure to conform E Sub grouping E Despondency and counter despondency I III SEMINAR IN GROUP COUNSELING Characteristics of the Ending Stage Allan Dye PhD INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIORS A Same as Middle Stage except 1 Less postural movement 2 More contact between members 3 Shift from disclosure to application 4 Less expression of negative feelings 5 Intimacy a frequent topic expressed or implied 6 Emotional experience a function of immediate experience in the group closure parting feelings of loss intimacy etc COMMON THEMES mmpowgt Applying new perspectives behaviors Parting grieving Gratitude celebration Making it last continuing Saying goodbye Accepting separation METHODS mun Encouraging goal and action statements Facilitating expression of unfinished business appreciations and resentments If appropriate discussing quotWhat39s next for each member Evaluation Sponsor closure if necessary CAUTIONS 5003 Tail gunning parting shots too late disclosure Resistance to end including attempts to re start Requests for continuingextended leadership Counter dependency leader COUN 528 Handout 8 GROUP LEADERSHIP SKILLS From a workshop by Dr Ed Jacobs Being clear as to the purpose Being clear about your role as leader Using your eyes effectively Being aware of the focus a on a topic b on a person Getting holding shifting and deepening the focus Setting the proper tone Tuning into the group39s energy Generating and building interest and energy Using your voice effectively Knowing your allies in the group Second guessing Thinking of members as individuals Drawing out a who b when c how Cutting off a who b when c how Using exercises effectively ROUNDS The value of rounds cannot be exaggerated Of all the kinds of group exercises and activities the round is the most useful and versatile I USESPURPOSES A Get information B Get the members focused C Get the members involved II KINDS A Designated Word or Designated Number Round 1 quotHerequot Not here 2 quotYesquot No something to work on 3 1 10 rating comfort level like yourself marriage job life B Word or Phrase Round 1 On a topic or issue home life marriage 2 Reaction to an exercise someone39s work etc C Comment Round 1 What has stood out to you 2 How has the week been III THINGS TO THINK ABOUT A Where to begin and end B Not completing the entire round C Passing on the hesitant member D Processing or using the round INTRAPERSONAL GROUPS A leader of a growth support or therapy group must decide whether the focus will be interpersonal members focusing on here and now and group process or intrapersonal members focusing on their own issues Jacobs Harvill and Masson in their book Group Counseling Strategies and Skills strongly suggest that the better approach is the intrapersonal model since members of such groups have many personal issues that need to be addressed The leader using the intrapersonal approach quotleadsquot the group rather than quotfacilitatesquot the group The funnel below can serve as a guide for the leader using an intrapersonal approach to group leadership The Funnel Effect for Growth Support and Therapy Groups Depthquot Leader39s Behavior 10 A Focuses Group on 9 Relevant Topic that Relates to Purpose of the Group 8 7 6 B Uses a Round that Deepens the Focus or Uses an Exercise 7 that Deepens the 6 Focus 5 C Holds Focus on the Topic Often this is 7 the intent of the 6 group ie focused 5 discussion 4 D Uses an ln Depth 6 Exercise then More 5 Discussion e g 4 family sculpture 3 2 1 E Focuses on an Individual 10 is surface 1 is great depth Comments Can skip but usually needed to go from A to Q Can skip if leader sees the need to go to D or E Can skip if leader sees benefit in going to E May not want group to focus on one person for any length of time THOUGHTS ON CUTTING OFF 1 You must be able to cut off group members in order to be effective as group leader Otherwise the focus during the group will more than likely bounce around or the group will be dominated by one or two members or the members will end up discussing topics that are not relevant 11 Tell the members during the first session that you will at times have to cut off members You can say something like Example quotThere will be times that I may cut a member off I will do this for any number of reasons I may interrupt in order to get more people in on the discussion or to shift the focus to a different topic or to a different person Please realize that I am thinking about all of you and I want the experience to be good for everyone so that may mean that I will have to shift the focus of the group If you ever have any question about why I may have shifted the focus from you please check with me 111 When you cut off you do one of three things cut and stay with the person cut and stay with the topic or cut and leave the person and the topic A g and Stay with the person 1 Ask person clarifying questions a By the leader b By the members c By both the leader and the members 2 Have person do some focused activity could use chair other members drama etc 3 Have person complete a round from where they are seated or have them move in front of each member 4 Have members give person feedback Example quotWhat do you think is trying to say 5 Have members become the person Example quotI want you to become Try with your voice and body to be Start with I39m and here39s what I39m trying to say B Q and Stay with the topic Example If Joe is talking about his dad quotLet39s hear from others about their relationship with their dadquot C Q and Leave the person and topic Example quotI want to shift the focus to this exercise that I think you will find interestingquot D Cut off quickly Listen to tone of voice 1 If the voice of the member talking indicates quotstory tellingquot and you are wanting brief comments cut off the member before he gets into the quotstoryquot 2 If the voice indicates criticism and you don39t feel the person is going to be helpful you39ll need to cut the person off For example if the member is going to be critical of Joe or going to change the subject to himself you can say Example quotLet39s stay with Joe Joe I want to ask you somethingquot E Use your own non verbals to cut off 1 Your hands 2 Your eyes F Use rounds as a way to allow you to cut off That is by saying you are doing a round you are asking each person for a brief comment DRAWING OUT Although members should not be forced to talk group members usually feel more comfortable when all members share Also if a member shares very little other members often are uncomfortable and misunderstand the member39s quiet behavior Usually the quiet member is afraid to talk so using the various techniques listed below can be very helpful 1 Use written exercises such as sentence completions so that you can ask the member to read hisher answer 2 Use rounds quiet members will usually be willing to say one or two words during a round 3 End the round on the person you want to draw out 4 Use dyads and pair yourself with the quiet member in order to find out why the person is being quiet 5 Gently quotnudgequot person to speak by calling on them but make sure they do not feel on the spot Often I do this by calling two people39s names Example quotJoe you haven39t said much nor have you Amy Do either of you want to comment If they seem uncomfortable move on 6 DO NOT SPOTLIGHT An example of spotlighting would be quotJane what do you think If Jane is uncomfortable in group calling on her like this usually will not help and may bring on get the leader behaVior COUN 528 Handout 15 GOALS FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT This form is to help you think about various aspects of your relationships with others and your skills in group situations It gives you a chance to set your own goals for development The steps in using it are 1 Read through the list of activities and decide which ones you are doing all right which ones you should do more and which ones you should do less Mark each item in the appropriate place 2 Some goals that are not listed may be more important to you than those listed Write such goals on the blank lines 3 Go back over the whole list and circle the numbers of the three or four activities which you would like to improve most at this time Doing all Need to Need to Communication Skills rigm do it more do it less 1 Talking in group discussion 7 7 7 1 2 Being brief and concise 7 7 7 2 3 Being forceful 7 7 7 3 4 Drawing others out 7 7 7 4 5 Listening alertly 7 7 7 5 6 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 Observation skills 1 Noting responses of group 7 7 7 1 2 Sensing mood of group 7 7 7 2 3 Noting talk patterns 7 7 7 3 4 Noting interest level of group 7 7 7 4 5 Sensing reactions of individuals 5 6 7 Problem solving skills 1 Stating problems or goals E9 Asking for ideas U Giving ideas 4 Evaluating ideas LII Summarizing discussion 9 Clarifying issues 8 Morale building skills 1 Showing interest E9 Encouraging others to talk U Harmonizing helping people reach agreement Reducing tension 4gt LII Upholding rights of individuals 9 Expressing praise or appreciation 8 Emotional expressiveness 1 Letting others know howl feel 2 Controlling my emotions 3 Disagreeing openly 4 Expressing warm feelings 5 Expressing gratitude Ability to tolerate emotions in others Being able to cope with con ict anger Being able to cope with closeness affection Being able to cope with disappointment Being able to stand silence E9 U 4gt LII Being able to cope with tension Social relationships 1 Being competitive E9 Being dominant U Being submissive 4gt Being trusting LII Being helpful 9 Being protective General Understanding why I do what I d0insight Encouraging comments on my own behaVi0rfeedback Being willing to accept help E9 U 4gt Being able to make up my mind firmly Criticizing myself LI 9 Being able to wait patiently COUN 528 Handout20 1 Association for Specialists in Group Work Principles for DiversityCompetent Group Workers Approved by the Executive Board August 1 1998 Prepared by Lynn HaleyBa ez Sherlon Brown and Bogusia Molina Consultants Michael D Andrea Patricia Arrendondo Niloufer Merchant and Sandra Wathen Preamble The Association for Specialists in Group Work ASGW is committed to understanding how issues of diversity affect all aspects of group work This includes but is not limited to training diversitycompetent group workers conducting research that will add to the literature on group work with diverse populations understanding how diversity affects group process and dynamics and assisting group facilitators in various settings to increase their awareness knowledge and skills as they relate to facilitating groups with diverse memberships As an organization ASGW has endorsed this document with the recognition that issues of diversity affect group process and dynamics group facilitation training and research As an organization we recognize that racism classism sexism heterosexism ableism and so forth affect everyone As individual members of this organization it is our personal responsibility to address these issues through awareness knowledge and skills As members of ASGW we need to increase our awareness of our own biases values and beliefs and how they impact the groups we run We need to increase our awareness of our group members biases values and beliefs and how they also impact and influence group process and dynamics Finally we need to increase our knowledge in facilitating with confidence competence and integrity groups that are diverse on many dimensions Definitions For the purposes of this document it is important that the language used is understood Terms such as quotdominantquot quotnondominantquot and quottargetquot persons andor populations are used to define a person or groups of persons who historically in the United States do not have equal access to power money certain privileges such as access to mental health services because of financial constraints or the legal right to marry in the case of a gay or lesbian couple andor the ability to influence or initiate social policy because of unequal representation in government and politics These terms are not used to denote a lack of numbers in terms of representation in the overall US population Nor are COUN 528 Handout20 2 these terms used to continue to perpetuate the very biases and forms of oppression both overt and covert that this document attempts to address For the purposes of this document the term quotdisabilitiesquot refers to differences in physical mental emotional and learning abilities and styles among people It is not meant as a term to define a person such as a learning disabled person but rather in the context of a person with a learning disability Given the history and current cultural social and political context in which this document is written the authors of this document are limited to the language of this era With this in mind we have attempted to construct a quotliving documentquot that can and will change as the sociopolitical and cultural context changes The Principles Awareness of Self A Attitudes and Beliefs Diversitycompetent group workers demonstrate movement from being unaware to being increasingly aware and sensitive to their own race ethnic and cultural heritage gender socioeconomic status SES sexual orientation abilities and religion and spiritual beliefs and to valuing and respecting differences Diversitycompetent group workers demonstrate increased awareness of how their own race ethnicity culture gender SES sexual orientation abilities and religion and spiritual beliefs are impacted by their own experiences and histories which in turn influence group process and dynamics Diversitycompetent group workers can recognize the limits of their competencies and expertise with regard to working with group members who are different from them in terms of race ethnicity culture including language SES gender sexual orientation abilities religion and spirituality and their beliefs values and biases For further clarification on limitations expertise and type of group work refer to the training standards and best practice guidelines Association for Specialists in Group Work 1998 and the ethical guidelines American Counseling Association 1995 Diversitycompetent group workers demonstrate comfort tolerance and sensitivity with differences that exist between themselves and group members in terms of race ethnicity culture SES gender sexual orientation abilities religion and spirituality and their beliefs values and biases COUN 528 Handout20 3 B Knowledge Diversitycompetent group workers can identify specific knowledge about their own race ethnicity SES gender sexual orientation abilities religion and spirituality and how they personally and professionally affect their definitions of quotnormalityquot and the group process Diversityskilled group workers demonstrate knowledge and understanding regarding how oppression in any formsuch as racism classism sexism heterosexism ableism discrimination and stereotypingaffects them personally and professionally Diversityskilled group workers demonstrate knowledge about their social impact on others They are knowledgeable about communication style differences how their style may inhibit or foster the group process with members who are different from themselves along the different dimensions of diversity and how to anticipate the impact they may have on others C Skills Diversitycompetent group workers seek out educational consultative and training experiences to improve their understanding and effectiveness in working with group members who selfidentify as Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities particularly with regard to race and ethnicity Within this context group workers are able to recognize the limits of their competencies and a seek consultation b seekfurthertraining or education c refer members to more qualified group workers or d engage in a combination of these Group workers who exhibit diversity competence are constantly seeking to understand themselves within their multiple identities apparent and unapparent differences for example gay Latina Christian workingclass and female and are constantly and actively striving to unlearn the various behaviors and processes they covertly and overtly communicate that perpetuate oppression particularly racism II Group Worker s Awareness of Group Member s Worldview A Attitudes and Beliefs Diversityskilled group workers exhibit awareness of any possible negative emotional reactions toward Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities that they may hold They are willing to contrast in a COUN 528 Handout20 4 nonjudgmental manner their own beliefs and attitudes with those of Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities who are group members Diversitycompetent group workers demonstrate awareness of their stereotypes and preconceived notions that they may hold toward Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities B Knowledge Diversityskilled group workers possess specific knowledge and information about Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals and transgendered people and group members who have mentalemotional physical andor learning disabilities with whom they are working They are aware of the life experiences cultural heritage and sociopolitical background of Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and group members with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities This particular knowledgebased competency is strongly linked to the various racialminority and sexual identity development models available in the literature Atkinson Morten amp Sue 1993 Cass 1979 Cross 1995 D Augelli amp Patterson 1995 Helms 1992 Diversitycompetent group workers exhibit an understanding of how race ethnicity culture gender sexual identity different abilities SES and other immutable personal characteristics may affect personality formation vocational choices manifestation of psychological disorders physical quotdiseasequot or somatic symptoms helpseeking behaviors and the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the various types of and theoretical approaches to group work Group workers who demonstrate competency in diversity in groups understand and have the knowledge about sociopolitical influences that impinge upon the lives of Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities Immigration issues poverty racism oppression stereotyping andor powerlessness adversely impacts many of these individuals and therefore impacts group process or dynamics COUN 528 Handout20 5 C Skills Diversityskilled group workers familiarize themselves with relevant research and the latest findings regarding mental health issues of Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities They actively seek out educational experiences that foster their knowledge and understanding of skills for facilitating groups across differences Diversitycompetent group workers become actively involved with Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities outside of their group workcounseling setting community events social and political functions celebrations friendships neighborhood groups etc so that their perspective of minorities is more than academic or experienced through a third party quotI DiversityAppropriate Intervention Strategies A Attitudes and Beliefs Diversitycompetent group workers respect clients religious andor spiritual beliefs and values because they affect worldview psychosocial functioning and expressions of distress Diversitycompetent group workers respect indigenous helping practices and respect Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities and can identify and utilize community intrinsic helpgiving networks Diversitycompetent group workers value bilingualism and sign language and do not view another language as an impediment to group work B Knowledge Diversitycompetent group workers demonstrate a clear and explicit knowledge and understanding of generic characteristics of group work and theory and how they may clash with the beliefs values and traditions of Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities Diversitycompetent group workers exhibit an awareness of institutional barriers that prevent Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans COUN 528 Handout20 6 Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered members and members with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities from actively participating in or using various types of groups that is task groups psychoeducational groups counseling groups and psychotherapy groups or the settings in which the services are offered Diversitycompetent group workers demonstrate knowledge of the potential bias in assessment instruments and use procedures and interpret findings or actively participate in various types of evaluations of group outcome or success keeping in mind the linguistic cultural and other selfidentified characteristics of the group member Diversitycompetent group workers exhibit knowledge of the family structures hierarchies values and beliefs of Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities They are knowledgeable about the community characteristics and the resources in the community as well as about the family Diversitycompetent group workers demonstrate an awareness of relevant discriminatory practices at the social and community level that may be affecting the psychological welfare of persons and access to services of the population being served C Skills Diversitycompetent group workers are able to engage in a variety of verbal and nonverbal groupfacilitating functions dependent upon the type of group task counseling psychoeducational psychotherapy and the multiple selfidentified status of various group members such as Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities They demonstrate the ability to send and receive both verbal and nonverbal messages accurately appropriately and acrossbetween the differences represented in the group They are not tied down to one method or approach to group facilitation and recognize that helping styles and approaches may be culturebound When they sense that their group facilitation style is limited and potentially inappropriate they can anticipate and ameliorate its negative impact by drawing upon other culturally relevant skill sets Diversitycompetent group workers have the ability to exercise institutional intervention skills on behalf of their group members They can help a member determine whether a quotproblemquot with the institution stems from the oppression of Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals or transgendered persons and persons with physical mentalemotional andor learning disabilities such as in COUN 528 Handout20 7 the case of developing or having a quothealthyquot paranoia so that group members do not inappropriately personalize problems Diversitycompetent group workers do not exhibit a reluctance to seek consultation with traditional healers and religious and spiritual healers and practitioners in the treatment of members who are selfidentified Indigenous Peoples African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics LatinosLatinas gays lesbians bisexuals and transgendered persons andor group members with mentalemotional physical andor learning disabilities when appropriate Diversitycompetent group workers take responsibility for interacting in the language requested by the group members and if not feasible make an appropriate referral A serious problem arises when the linguistic skills of a group worker and a group member or members including sign language do not match The same problem occurs when the linguistic skills of one member or several members do not match This being the case the group worker should a seek a translator with cultural knowledge and appropriate professional background and b refer to a knowledgeable competent bilingual group worker or a group worker competent or certified in sign language In some cases it may be necessary to have a group for group members of similar languages or to refer the group member for individual counseling Diversitycompetent group workers are trained and have expertise in the use of traditional assessment and testing instruments related to group work such as in screening potential members and they also are aware of the cultural biaslimitations of these tools and processes This allows them to use the tools for the welfare of diverse group members following culturally appropriate procedures Diversitycompetent group workers attend to as well as work to eliminate biases prejudices oppression and discriminatory practices They are cognizant of how sociopolitical contexts may affect evaluation and provision of group work and should develop sensitivity to issues of oppression racism sexism heterosexism classism and so forth Diversitycompetent group workers take responsibility in educating their group members to the processes of group work such as goals expectations legal rights sound ethical practice and the group worker s theoretical orientation with regard to facilitating groups with diverse membership Conclusion This document is the quotstarting pointquot for group workers as we become increasingly aware knowledgeable and skillful in facilitating groups whose memberships represent the diversity of our society It is not intended to be a quothow toquot document It is written as a call to action andor a guideline and COUN 528 Handout20 8 represents ASGW s commitment to moving forward with an agenda for addressing and understanding the needs of the populations we serve As a quotliving documentquot the Association for Specialists in Group Work acknowledges the changing world in which we live and work and therefore recognizes that this is the first step in working with diverse group members with competence compassion respect and integrity As our awareness knowledge and skills develop so too will this document evolve As our knowledge as a profession grows in this area and as the sociopolitical context in which this document was written changes new editions of these Principles for DiversityCompetent Group Workers will arise The operationalization of this document article in process will begin to define appropriate group leadership skills and interventions as well as make recommendations for research in understanding how diversity in group membership affects group process and dynamics References American Counseling Association 1995 Code of ethics and standards Alexandria VA Author Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development 1996Multicultural competencies Alexandria VA American Counseling Association Association for Specialists in Group Work 1991 Professional standards for training of group workers Together 20 914 Association for Specialists in Group Work 1998 Best practice guidelines Journal for Specialists in Group Work 23 237244 Atkinson DR Morten G amp Sue DW Eds1993 Counseling American minorities 4th ed Madison WI Brown amp Benchmark Cass VC 1979Homosexual identity formation A theoretical model Journal of Homosexuality 4 219236 Cross WE 1995 The psychology of Nigrescence Revising the Cross model In JG Ponterotto JM Casas LA Suzuki amp CM Alexander Eds Handbook of multicultural counseling pp 93122 Thousand Oaks CA Sage D Augelli ARamp Patterson CJ Eds 1995 Lesbian gay and bisexual identities over the lifespan New York Oxford University Press Helms JE 1992 A race is a nice thing to have Topeka KS Context Communications