Writing Center Studies
Writing Center Studies ENG 597
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Reichert on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENG 597 at Texas A&M University - Commerce taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/232421/eng-597-texas-a-m-university-commerce in Foreign Language at Texas A&M University - Commerce.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Prof Derek P Royal ENG 597 7 Narrative Theory Getting Through Genette s Narrative Discourse Order gt narrative anachronies 7 dissimilarities between story and discourse o analepsis consider in terms of reach and extent ashback I reach 7 how far back in time a ashback goes 0 external 7 external to the time frame of the first narrative 0 internal 7 within the time frame of the first narrative o heterodiegetic 7 not part of the first narrative o homodiegetic 7 part of the first narrative I completing analepsis return 7 lling in the gapsellipses I repeating analepsis recall 7 repeating event with possible variation 0 mixed 7 both internal and external to time frame of first narrative I extent 7 how long the ashback lasts 0 partial analepsis 7 comes close but not all the way up to the beginning of first narrative 0 complete analepsis 7 comes all the way up to the beginning of the first narrative o prolepsis consider in terms of reach and extent ashforward I reach 7 how far ahead in time a ashforward goes 0 external 7 external to the time frame of the first narrative 0 internal 7 within the time frame of the first narrative o heterodiegetic 7 not part of the first narrative o homodiegetic 7 part of the first narrative I completing prolepsis 7 fills in ahead of time a blank or ellipsis in first narrative repeating prolepsis advance notice to be distinguished from advance mention 7 comments ahead of time on an event that will appear later in first narrative I extent 7 how long the ashforward lasts 0 partial prolepsis 7 ashforward is abruptly interrupted usually to go back to earlier moment of interruption 0 complete prolepsis not really possible gt narrative achronies 7 narrative event not linked in terms of time Duration gt anisochronies effects of rhythm o narrative speed where N is narrative S is story and T is time I pause NT 00 gt ST where NT n and ST 0 I stretch NT gt ST I scene NT ST I summary NT lt ST I ellipsis NT lt 00 ST where NT 0 and ST n o de nite ellipsis7indefinite ellipsis o explicit ellipsis7implicit ellipsis7hyp0thetical ellipsis Frequency gt frequency of narration where N is narrative and S is story Mood singulative narrative I narrating once what happened once 7 IN IS I narrating n times what happened n times 7 nN nS repeating narrative I narrating n times what happened once 7 nN lS iterative narrative I narrating once what happened n times 7 IN nS o generalizing external iterations 7 temporal eld of iteration extends beyond temporal eld of scene suggesting an extemal period 0 synthesizing internal iterations 7 temporal eld of iteration within boundaries of scene itself 0 iterative narratives can be measured by 0 determination 7 span of time in which event occurs 0 speci cation 7 rhythm of recurrence of event 0 extension 7 span of time covered by event pseudo iterative narrative I narrating once what seems to happen n times but the speci city of the narration suggests otherwise gt Distance in terms of that between events and the narrating of them showing mimesis 7 detailed rendering of scenes and events with minimal narratorial mediation less distance telling diagesis 7 more narratorial mediation and less detailed rendering of scenes and events more distance narrative of events theoretically always an imitation of mimesis narrative of words 7 types of discourse involving greater and lesser degrees of distance I narratized speech 7 character s utterances are encapsulated or summarized by narrator greatest distance I transposed speech 7 narrator still present but more of a sense of actual words uttered I reported speech 7 character s utterances are represented directly least distance OR narrative of words types of discourse can be organized this way distinguished on scale of decreasing distance I narratized discourse 0 EXAMPLE She assumed that a man his age already knew the material I tagged indirect discourse one type of transposed discourse 0 EXAMPLE She handed him the book while telling him that a guy his age should already know the material I free indirect discourse another type of transposed discourse 0 EXAMPLE She handed him the book A guy his age should already know this stuff gt Voice VV V I tagged direct discourse reported discourse 0 EXAMPLE She said to him Here s the book A guy your age should already know this stuff I free direct discourse immediate discourse 0 EXAMPLE Here s the book A guy your age should already know this stuff Perspective 7 focalizaton or the point of View from which situations or events are presented through whose eyes we get the information 0 zero focalization 7 nonfocalized information that given from an omniscient or godlike perspective 0 internal focalization 7 subjective information given through character s point of View feelings I xed 7 only one perspective is given I variable 7 different perspectives are given for different situationsevents I multiple 7 different perspectives focus on same situationevent 0 external focalization 7 objective information given through what character does or says 0 alterations 7 isolated variation or changes in focalization I paralepsis 7 giving more information than should be given in terms of current focalization paralipsis 7 giving less information than should be given in terms of current focalization N arrating instance 7 act of recounting events and situations within context of space and time Narrative level 7 level at which narrating instance is situated in regard to diegesisnarrative o extradiagetic level 7 act of narrating outside the rst narrative o intradiagetic level 7 the narrative inside the rst narrative o metadigetic level 7 events narrated within first narrative Person 0 heterodiegetic narrative 7 narrator absent from and not a character in story heshe tells o homodiegetic narrative 7 narrator is present and a character in story heshe tells Prof Derek P Royal ENG 597 7 Narrative Theory The Concept of Character in Narrative Arguments for Primacy of Character 0 characters in narrative resemble real people that we recognize from life as such they signify the various psychological or moral essences that we recognize in our daily lives objects and events in a narrative exist only so far as they relate to character the signi cance of plot is determined by the ways in which events are connected to character primarily de ne charactercentered or psychological narratives Arguments for the Subordination of Character characters are given meaning only so far as their behavior furthers the plot or narrative events a character s status is purely functional character traits are not essential aren t important in and of themselves they are secondary to narrative events characters are only significant within the context of spheres of action Propp characters are actants rather than personages characters are not human or comprised of psychological or moral essences what we call a character is nothing more than the assemblage of text a verbal construct primarily define plotcentered or apsychological narratives In Aspects of the Novel E M Forster famously defined character within this dichotomy 0 at characters embody one or two traits that can be described in a brief summary 0 round characters more complex and display inconsistencies and con icts as in real people and more difficult to summarize Joseph Ewen approaches character along three different axes that are more continuums than dichotomies 0 axis of complexity simple one or two traits 0 axis of development static stays the same over time7 0 axis of inner life subjectivity penetrates consciousnessi complex several possibly con icting traits dynamic changes over time due to events complete objectivity interiority denied Seymour Chatman emphasizes an open theory of character characters should be treated as autonomous beings not mere plot functions characters are reconstructed by the reader audience according to speci c semic codes characters necessarily raises issues of totality traits and uniqueness characters in narrative are openended leaving open the possibility of surprising the reader audience through their choices unlike events traits are not xed or determined in a temporal or horizontal chain but instead prevail throughout and even beyond the narrative if events are the predicates of narrative then characters are the adjectives of narrative Shlomith RimmonKenan attempts to integrate theories of character that either validate its supremacy or subordinate it to plot 0 character should be seen in a hierarchical structure in which elements are combined into unifying categories 0 these categories are uni ed under the proper name 0 the principles of this cohesion are repetition contrast and implication In Problems of Dostoevsky39s Poetics Mikhail Bakhtin develops the concept of un nalizability 0 characters are constantly in the process of making themselves thereby resisting any nalized de nition or end point of understanding 0 characters are apt to surprise the readeraudience through their choices and actions o no matter what the determining fact rs p J 39 39 39 39 39 39 texts and the characters they contain much like real individuals can never be ultimately pigeonholed 0 so long as the character lives there will be loopholes of de nition 0 what is left over after every determining factor has been considered is what Bakhtin aptly calls a surplus of humanness iunrealized potential makes one human Prof Derek P Royal ENG 597 7 Narrative Theory What Is Narrative Narrative the representation of an eventaction or a series of eventsactions Without an event or action you may have a description an exposition an argument a lyric or a combination of these but you won t have a narrative Consider the following statements 0 The student had the book 0 The student read the book Are these or are these not narratives Where is the event or action in each sentence Variations on our de nition of narrative o A narrative requires that there be one or more people communicating at least one event a narrator to one or more recipients a narrate A narrative requires that there be more than one event A narrative requires that there be more than one event and that the events be causally related A further problem Presentation or representation It s all a matter of mediation an issue of how the story is conveyed Representation suggests that there is a representing of an original event or action through a particular form eg through speech writing images But if fiction is a series of actions that had never actually exited before then how can an event be represented Initial distinctions that need to be made 0 Story Narrative Discourse Story is an event or sequence of events that occur in chronological fashion as in a history of events Narrative discourse is the way in which the events are represented in terms of order frequency duration etc Constituent Events Supplementary Events Constituent events are events that are necessary for the story the things that drive the story forward Supplementary events are events that do not drive the story forward and without which the story would still remain intact Narrativity Narrativity is a set of properties that characterize narrative and distinguish it from non narrative This is always a matter of degree and context Are the same properties needed in both the novel and the fairy tale Do certain qualifiers such as adjectives and adverbs give more depth to a story thereby engaging the reader to a greater or lesser degree