Constructivism, Discovery Learning,
Constructivism, Discovery Learning, EDU 2100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Thomas Nelson 102015 As a teacher you want to get enaged 0 Constructivism Philosophical approach to learning by active participation 0 Info must be discovered through an activity conducted by learner rather than just being told info 0 Calls for change in design of current classrooms 0 Tenets of constructivism 0 Learning results from exploration and discovery Learning is a community activity facilitated by shared inquiry Learners play an ongoing active and critical role in assessment Learning results from participation in authentic activities realworld Learners create knowledge from new information in light of previous experiences 0 Teachers are facilitators who coach learners as they create their own learning path 0 3 types 0 Exogenous Acquisition of knowledge re ects reality of external world 0 O O O O Endogenous New knowledge develops out of earlier knowledge through a process of cognitive development of the structures into which knowledge is organized Similar to Piaget Dialectical Knowledge comes from the interactions between learners and the environment and interactions with one another and with teachers Similar to Vygotsky Social Constructivism Social interaction facilitates learning Situated Cognition Meaningful learning occurs within realworld tasks Provide opportunities to manipulate and experiment Employ meaningful problems that link concepts to everyday experiences Center around higher order concepts and multiple perspectives Allow learners to evaluate their own needs test and revise their knowledge Connect cognition to context Emphasize the value of overcoming awed beliefs for understanding 6 teaching models 0 Teaching for Understanding Perkins and Unger Choosing generative topics setting explicit goals of understanding doing performances that aid understanding and providing ongoing assessment Collaborative Problem Solving Nelson Creating collaborative environments honoring importance of authenticity learning by doing encouraging exploration including social contexts cultivating relationships and developing lifelong learning Fostering a Community of Learners Brown and Campione Collaborating in small groups where each student has a subtopic area sharing learning among students and participating in more consequential tasks Apprenticeships in Thinking Rogoff Stimulating children s interests in cognitive tasks simplifying tasks to foster accomplishment providing direction and stimulating motivation offering feedback minimizing frustration and risk and modeling acts to be performed ProblemB ased Learning B arrows and Kelson Presenting problems scenarios identifying relevant facts generating hypotheses identifying learning issues applying new knowledge to test hypotheses and re ecting on new knowledge Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt Presenting believable challenging videodisk adventure stories providing opportunities for problem solving designed like detective novels applying to a variety of curricular areas and generating many possible solutions Encouraging meaningful learning 0 Ask students to present their experiences and ideas 0 Selfre ection 0 Work in groups 0 Problem solving opportunities 0 Create learning situations to elaboratereconstruct on their knowledge Strategies for assisting students from low SES backgrounds or with learning difficulties 0 Flexible grouping 0 Student collaboration 0 Teacher modeling followed by practice 0 Input and assistance Windschitl identifies 4 problems with constructivism 0 Conceptual O Pedagogical 0 Cultural 0 Political Discovery Learning Students are put into a situation in which they have to figure something out for themselves Developed by Jerome Bruner in 1960 O Expanded on ideas of Piaget Procedures learning on an inductive basis specific or general Teacher providing problem situations that stimulate and encourage students to figure out structure of subject matter 3 types 0 Pure Discovery Minimal teacher guidance 0 Guided Discovery Teacher gives hints gt Always start off with this 0 Expository Teacher gives final answer and the students has to figure out how to get to that answer More of a cognitive approach as students create own learning rather than being told what they should know Provide examples Provide access to experiences Allow collaborative work communication can be helpful in discovery Provide questions to answer or possible next steps Provide already worked examples to trigger background knowledge BicknellHolmes and Hoffman identify 5 learning architectures that make up discovery learning 0 CaseB ased Learning OOO Incidental Learning Learning by Exploring Learning by Re ection O StimulationBased Learning Students with greater prior knowledge could more accurately interpret results of a discovery learning discovery learning activity than students with lesser prior knowledge Communication is essential to discovery Discoveries don t have to be in a classroom can be fostered by field trips and other experiences outside of school where students can engage in problem solving Direct Instruction Model Rosenshine 1979 O Utilizes teacherdirected activities Teacher is leading classroom but students are still participation Not lecturing 0 Features clearly stated goals 0 Emphasizes covering content 0 All classroom time spent on task performance monitoring and giving immediate feedback 0 Teacher chooses instructional materials activities tempo and pacing 0 Summary of teachereffects research gt teacher characteristics Believe their students are capable of learning amp they are capable of teaching Spend the majority of their classroom time on instruction Organize their classrooms effectively amp maximize student learning time Use rapid curriculum pacing based on taking small steps Apply active teaching Teach students to mastery 0 Key behaviors Emphasis on review presentationlesson development and active participation of learners Learners actively participate through individual seatwork and homework Subject matter is emphasized Whole class instruction Recitation Teacher provides structure solicits student input then reacts to student input to increase effectiveness of instruction gt Structuring The way the teacher manages the recitation hand signals calling for attention gt Soliciting Teacher seeks student input by asking questions appropriate level redirect probe O gt Reacting Teacher responds to student responses evaluating clarifying praising criticizing Based on observational research not theory Gagne s Model RM Gagne O O 0 000000 0 O 0 System of learning and instruction Focuses on processes events and outcomes Model divided into 3 parts I Conditions before learning I Conditions during learning I Outcomes after learning Processes Phases learners go through While learning meaningful information Conditions Necessary requirements for learning to take place Outcomes Specific competencies to be acquired as a result of learning Events What must occur in order for learning to proceed successfully Framework for determining conditions most conductive to learning 8 processes of learning I Attention I Motivation I Selective Perception Sensory Register I Semantic Encoding I Storage in LongTerm Memory I Search and Retrieval I Performance I Feedback 9 events of instruction must happen in order I Gain attention I Inform learner of objective I Stimulating recall of prior learning I Presenting stimulus I Providing learning guidance I Eliciting performance I Providing feedback I Assessing performance I Enhancing retention and transfer Instructional Planning Model Classifying goals preparing instructional objectives developing instructional activities and choosing media Goals of instruction usually are provided to teachers in the form of a curriculum Bloom s Taxonomy A classification system of the categories of the cognitive domain organized into levels Applies only to cognitive domain 6 major categories Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis 0 Evaluation 0 Blooms said that taxonomies like his will help teachers 0 Define ambiguous terms like understand so that they can communicate OOOO curricular and evaluate info among themselves Identify goals that they may want to include in their own curricula Identify directions in which they may want to extend their instructional activities Plan learning experiences 0 Prepare measuring devices 0 3 learning outcomes level and type of achievement rate of learning and affective OOO outcomes are a function of 3 variables cognitive entry behaviors of students What they know When they start affective entry characteristics of students how they feel When they start and quality of instruction
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