week ten CJC 102 -2
Popular in Criminology
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Eiseman on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 -2 at Ball State University taught by Jonathan Intravia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
1026 1 Labeling theory a Howard Becker Frank Tanenbaum b also known as social reaction theory c argues that crime is label attached to individuals by those in power i we all have label people in someway You may label me as a dick I don t know d Key propositions i the law makes an act a crime ii criminal definitions are enforced by those in power 1 police courts corrections iii people are designated as criminals by the reactions of authorities iv those labeled criminal begin to view authorities and society as the enemy 1 this limits opportunities after they change their ways v future behavior by those labeled as an outcome of the negative reaction of being labeled e Primary deviance i extension of labeling theory ii an offender39s initial act of violating the law 1 act is relatively unnoticed or quickly forgotten thus has little impact on the individual future 2 don t learn anything from it f Secondary deviance i a norm violationcrime that is known and a negative label is applied ii Deviance amplification 1 when secondary deviance pushes offenders out of mainstream society and locks them into an escalation cycle of crime iii often will react by committing more crime 9 The labeling process i initial criminal act ii detection arrest byjudical system iii labeled official criminal iv new identity created v acceptance of labels vi labeled offenders commit crime h KEY ISSUES i one of the most difficult theories to empirically examine ii does not explain why primary deviance occurs iii many criminals do not claim to have a deviant identity i overall conclusions i brought us closer to understanding crime regarding socialization ii in general research has found social process theories to be consistent with their basic facts 2 Crime prevention policies and procedures a youth mentoring initiatives i reaches out to troubled teens through nurturing mentoring and education ii works with at risk youths in order to break their cycle of delinquencyviolence b Head start i goal 1 develop prosocial bonds early in life ii associated with short term and long term gains iii assists lowincome families to increase their attachment to conventional normsvalues c Diversion i designed to remove the negative effects of labeling ii prevent youthadult offenders from being formally processed through the CJS iii mental health treatment family support or counseling sports 1028 CONFLICT THEORY 1 overview of conflict theories a explains crime by understanding the social political economic nature of society i and the role this structure plays in the distribution of power b argues that root cause of crime is the social conflict created by the unequal distribution of wealth and power in society c the wealthy and powerful use the law to control the less advantaged members of society who threaten their positions 2 major principles a conflict theories b contemporary conflict theories i left realism ii peacemaking iii feminist iv powercontrol 3 origin of conflict theory a macrolevel perspective b concerned with social inequality i those who control the resources determine what behaviors are defined as crimes ii law is a key part of the struggle in society between the powerful and powerless c Marx i all aspects of social life including laws and crime are determined by the economic organization ii unequal distribution of power cause conflict 1 bourgeoisie businessfactory owners vs Proletariat workers a those with power try to keep their position b those without power try to increase their share iii law reflects class struggle and maintains inequality 1 three questions to consider a what is going on b who is in conflict c why are they in conflict Bonger i applied Marx s perspective to crime ii capitalist societies produced egoism selfishness 1 profit and greed make these people less likely to abide by the law a in order to gain money 2 crime is inherent 3 driving force for innovation should push for economic development iii socialist societies produce altruism unselfishness 1 equality to share to help others 2 crime rates are low 3 distribution of wealth more equally divided iv capitalist societies controlled by businesses v socialist society the state controls the revenues of government vi argued that the economically advantaged do not suffer same legal consequences as the disadvantaged 1 law is designed to control the poor in the interest of the rich