Christianity and the Limits of Success
Christianity and the Limits of Success HST 121 - M001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Ratty on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HST 121 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by J. Takeda in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see HST 121 in History at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
HST 121 Ryan Ratty Christianity and the Limits of Success Discussions over freedom Declining papal authority Declining resect for higher clergy Who wants freedom Princes Civic officials What kind of freedom Fiscal freedom from Rome Spiritual freedom from Rome Northern Renaissance French English Flemish Dutch German Renaissance Christian humanism Looking to Classical Greek and Latin to better understand Christian theology 10302015 Critical study of Scripture look at the source of Christianity rather than believing church leaders Print culture Invention of moveable type 1450 Gutenberg Bible Cheaper books Greater literacy Expansion of universities Libraries and silent reading The German State The Holy Roman Empire a decentralized megaempire Emperor Charles V Princes and Electors Martin Luther 14831546 Augustinian monk from Wittenberg Luther s theology Rejection of free will Emphasis on God s grace Criticism of the sacraments Church rituals Luther s actions 95 Theses 1517 Against the sales of indulgences Salvation cannot be bought or sold Luther s Radicalization AntiCatholic rhetoric flares up Freedom of a Christian 1520 Priesthood of all believers Importance of grace not good works To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation 1520 German princes asked to fight against corrupt Italian Church HST 121 Ryan Ratty 10302015 Diet of Worms 1521 Imperial trial Emperor CharlesV Luther s protector the Elector Frederic Bishops Who might be on Luther s side Why would people like Luther s message 5065 German cities turn Lutheran German princes gain more power over their churches German mayors gain that no longer goes to Pope German women like the idea of priesthood of all believers Allowed for divorce How might Luther s message be dangerous The Peasants Revolt 1524 Freedom of the Christian Peasants believe they can control church Peasants believe they can rise up against their masters Peasants want to abolish serfdom Peasants want selfgovernment Luther s response Kill the peasants like rabid dogs Close to 100000 peasants are killed murdered executed Peace in Germany Princes revolt Schmalkaldic league Military alliance against Emperor Charles V Established on February 27 1531 by Philip of Hesse and John Frederic of Saxony Religious freedom Economic advantages Political advantages Peace of Augsburg 1555 cuius regio eius religio Secular motivations for religious conflicts Catholic monarchs resist the Pope because they want to consolidate power in their kingdoms and centralize authority under Crown Protestant princes resist the Pope to increase independence from Holy Roman Emperor and want decentralization Social Transformations Population increases Greater population growth in Northern Europe Shift in econoic power from Mediterranean to northwest Europe Commercial agriculture growth bigger population HST 121 Ryan Ratty Where do people go Urban expansion Rich versus poor Social Transformations Price Revolution Major price in increase Example in England grain prices up 490 In England luxury items prices up 204 WHY Supply versus demand Effects Inflation Weakening of governments due to bankruptcy lmpoverished subjects Disciplining the poor The CounterReformation Defensive Catholic attempt to undertake reform of Church 1542 Inquisition in Rome 1559 Index created 15451563 Council of Trent Defined Protestant heresy Reformed Church administration Forbade indulgences More centralized Catholic Church Spanish Inquisition Spanish Crown Consistently Catholic Historic tradition of fighting infidels Reconquista Expulsion of Moors Expulsion ofJews The Spanish Inquisition Philip II of Spain r 15561598 Enforced religious conformity finding interrogating torturing killing heretics Against Moors Against Jews Against Protestants Dutch Inquisition Duke of Alba 18000 executed 60000 refugees 10302015 HST 121 Ryan Ratty 10302015 The Valois Dynasty around the French Religion 15621598 Francois l 15151547 Henri II 15471559 Francois ll 15591560 Catherine de Medici Regent 15601563 Charles IX 15601574 Henry III 15741589 The Holy Roman Empire Stage for the Thirty Years War 16181648 HRE Split between Protestants Catholic League vs Protestant League Political rivalry between Hapsburg dynasty and other European and Mediterranean powers France joins on the Protestant side France allied with the Ottomans Ends in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia EFFECT Reformations and counterreformations Politicization of Religion Polarization Catholic vs nonCatholic Christian vs nonChristian Mediterranean vs Atlantic