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10/26 - 10/30 Notes

by: Kendall Mansfield

10/26 - 10/30 Notes HIST 2020

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 2020 > 10 26 10 30 Notes
Kendall Mansfield
Survey of United States History Since 1877
Jennifer E. Brooks

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Survey of United States History Since 1877
Jennifer E. Brooks
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Mansfield on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2020 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer E. Brooks in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History Since 1877 in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Civil Riihts Movement I Economy ourishes after WWII but not all people do 0 Significant numbers that it doesn t apply to Poverty and discrimination permeate Lived reality is different than the perceived American life of Americans challenge status quo Civil rights most important spawns other movements Biggest Challenge civil rights movement Morphs into and helps develop others 0 Anti wartime 0 Women s movement 5 0 Last 10 years long Civil Rights Movement 0 Traditionally see start in Brown vs Board of Education 0 Timeline goes further back and further ahead I From slavery there are African Americans challenging their freedom I Some in NAACP formed in all the way to after o Takes coming together of a massive movement and then federal action to create change either by themselves would not have accomplished 0 Key supreme court decisions I Predate brown decision 0 Civil Rights Act 0 Voting rights Act I Takes many continuations of movements to have these things actually be enforced also depends on where you are 0 East TN tobacco subsidy farmers there had an for the crop I Allotments were a way to support the price of tobacco Continued as agricultural policy after WWII Foreign competition from Egypt Farmers could trade and lease their allotments Decrease of farmers larger plots of land OOOO O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Impact of technology revolutionizes farming after WWII iconic image of tractors in the Southeast is gained research going into creating an efficient cotton picker Improved seeds scientific fertilization Pesticides Farm more land with less labor and less effort Shift toward even more mechanization Eventually creates robotic technology for the factory process I I auto factories form tons of people in the industry in Flint Michigan but are nonunionized and can shut down production that forces Ford and GM to allow them to unionize 9 first sit down strike but today in West Point GA at the KIA Factory people are assisting the robots in making the cars in 2003 there were no people in a textile factory I One of the most important exports in turkey completely automated towel making Grows because of New Deal and WWII 9 growth of sunbelt most nonunionized part of the country Foreign competition and other countries start building better cars Aimed at overturning key aspects of the New Deal Wagner Act and collective bargaining I Congress passed it over the presidents veto organized labor peaks quickly and begins this decline Textile Industry now Auto Industry 9 see them moving out of the Steel Belt and moving into the Southeast and Southwest where you do not have to pay workers as much Capital Flight leaving one place to go to another where labor is cheaper I Same dynamic go to Mexico Indonesia Bangladesh in a decade Wages better than they were I still sectors that are not doing well and people that are not prospering A lot if instability still Corporations gain organization 9 certain profit for participating A lot of money into universities for new marketing techniques o Consolidation of smaller businesses into fewer and larger corporations always very profitable at the end of WWII there were that was made with local resources I NYC at the end of WWII had over 12 NYC made beers most owned by family owned business 9 changes in with wave of corporate consolidation Decline in the number of individual breweries and there are a lot of profits to be made I Veterans who go and drink really good beer in Germany for example who come home and use what they learned there have money to spend after being at war 0 Anheuser Busch become one of the biggest beer producing companies when Wisconsin is seen as the heart of the beer industry in the US I Develop a beer that can be manufactured anywhere in the country always the same taste no matter where it is brewed I seven leading breweries that hold 7 I Not much diversity among the beer I Past 1520 years development of neolocal breweries and pub 0 Same dynamic a lot of the individual brews that seem unique are still being made by just a few large corporations Diversity and family owned turning into large oligopolies I IBM Apple Microsoft 0 growth of these areas around inner city cores 0 o Dramatic shift of tax revenue that is transferred out into the suburbs 9 jobs leave inner cities and go to the suburbs 0 Inner city schools decline fewer stores 0 I On one hand some people see suburbanization as the American way of life 9 prosperous I Flip side transferal of wealth from one city to the suburbs around the cities 0 Decline for inner city neighborhoods middle and upper class whites in the US 0 Especially middle and upper class white men Women continue to face gender disparities and equal pay even though they are half the population especially African Americans gain the least continue to face legal segregation disenfranchisement o white suburbs I Have documents that prohibit African Americans from buying houses there sample of mass market building 0 houses are all the same yards are the same built for the veterans 0 Paid for the GI Bill 0 Specifically has a racially discriminant clause 0 GI Bill program to get mortgages requires them even if a veteran to go to a loan and show their credit score 0 Redlining black districts and black citizens Income legal racial gender class disparities image marketed as part of the Cold War to the world at large 0 If you do this you will be prosperous in the with and debating communism vs capitalism and which makes a more advanced society at a world fair or expo 0 Display of the American Kitchen with the modern appliances big media moment 0 says they take care of women with the appliances and we have all these things that are better and make people happier o started debate about status of American women and how they are equal in the Soviet Union WWII creates the Af uent Society some people who question the meaning of this all along 0 Is consumption of commodities the real meaning of democracy Politicians talk about this concept 0 People who for whatever reason structural inequalities cannot participate in the af uent society Some of the contradictions are evident a lot earlier and are continuous but during WWII you see more dramatic problems but also creates a context in which some African American activists hope they can use this situation to push for more equality leading black activists in the US talked about whether the war need for African Americans in the war would finally give them an advantage for arguing for equality if they have to fight for the country they should be treated equal put cause for equality on the back burner and come together to support the war effort resulting in race riots no movement on equality after the war 9 decline 0 No progressive change for African Americans black leaders and activists think that fighting in the war will give them an advantage for arguing equality they use the country s need for them to work to their advantage joins groups and says that they want protection in the defense industry and equal wages going to watch on Washington DC to O powerful motivation on the part of Roosevelt and political leaders do not want a public display of division on the homefront when going into a war against fascism creates FEPC 0 Fair Employment Practices Commission does not happen not effective not much enforcement power but there is more hiring of African Americans during WWII than in WW1 o 8802 Dynamic of mass grassroots march organized with an agenda and then federal action Important in the Smith vs Alright outlaws all white primaries typical way that elections were in the Southeast to get around having African Americans being able to vote I Election apparatus of the state is so involved in the primaries you cannot prohibit it due to someone s race I Primary Case in makes it finally apply in the south see inc in black voter registration 0 Japan bombing Pearl Harbor causes hysteria on west coast 0 Roosevelt orders that Japanese Americans on the West coast are put in concentration camps during the war in cases of national emergency the federal government can take away peoples civil rights only then can the rights been taking Disenfranchisement is ruled unconstitutional because there is not a state of national emer ency Decision in that o Argues there s a violation of as supreme court decision Some activity to set up a few key decisions that set up a legal structure the NAACP uses to its advantage 0 Sets up a precedent for the Supreme Court for actually enforcing 15th amendment o A lot of it goes unenforced o Takes congressional decision to make it take root on the ground 0 Doesn t happen after these decisions Coalition of Southern White Democrats and one faction of conservative republicans that limit this in congress 0 As long as democrats are in majority in house or senate they have seniority been there the longest and are the ones who o Reelected to office because majority of southerners cannot vote in the southeast Contradiction between af uent society and people who are not enjoying it Setting stage for Civil Rights Movement to erupt in the that generates different challenges Civil Rights Movement a lot of the people who participated in this event are still alive 0 Participants writing their own histories o wrote a memoir about his experiences and interactions with other activists in the movement 0 Historians that themselves were activists and dropped out of school to be apart of the movement and then become academics o Historian 0 Received the Presidential Medal of Freedom 0 Major activist in the Civil Rights Movement that marched with MLK Understanding of the Civil Rights Movement has evolved over time An approach that puts the dynamic energy on the federal government national organizations national achievements legislation from the supreme court and nationally known leaders of the Civil Rights Movement 0 In this approach we would focus on people like I Martin Luther King helped to start the SLCL Southern Christian Leadership Conference referred to as the mother of the movement also part of a different approach I key federal official that signs the and the I on the heels of his assassination in Iohnson pulls the impetus from congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of hat Kennedy had moved toward proposing 0 Brown Vs Board of Education decision 0 Civil Rights Act of 1964 0 Voting Rights Act of 1965 author that said 0 That there was a grassroots movement but it took the federal governments response to that movement and actions that were a result to the response that created change 0 Role of NAACP in bringing those cases together for years to the Supreme Court 0 Process of getting the CR and VR Acts passed and how Iohnson did it A lot of truth to this perspective but gives a specific view of the Civil Rights Movement 9 textbook version high school and even college level textbooks o Moral crossroads in America especially the south 0 Moral conscious and white America did the right thing and passed the Acts if you talk about brown you talk about little rock emphasize Eisenhower in sending in the first airborne military force to enforce integration 0 Selma March in Alabama Montgomery Bus Boycott in the field of history in the pushes toward a we the people perspective 0 Most people do not leave a lot of written records of day to day experiences European Military Latin Latin American all have different experiences and how they think about perceive the human experience approach that is more centered on smaller groups but also the masses or grassroots broader down on the ground mass movement coming from ordinary people filtering up to the top look more at the origins of movements 0 Emphasis on the grassroots citizens insurgency aspects of the movement as the most dynamic energy that motivates change takes this view and argues that without the grassroots nothing would have happened 100 years after civil war when the Voting Rights Act was passed Federal Government is important in shaping it by its resistance to do anything 0 I like Eisenhower who said nothing about the Brown Decision I Integrate with deliberate speed doesn t take position I Eisenhower s lack of enforcement shapes subsequent events because southern whites read it as permission to resist the Brown decision and form to resist the Brown Decision I Mass resistance generates the grassroots movement to have these things enforced o The inaction at the federal level is what helps promote the violence in the movement 0 Because MLK and other activists and advisors learn that it takes great violence for the federal government to act and busses will be burned people are shot at makes a public spectacle at a national level that the federal government steps in to stop the bus riots 0 Uses nonviolence as a tactic but also know violence is an important mechanism at getting federal attention and actions 0 Less enamored with MLK there was a movement before MLK he only emerged because of the movement that was there already 0 Most respectable woman got tired on the bus of being pushed around and did not give up her seat she was arrested and it led to a bus boycott o her activism predated the Montgomery bus boycott since at least 0 An issue that animated her was and how they could just get away with it She went to disobedient training so well known in Montgomery that some bus drivers would not pick her up at a bus stop because there was a good chance she would refuse to move seats involved in the movement way before she was arrested for not moving to the back of the bus 0 A lot of leaders were males and preachers from southern protestant churches most SCLC and NAACP leaders are men 0 Majority of activists that showed up on a day to day basis that put their lives on the line were black women I Also had a lot of women leaders but were at more of a local level with this background Rosa Parks seems more like a typical case long term member and very important organizer for the NAACP 0 She was tired of seeking change through the legal system and started helping students who were both black and white in with sit in ins Greensboro North Carolina helped form the today say that both approaches were important and the grassroots wouldn t have been successful without those people who were at the national and federal level to help pass what they were fighting for become part of the narrative O o Served country but come home only to suffer under the Jim Crow laws 0 O O I Assassinated immediately after IFK s speech on Civil Rights I WWII veteran I Leader of NAACP in Mississippi mostly Iackson Not only important because the Civil Rights Movement started with the decision Federal infrastructure culminating in this decision came from a series of cases brought from the NAACP about segregation of public schools dates back separate but equal I The unanimous decision is that the idea of separate but equal is unconstitutional is inherently unequal I Creates inferiority and unequal facilities and the sense of inequality that damages children I Case the NAACP made argued by who became the first black justice of the supreme court Eisenhower doesn t speak of the decision and makes white feel that he isn t going to push for it to happen so when you get black families test this and send their children into an all white school there is massive resistance 9 leads to more direct action 101St airborne nationalizes the guard they shut down the whole public school system for a year to fight integration white citizens council and KKK chapters pop up to fight his no southern town that did not have some aspect of the Civil Rights Movement 0 O 0 it moves out of the south and into other parts of the country had been the whole time but was more apparent now Some of the hardest fought battles were in political and legal obstacles Equal protection under the bill of rights under the law political equality 9 civil rights MLK embodies the spirit of the ideology of the movement and becomes more radical I pushes more and focuses on poverty class issue not just racial I Connect what is happening in the united states and around the world I Criticizes on the Vietnam War that causes President Johnson to cut off working with him assassinated in Memphis while trying to help the sanitation workers strike After these achievements in the movement doesn t end but Alabama context of and Mississippi around Black disenfranchisement 9 political citizenship Voter registration phase 9 Freedom Summer Violence 9 activists murdered bottom up approach because She represents an ordinary person who was very poor Did not have much to gain by federal action Acts on what she has experienced doesn t realize the racial aspects until after she heard whispers at Mrs Burkes how she found out about racism When she went to speak to her mom about eating dinner with a white family and her mom got upset and said she wasn t supposed to be eating with them not supposed to and wondered why she had to play with apple boxes when the white children had a whole playhouse 9 when she began to realize how bad she really had it Goes to grandmothers house and her confusion on how they are her uncles because their mom was black it made them black and not white At the movie theater she realizes that where the white people sit is better than where the black people sit never answers her questions tells her to stop asking them naturally was a curious kid that would ask questions and would get smacked when he asked about white people by his mom or grandma why would this be their response The more you knew the more danger you were in how parents would raise their kids so they would not have to worried about being killed by the white people for knowing too much 9 socialization yo mama jokes 0 Insult each other and whoever cant take and starts to show that they are upset by it loses 0 Practice that teaches people to withstand insults with whites and not react or show how it affects you historical roots in the Jim Crow era Eyes on the Prize America experience the Civil Rights Movement Footage in this film was used to help make the movie Selma Every year there is a reenactment of the event and people cross the bridge 0 This past year on the of the march the Obamas pushed Amelia Boynton Robinson who had taken part in the actual crossing in across in a wheelchair If you cant vote then you aren t free if you aren t free you re a slave marked the 10 year mark of the movement Black Americans would have to take the necessary steps to protect themselves symbolized the success of non violence and won the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo Norway in o student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Dallas County 0 At the the SNCC was exhausted and had to look to Dr King and the SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference for help 0 Dr King reopened the rivalry between the leaders of these two organizations the differences in leadership lead to challenges 0 Announced that the business men mayor and white power structure must take responsibility for the actions of Sheriff Jim Clark and if nothing was done in response to his actions the movement would be forced to take more drastic measures The differences were put aside on and the two organizations held a movement together 0 The organizations expected him to draw media attention which would ultimately gain the attention of the white house and congress o In he arrested a black teacher which led to many protests at the courthouse and were held by teachers in the area even though by doing so they risked losing their jobs 0 Said that the protestors were making a mockery of the courthouse When teachers who protested at the courthouse attempted to enter the building they were hit by the police and pushed back down off of the steps but they were not arrested like they had hoped to be so they went to join a rally at a nearby church The Teachers March was the first middle class march in Selma The teachers in the area had a huge impact on the others in the community 0 Mayor of Selma o Said that the city was subjected to hardships accidentally called MLK Martin Luther Coon on TV succeeded Clark in and became the Sheriff Half of the citizens in Selma AL were black but almost none of them were registered to vote When Negroes even tried to register to vote very few were granted registration wanted to eliminate every remaining obstacle they Negroes faced when registering to vote and though was the perfect opportunity to do so took park in these marches o Sheyann was 8 Rachel was 9 0 During the march on the Edmond Bridge picked her up while they were running from the cops but he was not fast enough so she had him put her down and she ran for her life called Sheriff Clark a Nazi and accused him of being as big of a racist as Hitler was 0 Told the sheriff that it was not a local problem it was a national problem and in response Clark lost his temper and began to hit Vivian he hit him so hard he ended up fracturing one of his fingers 0 Movement was encountering all the evil that was destroying the Black Americans Was organized and turned violent very quickly part of the night march said that the police were whipping them as they went One man who was white was hit in the back of the head with an ax head When a police asked if he needed a doctor and he said yes the police responded by saying there were no doctors available for people like him shot point blank by a police officer while he was trying to protect his mother and died 8 days later MLK said it was due to the hatred and racism of the federal government who could spend millions trying to protect the troops in Vietnam but could not protect its own black citizens As a response to Iackson s murder the SCLC proposed a march to be made from Selma to Montgomery Director of Direct Action of the SCLC March would take which would give enough time for people to spread the word and hopefully have it spread to DC around in the march John Lewis lead the march is now part of congress There were no police in sight as they marched through town police were waiting at the other end of the bridge waiting with orders from the mayor to stop the march from getting beyond the bridge When the march reached the state troopers that were waiting on the Sheriff Clark told them to disperse and go home when they didn t disperse violence broke out The state troopers had As well as having the weapons above the police were on horses and would beat people while riding them The protestors were forced to turn the church they gathered in into a hospital for all of the people injured by the police At the church people talked of retaliation but were talked down and told they stood no chance against the mass force of state troopers o It would be suicidal and senseless was enraged at how the state troopers handled the event Major TV stations including ABC stopped their primetime movies to broadcast scenes from the bridge and police brutality 0 Spoke on TV and said that the Governor should be ashamed on how the police had acted when following his orders 0 He also expressed that he thought that it was not so much a civil rights issue at this point but an issue of valuing human life African Americans sent out a request for people of goodwill to come and help them with this march answered the request and traveled to Selma to help them 0 People of Selma could feel change and the spirit of inspiration hope motivation and a renewed sense of commitment The second attempt of the march was set to take place on but the federal government told them to not march yet Dr King had never made a decision that went against what the federal government decided about the situation the decision to continue with the march as planned was the first time he didn t listen to the federal government In the organizations SNCC and SCLC there was internal disagreement but to the public they portrayed that there was agreement on how to proceed between the two groups It was argued that there was a necessity to keep moving and that they had gone too far to turn back now they previous marchers who had been beaten on Sunday were joined by more important members of the community When the marchers were stopped by the blockade of state troopers that asked if they could kneel and pray Dr King turned the marchers around after this which shocked 0 King said they had no other option which worsened the relationship between the SNCC and the SCLC Since they had to turn around MLK asked the people who had traveled to Selma to take part in the march to stay a little bit longer and continue to help them 0 When some of the ministers who had come to help had gone into town to eat dinner and were on their way back to where they were staying they took a wrong turn and ended up passing the Moon Caf 0 At the caf white men surrounded the group of ministers one of the white men hit with a club using full force and Reid died 2 days later 0 The news of his death provoked a national outcry many cities began to protest in response Some African Americans were angry that the nation had such a response to a white man dying for the movement but did not care when a black man died for the same cause Brown Church was barricaded and one group that was lead broke the barricade and Sheriff Clark wouldn t let them pass even when they asked for him to just let them go and pray at the courthouse he told them to go to church if they wanted to pray 0 When one protestor asked Clark if he would pray he responded and said that 0 When asked about justice and inequality he responded and said that said that protecting the marchers was now an issue of the government and the president Mayor Smitherman and President Iohnson met together to discuss this issue Burke Marshall the Attorney General at the time said that this was a moment in history to be remembered Iohnson let Smitherman go in hopes that he would release a statement saying that he planned to protect the marchers but he only spoke of how he was aware of the right to peacefully assemble o Iohnson addressed congress on the issue on TV 8 days after Bloody Sunday and 4 days after the death of Reid and said that 0 He also said they the US would overcome bigotry and injustice which would destroy what the South had been fighting for Segregation Martin Luther King s response to Iohnson saying this was to cry o This was a Victory like not other SNCC was beaten when trying to confront the governor one man to stop Wallace it does not matter how many people die Johnson needed to intervene


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