PChem Ma 10/26, 10/28, 10/30
PChem Ma 10/26, 10/28, 10/30 CHEM 345
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayli Antos on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 345 at Towson University taught by Dr. Ma in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Physical Chemistry in Chemistry at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
P Chem Ma Fall 2015 I Nonelectrolyte Solutions 3 The Gibbs Energy 0139 Mixing 1 AmixG TAmixS 3 Raoult s Law 1 1 1 The partial vapor pressure of a substance in a liquid is equal to the product of its mole fraction and the vapor pressure of the pure liquid P P xi or Pi P xi Pf IS the vapor pressure of the pure I substance An ideal solution is one in which all components obey Raoult s Law At a given temperature and partial vapor pressure ia ig and was uig xig 2 M RT lng if Pi is in bar llg ulO RT In P or xi 110 RT lnPl xl or Mi 2 Al0 RT 1n Pi RT 1n xi If in was then u 1 RT 11 x substance i in a liquid mixture liquid i Can use AmixG RTnA lIlXA IIB lnXB AmixH 0 in is the chemical potential of 1 is the chemical potential of the pure AmixS R m lIlXA IlB lnXB v Henry 3 Law The vapor pressure of a volatile solute is proportional to its mole fraction on a solution Used for dilute solutions when concentration is low For solute B in a dilute solution PB KBXB K is Henry s Law Constant PB is the partial vapor pressure of solute B XB is the mole fraction in solution of solute B P amp K must have the same units PB KB B K is Henry s Law Constant but a different value than the one above Its units are the pressure unit M Ideal dilute solution a solution in which th solvent obeys Rault s Law and the solute obeys Henry s Law If substance A solvent and substance B solute make an ideal dilute solution I For solvent A MA 1121 RT 1n xA I For solute B MB 2 113 piggy RT 1n PB 2 piggy RT In K B I If C0 1 molL or 1M then MBuggRT1anRT1n ugRT1n up 0 chemical potential of B in solution of solute B in solution 1130 standard chemical potential 3 RealZNonideal Solutions 1 1 For any substance i in uio RT lnai For solvent A aA 141 o xA ai the activity of substance i YA activity coefficient of A n For solute B a3 13 23 It Ideal solutions Yi 1 for solvent and solute ai Xi It Ideal dilute solutions solvent A YA 1 aA XA solvent B YB 1 a3 BC0 Chemical Equilibrium O 09 O 09 O 09 O 09 For a general reaction of aA bB r cC dD AG cue dun 61114 19MB Since for a substance i u ulO RT In a AG 2 cmg RTln ac dag RT 1n aD c1012 RT 1n aA 19mg RT 1n aB AG A60 RT 1n gag A60 RT an aAaB At equilibrium AGo so AG RTlnK K is the equilibrium constant KQeq Pi For gas a PO d 2 em 2 are U For an ideal dilute solution a CO c d K 43 233 crmd K b AaBb C CO CO Both AG0 and K are temperature dependent If Kgt1 the products are dominate If Klt1 the reactants are dominate AG RT1n9 K If QgtK AG is positive and the reverse reaction is spontaneous If Kgt Q AG is negative and the forward reaction is spontaneous Q is the reaction quotient cd P P 1f pressures are 1n bar E KP BARB
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