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Islamic History, Week Seven

by: Ari Notetaker

Islamic History, Week Seven HIST131010

Marketplace > University of Delaware > History > HIST131010 > Islamic History Week Seven
Ari Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover all lectures from week seven.
Rudolph Matthew
Class Notes
Islamic Near East, middle east, islamic history
25 ?





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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ari Notetaker on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST131010 at University of Delaware taught by Rudolph Matthew in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see ISLAMIC NEAR EAST:1500-PRESENT in History at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 03/26/16
Saturday, March 26, 2016 Islamic Near East: 1500-Present Week 7 - Afghanistan (similar to Turkey and Iran) • Remained remote until the Cold War of the 1960s-70s • Modernized in the 1980s and mired by wars thereafter • After the fall of the Safavids, Afghanistan was kind of forgotten • Tribal Durranis took power British and Russians fought over power in the 19th century, British could not break • the tribes and left it as a buffer state • Amir Habibullah (1901-1919), reform minded ruler, tried to somewhat modernize, enlisted the help of Mahmud Tarzi. • Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933), modernizing counselor given post in the government, picked up ideas in Europe, was behind the changes of the power in the 2nd half of the 19th-20th century. Traveled to Pakistan and saw the British influence, traveled to Paris and around the Arab world, and lastly spent time in Turkey during the late Ottoman Empire. • King Amanullah (1919-29), knows as the ultimate energetic reformer. Took advantage of the British after WWI who had exhausted their resources. In 1919, British retreated from Afghanistan and it became independent. He frequently clashed with the conservative establishment (clergy and tribes). He had a top-down approach of enlightened rulers and councilors. His reforms were the constitution of 1923 (individual rights and equality of all citizens before the law), discouragement of the veil, attempt to restrict polygamy and abolish child marriage. In 1924, there was a rebellion due to his reform efforts. The tribes forced him to abdicate his position and he was exiled to Rome. - Egypt (period between 2 World Wars) • Collective identity was not, and still is not, Arab. This goes back to pre-Islamic times and the ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs. • 1880, Egypt for Egyptians comes about. 1 Saturday, March 26, 2016 • After end of WWI, British refused to allow Egyptians to represent themselves during talks about the region’s fate. • 1919 revolution shows the first that women participate publicly and express opinion. • Sa’ad Zaghul, went to Paris and articulated Egyptian will. Leader of the Revolution of 1919. British bequeathed a parliamentary system implying political parties. The liberal experiment went on until 1952, but wasn’t very representative (upper population that was European educated protected themselves and their money). Zaghul was head of the Waft party, but it became corrupt. • King Faruq (1936-52), last to rule because he was overthrown. • Copts: Christians, very old, secular form of religion that had survived. Were heavily represented in nationalist movement because the movement focused on pre- Islamic times and wasn’t religion based. Qasim Amin (1863-1908), started Egyptian feminism movement because women • were 50% of the population and Egypt needed to utilize all of its resources. Women are the heart of society because they are the hearts of the families and teach the sons, so they must learn to read, write, cook, raise children, and clean correctly. Taha Husayn (1889-1973), foremost literary figure of Egypt. Wrote book in 1926, • “On Pre-Islamic Poetry.” Accused of being blasphemous and met resistance from clergy. He celebrated the Egyptian peasant as the true son of the soil. • Huda Sha’arawi (1879-1947), represented western influenced women for the first time. Went to 1921 women’s conference in Rome. After returning, she and her sisters threw off their veils. She became a part of the Waft party. • Hasan al-Banna (1906-49), founder of Muslim Brotherhood. School teacher who lived near Suez Canal and moved to Cairo. He hated western influence and ideas in Egypt society and government. Modeled the brotherhood after Christian missionaries who ran schools, clinics, orphanages, etc. Started preaching “re- Islamic” Egypt through grassroots organizations. By WWII, he had 400,000 followers. The Brotherhood wasn’t political at first, but the government was seen as a sellout. Against “Pharaoh” Nationalism. • Ali Mahir (1881-1960), king wanted to appoint Mahir as the prime minister, but the British forced him to appoint Mustafa al-Nahhas. This was fuel for the Brotherhood because it showed that Egypt really belonged to the British. - Iraq 2 Saturday, March 26, 2016 • 1899- Kuwait severed from Iraq and the Sheikdom sought protection of the British against Iraqis. • King Faisal of Iraq. one of the brothers given rule from the British. Met with opposition and tribal uprisings. The British saw that control over the land was hard and expensive due to the heterogeneous population and tribal establishments. In 1923, a constitution was crafted, but it had no effect because it didn’t actually promote equality. • Gertrude Bell - British (1868-1926), well versed with tribal life. Instrumental in writing the constitution of Iraq. She committed suicide, never married, was very smart, but never fit into society. • Nuri al-Said (1888-1958), prime minister. The regime became more militaristic and massacred Syrian Christians. In 1941, the government favored Germany, causing the British to move back in. In 1958, a military conspiracy toppled the regime and killed the leaders in the name of Arab nationalism. - Syria • Controlled by the French, threw King Faisal out (later established in Iraq). • Very diverse, French lifted up small minority by giving power to balance the majority, • 1970s because of increased power, the minority took power and have stayed in power until today (somewhat). Druse revolted against the French, put down immediately (1925) • • Antun Sa’ada, lived in South America for a long time. Protagonist for Greater Syria. Became leader of fascist party in Syria. - Transjordan • Fell under British mandate, became a buffer state between the British and the French. • Put Abdullah (other brother) on the throne of Jordan (1921-51) and his decedents still rule today. • The Bedouin warriors protected the royals, found balance between Bedouins and Palestinians. - Saudi Arabia 3 Saturday, March 26, 2016 • Abul Aziz (1932-53), strict fundamentalist rule. Called for support of puritanical Islam. Was a country without modernization, very poor, oil was found in the 30s but was not exploited until the 50s (the American/Arab oil company built Saudi Arabia). • King Ibn Sa’ud, met with President Roosevelt in 1945 on a ship in the Suez. Made the deal: Saudi Arabia gives the USA cheap oil, and the USA will provide protection and look the other way regarding your backward religion. • Sati al-Husri (1882-1968), studied in Europe where he learned the philosophical ideas of nationalism, republicanism, and language identity (not ethnicity). An Arab became defined as a proud, Arabic speaking native (not religion based because language comes before everything). There is no thought without linguistics. Entered Iraq in 1921 and rooted himself in the educational system, writing textbooks. • Michel Aflaq (1910-89) and Salah Bitar (1912-80), both were impressed with the strong state, military, and leadership of Germany. Nationalism was defined as revenge and expression of resentment. Formed the Ba’th party (means renaissance in Arabic). The party was centered around unity, freedom, and socialism. • It is important to note that the military frequently rules the Arab world because: - it is upwardly mobile, open to change, and has lower class opportunities (middle- ranking officers become disgruntled with governments and form coups). - coups remove corrupt, ruling upper-class. - neo-Mamluk: military elite rule, modern incarnation of the Mamluks. 4


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