Diversity of Life: 10/26-10/30 Notes: Kingdom Fungi and Kingdom Plantae
Diversity of Life: 10/26-10/30 Notes: Kingdom Fungi and Kingdom Plantae EBIO 1010-02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ian Seaman on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Kingdom Fungi Eukarya Fungt O mycology is the study of fungi singlecelled or multicellular sexual or asexual specialized to absorb or extract nutrients from environment fungi more related with animals usually tangle of tiny laments called hypha gives large surface area for digestion intertwined hyphae hypha that form body is called mycelium fungal cell walls include chitin also found in arthropods many grow as single cells a yeast form Cell walls are made of chitin not cellulose like in plants and protists the cross walls septum septa are rarely complete usually an opening some do not have internal cell walls just a tube this open structure explains why fungi grow quickly Mitosis in Fungi O diploid 2n 0 chromosomes replicate homologous ones pair etc o fungi do not do this A 0 cell is not unit of reproduction O the nuclear envelope does not break down 0 fungi nucleus is typically haploid 1n 0 only zygote is diploid divides by meiosis to form spores O Septa cross walls only complete when hyphae form for reproduction O hyphae may have more than 1 nucleus monokaryotic l dikaryotic 2 O heterokaryotic nuclei from genetically distinct individuals 0 vice versa with homokaryotic Reproduction O ssexual fusion of 2 haploid hyphae of compatible mating types 0 Dikaryon Stage 1n 1n before parental nuclei to form diploid nucleus 0 Spores are most common means of reproduction dispersed by wind Nutrition 0 fungi are heterotrophs usually parasitic or saprobic consumers of dead matter 0 all fungal digestions is extracellular O obtain food by secreting digestive enzymes 0 fungi can break down cellulose and lignin 0 some are predators Diversity of Fungi 5 Phyla l Chytridiomycota 2 Glomeromycota 3 Basidiomycota 4 Ascomycota 5 Zygomycota Phylum Chytridiomycota chytrids aquatic agellated fungi related to ancestral fungi have motile zoospores one type has caused global decline in amphibians Phylum Zygomycota fungi that produces zygotes lack septa in hyphae except When reproducing not monophyletic sexual reproduction 0 fusion of gametangia forms a zygosporangium O haploid nuclei fuse karyogamy to form diploid zygote diploid nucleus 0 zygosporangium develops inside zygospore O meiosis follows mitosis Which occurs during germination of zygospore Asexual reproduction is more common Sporangiophores have sporangia that releases spores spore germination results in monokaryotic hyphae Phylum Glomeromycota tiny group forms intracellular association with 90 of plants called Arbuscular Mycorrhizae symbiosis mutualism fungus cannot survive Without host Arbuscular Mycorrhizae not aboveground capable of increasing crop yields with lower phosphate and energy input Phylum Basidiomycota mushrooms many are food source some are poisonous or hallucinogenic named for Basidium a club shaped reproductive structure spore germination Phylum Ascomycota 0 bread yeasts common molds morels serious plant pathogens Penicillin named for Ascus microscopic saclike reproductive structure heterokaryotic can be asexual conidia 0 Yeast unicellular ascomycetes reproduce asexually by budding fermentation Importance 0 Pizza Beer Wine 0 can cause diseases 0 medicine penicillin 0 primary planetary decomposer Symbiotic Associations 1 Lichens between fungus and photosynthetic partner fungi protects partners from strong light and desiccation harsh habitats 2 Mycorrhizae between fungi and plants found on 90 of roots Kingdom Plantae Origin 0 all green algae and land plants shared common ancestor 0 single species of green algae gave rise to land plants 0 Land Plants multicellular haploid and diploid stages smaller haploid stage Plants have 12 major Phyla Divided into Vascular TissueNot and SeedsNot Adaptations to Terrestrial Life 0 protections from desiccation 0 moving water through the body 0 dealing with UV radiation caused mutations o haplodiplontic life cycle alternation of generations Haplodiplontic Life Cycle 0 multicellular diploid stage sporophyte 0 produces haploid spores by meiosis o diploid spore mother cells 0 multicellular haploid stage gametophyte Altemation of Generations 0 all land plants are haplodiplontic 0 relative sizes vary 0 gametes fuse fertilization directly into zygote o in plants gametes grow into a new organism O 2Stage Life Cycle natural selection can act differently on each stage of life 0 Gametes are produced in a gametangium spores are produced in the sporangium Plant Body Organization 0 vascular plant consists of 0 Root System Anchoring the plant 0 Shoot System stems aboveground part of the plant 0 both have apex point in which plant extends and grows 3 types of tissue 0 dermal 0 ground 0 vascular each type extends through root and shoot system 0 Meristems cells that divide in nitely to give rise to differentiated cells extension of plant at apical meristems Apical Meristem located at tips need protection primary plant body 0 Xylem O principal waterconducting tissue 0 2 types I vessels I tracheids 0 dead cell tubes 0 conducts inorganic ions 0 Transpiration diffusion of water vapor o Phloem O principal foodconducting tissues 0 Sieve cells Roots 0 adapted for growing underground to absorb water 0 4 regions 0 Root Cap 0 Zone of Cell Division 0 Zone of Elongation 0 Zone of Maturation Stems 0 support for aboveground O shoot apical meristem initiates stem tissue 0 Leaves initiated as primordia site of photosynthesis determinate o 2 Different Morphological Groups 0 Microphyll only in Phylum Lycophyta o Megaphyll majority of plants leaf is covered with transparent epidermal cells has a waxy cuticle Contains stomata anked by guard cells Bryophytes There are two different groups of plants 1 Bryophytes lack vascular tissue 2 Tracheophytes Bryophytes rely on diffusion limited to moist areas need water to reproduce usually small lack true rootshoot system tiny leaves roots are tiny rhizoids the leafy green plant moss is in the stage of life called the gametophyte the sporophyte depends on the gametophyte tissue Phylum Bryophyta Mosses 2 growth types 0 Cushiony Moss 0 Feather Moss mosses are male or female male plants have antheridia sperm females have archegonia eggs Sperm swims through thin film of water fertilization occurs in archegonium gametophyte Diploid zygote develops into adult sporophyte has a stalk with a capsule on top Spores germinate into tiny green threads called protonema mosses can also reproduce asexually by fragmentation most abundant plant in polar habitats
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