Week 4 notes
Week 4 notes ANTH 171
Popular in Intro Monkeys & Apes >3
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Smargiassi on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 171 at University of Oregon taught by Ting N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro Monkeys & Apes >3 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Anth 171 102015 Key questions in bold blue font How sophisticated is primate cognition Can primate behavior be explained by simple associative learning No Can we tell what an animal is thinking Maybe Are there definitive answers in the field of animal cognition Depends not really Playback experiments record vocalizations of individuals and plav it b to see how the animals react Vervet monkey alarm calls Major threats include eagles leopards and snakes When a threat is present they have vocalizations separate for each predator When alarm calls were played back They also recognize alarm calls of other species Vervet monkev distress calls Mothers recognize the calls of their own infants and react more strongly than to another infant When the group hears the infant distress calls they look at the mother rather than the infant Recognizes the different vocal sounds of individuals in different groups that surround them and where those individuals are Baboons Societies are female bonded with dominance hierarchies Played back vocalizations that indicate rank changes responses indicated knowledge of each individual and kept good track of each individuals separate rank Redirected aggression remains within a matriline When aggression is redirected it will go back to a kin of the high ranking individual of which the aggression was originally directed The signi cance of this is that primates recognize individuals as well as relationships between those individuals and sophisticated memory Not just simple associative learning Chimpanzees and spatial memory Can take short cuts rather than follow the same path Orangutan spatial memory Least distance strategies Seasona1 memory EX Chimpanzee numeral experiment Svmbolic Thinking and Language What is the non human capacity for symbols Kanzi and lexigrams Understands the symbol and can rearrange them to communicate What he wants He understands English he knows 3000 spoken words However cannot make conversation Problem solving and cooperation Chimp and peanut in a plastic tube used water to get the peanut to oat to the top of the tube Capuchin monkey and honey in a tube with plastic top Uses rock to make a knife to cut the top of a tube containing honey Honey is still hard to reach Uses branch to get honey Sequential tool use is special to primates When using chips to represent the tools the monkey demonstrated an understanding of symbols Capuchin monkeys with hazelnuts in tube with top One monkey cannot reach the tube but has the rock that is used to open it He gives the monkey that can reach the nuts in hopes that once it is open he will share They did share Knowledge of fair play and cooperation evident Chimps and nut under heavy stones When taught cooperation pulling the stones became cooperative Chimps and tray with two ends of a rope Bonobos with the same experiment Theory of mind Being able to induce the mental states of others Insert Mirror self recognition test Mark test proves sense of self necessary in order to have a sense of others Put mark on forehead and they look in the mirror and if they wipe it off they have a sense of self Known to pass Chimps orangutans gorillas elephants dolphins orcas and magpies Knower and guesser experiment Humans with a nonhuman primate One person knows which cup has food and the other doesn t non human primate must choose which human to help them get the food Chimps repeatedly chose the knower and the macaques did not Role reversal test 2 animals need to perform different roles and cooperate to get food When roles are reversed if they can empathize they should get it right away Chimps can do this macaques cannot Chimps and responsibility for action with food tray Capuchin and grapes understanding of fairness Ill chimp infant mother touches forehead to test for fever When the mother looks at the baby it is clear she is concerned and emotional After infant s death she carries the infant around for weeks mourning or even in denial of infant s death
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