HSTA 101H 26-30 October Notes
HSTA 101H 26-30 October Notes HSTA 101H - 00
Popular in American History I
HSTA 101H - 00
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
HSTA 255 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 101H - 00 at University of Montana taught by Kyle G. Volk (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see American History I in History at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
American State American Empire 26 October 2015 0 At the beginning of George Washington s presidency there were already debates in Congress 0 What title should we give the president I His excellency his highness his majesty his mightiness his elective highness etc o How much should the leader of the US look or act like a king 0 Took 30 days to settle on quotM r President 0 17891800 The Power of Precedent and the Age of Federalism 0 Washington limiting his presidency to two terms I Believed in republicanism was hostile towards monarchy I Didn t want to set precedent that the president was to serve for the rest of his life 0 Congress had fear the US would revert back to chaos in 18905 I Committed to the survival of the US I Set course of fiscalmilitary state in the 17905 0 In turn set course of the American Empire 0 Hamilton circa 1789 0 Officer in the Revolutionary War attended constitutional convention as only delegate from New York Appointed not elected as secretary of the treasury in Washington s cabinet Concerns I Threat of foreign war and takeover I Failure of the new national government moving away from localism return of individual states 0 Goals I Establish nation s credit especially for war aiming for financial readiness and stability I Bolster strengthen the national government s power 0 Almost all of his policies were extremely controversial I Causes factionalism and breaking into political parties 0 Fiscal State debt problems 0 Hamilton s report on public credit 1790 I US national and state governments were 80 million in debt I Proposed quotFunding the Debt selling government stock 0 Sell Western land then pay Europeans back first 0 Tariff on imports excise tax on whisky to raise money I Wanted erection of the First Bank of the United States 0 Centralized institution to regulate national financial system 0 Issued money handled debts national emergency fund etc 0 Major source of controversy Too much like Britain Benefitted the elite few not the regular citizens Would encourage corruption and speculation Constitutional objections didn t give Congress the right to charter corporations like a bank 000 o Foundational Constitutional Battle 0 Hamilton believed in quotNecessary and Proper giving government more expansive powers I Centralization of strong government necessary for republic to survive 0 US must compete in the World of Empires 0 Jefferson believed in quotStrict Construction or a limited government I Feared corruption of republic and return of monarchyaristocracy o 42 members of Congress were investors in this bank 0 America s Empire in 17905 The West 0 Dependent upon strength of new federal state 0 Impacted Native Americans greatly I By 1820 major transformation was substantial weakeningdefeat of Indians East of the Mississippi River 0 Myths of the Open West I Empty space to be occupied by whites and their slaves I Rugged individualism taming the wilderness I Inevitable migration population growth etc I Minimal government weak committed to laissez faire o Populated West Indian tribes resist expansion I Federal power was key to Western Expansionuse of military 0 Back to the federalist s fiscalmilitary state 0 Financially solvent in case of war 0 Hamilton s economic policies I Working well by mid 17905 showed economic growth I US is now quotuntappedquot and is a place for investment from European countries 0 Military state in the 17905 enemies foreign I Financial security supports federal military power I Battling Native Americans in Ohio Country 0 Washington Administration hope to avoid military conflict for sake of money 0 Understanding Indian claims to land 0 Conflicts between natives and settlers continue I Early limited military efforts ended up disastrous NW Indians unite 0 St Clair s defeat 1791 was biggest Native victory o 1400men vs 1000ndian Warriors 0 Hundreds of US deaths only dozens on Indian deaths 0 Anthony Wayne trained US legion special army unit Funded by government Battle of fallen timbers 1794 was major US Army victory Success built on stronger financially healthy federal state Treaty of Greenville 1795 Events set a pattern for 19th century 0 American s Western Empire military might and federal diplomacy I Allowed US to become aggressive state 000 The American Southwest 28 October 2015 0 Major theme slavery not only persists but expands in Southern States 0 Empire of liberty turns into the empire of slavery o Jefferson s Agrarian vision free white men could go be farmers in the West I Westward bound country of independent and equal commercial farmers o Slavery expanding 0 Middle period of American Slavery 1790518205 I Between colonial period and before antebellum period 0 Vast increase in slave population I 50000 in 1776 15 million by 1820 0 Geographical expansion of slave country I 6 new slave states by 1820 0 KY TN LA MS AL MO 0 Slavery s expansion in era of American revolution I Paradox to nation conceived on liberty and equality o Slavery in the postwar South 0 17805 Slavery and plantation agriculture future uncertain I Will it stay Will it go away eventually o Wartime destruction and decline in Tobacco market VA MD I Profits fallen I Battles take place in the fields I Planters switch to wheatgrainlivestock o By 1830 Richmond VA rivalled Rochester NY for flour milling 0 Problem too many slaves not enough work I Growing wheat was a lot less labor intensive than growing tobacco I Manumission voluntarily setting slaves free 0 Washington was one in his will was to quotliberate certain pieces of property upon Martha s death o In 1780 there were 5000 free blacks Grew to 30000 by 1810 0 Compared to 400000 slaves in 1810 o Slave population was exploding 0 Limits 0 Owner s economic investment I Slaves were expensive pieces of property passed through generations 0 Fear of multiracial society of free people I Thomas Jefferson couldn t imagine whole emancipation I Not a melting pot image I Predicted a race war I Diffusionism antislavery idea that slavery would die by spreading to American Southwest 0 End slavery prevent formation of large groups of blacks together 0 Diminish growing strength of large slave populations gradual abolition in the south 0 Get rid of excess slaves 0 Ban the foreign slave trade 0 Allow white masters to migrate with slaves to new area in the south 0 Failed facilitated great expansion of US in terms of slavery 0 Cotton 0 Long staple 18th century needydelicate in the sea islands versus short staple easier to grow labor intensive for sticky seeds thus lowering profits o In 1790 30000 bales of cotton were produced then the cotton gin was invented I Went from 1 poundday to 50 poundsdayfor one adult slave o Reinvigorated slavery in agricultural south I Rising demand for slaves and expansion I In 1790 30000 bales of cotton were produced 0 In 1810 178000 bales o In 1820 334000 bales I Exportation was huge part of US economy 0 US produced 3 of the world s cotton supply I Cotton and slaver fuels industrial capitalism with global significance 0 Slavery explodes in the southwest o Slaves forcibly transported from homes in Upper South to Deep SouthSouthwest 0 Change end of US participation in the foreign slave trade beginning of internal slave trade I Internal slave trade served as key linkcommon link between upper and lower south uniting the south as a region 0 Slavery expansion and the Agrarian republic 0 Limitations to Jefferson s Agrarian vision I Expansion of slavery and slavery on white south 0 Impact of cotton and slavery on white south I Cotton brings inequality to the white south 0 Socioeconomic changes in age of revolution I quotFree North farmingmiddle class market oriented I Northerners fulfilling Jefferson s vision 0 Independent land owning market centered people 0 Deep South social stratification the Empire of Inequality 0 Rise of elite cotton planters I Mimic style of VA planters majestic plantation homes I Authority tied to slave ownership instead of amount of landmoney 0 Southern man was elite if he owned 20 slaves o More slaves meant more labor power wealth was assumed 0 Cotton plantations were big business highly commercialized I More profitable than mills in New England I Not a domestic crop not accessible to everyone 0 Produces vast unequal distribution of wealth 0 Small middle class in white south 0 No such thing as equal opportunity I quotdual economy of white south 0 Big plantations v poor white quotYeoman Farmers o Yeoman were outside the market involved in local exchange Crisis and Rebirth of the Republic 30 October 2015 0 August 24 1814 British troops set Washington capital building on fire 0 James Madison president at the time fled left wife Dolly under military protection 0 From colonies into independent expanding American republic 000 Political governmental geographical powerful economic transformations Goal create an empire capable of competing with other empires Transformed fragile republic debating quothow best to remain independent Fiscalmilitary state 17905 emergence of opposition critical of federalists I Republic part ofJefferson and Madison Jeffersonian Republicans o Jefferson s revolution of 1800 o Hated elitism highly centralized state 0 Goals I Reduce power and size of federal government I Simpler commercial Agrarian republic o No more ballsparties like Washington or Adams 0 Held small dinners likes a small republican government Antiaristocracy and monarchy egalitarianism I Refused to wear a wig like the British The Wine and Food Problem I He would show up to dinner in slippers but insisted on the best foodwine I Wanted simple government but was unwilling to part with some things Downsizing the size of the federal state fails Shrinking the military I Believed the best way to not go to war is to not have a military I Maintains substantial presence in the West shrinks the rest 0 Louisiana purchase of 1803 o 15 million acres bought from France doubling America s area 0 Question of governmental power I Was it constitutional I Is it minimalist or is this an exception I Jeffersonian strict construction was contradicted quotnecessary and proper 0 Back to food and wine problem 0 Jefferson s Empire building goals I Military avoid conflicts with France and Great Britain 0 Get them out of America I Commerce Mississippi River and New Orleans 0 Ensures access of trade routes in the West I More land expand the Agrarian Republic 0 Farmers have endless land to work with o The Consequences ofJefferson s Empire building I Expanding empire of slavery 0 MO AR LA TX gained from Louisiana purchase I Opened door for Native American removal 0 Tribes East of the Mississippi River could be relocated to West of the river 0 Trail of tears was a direct product of this I Manifest destiny in the making 0 More military power in the West goes with it 0 Crisis of the Republic 0 Foreign wars and the problem of neutrality I Economic dependence on Europe trading culture was backbone of US I Age of Napoleonic wars trading partners with both France and Britain 0 Tried to trade with both countries equally 0 British ban and attack American commerce 0 Impressment forced US merchants to serve in British navy 0 US being pulled into war Americans Hawkish 0 They were disgruntled and wanted to go to war I Jefferson fears for the republic by going into war 0 High taxes debt bloated military potential failure of US comes with war 0 James Madison comes into office 1809 and Mr Madison s war the War of 1812 o The second war of independence I Defend commerce prove that US could defend itself I War of aggressive empire 0 Gaining British Canada and Spanish Florida o Manifest destiny ethos I War almost disastrous o Weakness of quotempire of liberty farming republic was shown 0 By 184 war reached stalemate Americans were ashamed o Treaty of Ghent late December of 1814 o No gains no security o Brought peace and nothing else 0 No territorial gains 0 No victory for US I Battle of New Orleans Andrew Jackson 0 4000 Americans against British overwhelming victory with only 100 casualties o quotrising glory of the American Republic 0 Changes meaning of the War of 1812 o from moral defeat to national pride I Awakening of American Nationalism 0 Cultural reorientation away from Europe 0 People had identity crises and still had British customs but now owned American identity as rugged o quotEra of Good Feelings in national politics 0 Death of federalists rise of quotnational republicans I Strong national government is a good idea 0 Economic policy reorientation 0 Beyond the export economy I Commerce manufacturing internal improvements 0 America s empire becomes independent 0 White house rebuilt in 1817