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Terrestrial To Jovian Planets

by: Ashley Childers

Terrestrial To Jovian Planets AST 111

Marketplace > University of Southern Mississippi > Physics 2 > AST 111 > Terrestrial To Jovian Planets
Ashley Childers
General Astronomy
Christopher Sirola

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About this Document

All the cool information about the wonderful planet we on! Plus see how we compare to the other planets, come and see why the gas giants are so awesome!
General Astronomy
Christopher Sirola
Class Notes
25 ?




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Popular in Physics 2

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 111 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Christopher Sirola in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Astronomy in Physics 2 at University of Southern Mississippi.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Astronomy Halloween Week Terrestrial Jovian planets Terrestrial planets o Interiors They all have the same basic interior core mantle crust 0 Earth Venue Maire Mereury Mean Hear cruel ma hl39le BEIle lilheeel iere 39 litheelahere equot lilheepl39iere litheephere litheepher39e Mercury and Venus have large metallic cores the core of mars is smaller 0 Planet density of core 0 Mercury 534gcmquot3 Venus 525gcmquot3 Mars 334gcmquot3 The last geological activity for any of them ceased hundreds of millions of years ago planets other than earth and rarely Venus are geologically dead The atmospheric pressures at surface for each plant hint at their weather and surface features Mercury 0 0 Impact craters de ne the surface of mercury 0 Mercury has virtualy ari nah 39 39 This is a false color image shows the largest impact feature Caloris basin It is about 1000km 600mi across with debris creating several secondary craters Shockwaves from the impact also churned up the opposite quotantipodequot side of Mercury Mercury also shows cliffs called quotscarpsquot These can be hundreds of miles long and several miles high Scarps appear to have formed when sections of mercury s crust collapsed as its mantle cooled o All tend to go from north to south for an unknown reason i 3917 r 25 Elevation kl39l39li 1 5039 0km f Venus o The Magellan spacecraft had to use radio waves to peak through Venus clouds to see the surface picture taken in radio waves The brighter the area the more it re ects radio waves 0 Venus has several hundred volcanoes like Earth but they all appear dormant 0 Between 45 million years ago a giant volcanic activity altered the planet Venus has several impact craters o Erosion is much slower on Venus having no rain and little wind on the surface 0 Mountains on Venus are slightly taller than those of earth lacking water rocks are stronger on Venus Can be up to several miles high as compared to the 5 miles on Earth o o The only landers to reach the surface were of the Venera series of robots of the former Soviet Union Mars 0 Surface Ice caps volcanoes canyons and impact craters but little running water 0 Ice caps of mars primarily consist of carbon dioxide not water Mars has at least a dozen volcanos larger than any on Earth 0 None are active Eif Olympus Mons Mount Olympus is large enough that most states would t inside it Valles Marineris Mariner valley is a canyon about 4000 miles long 700 miles wide and 7 miles deep Most of the Martian surface is covered with impact craters The Maritain air is so thin that much of its surface looks like the moon lmpact craters are harder to erode in the south of Mars The north in contrast may have had running water in the distant past While the air of Mars is thin it does have seasonal winds amp dust storms 0 Sand dunes are common Despite its thickness the Martian air is still visible from space Pictures show Mars has liquid water that breaks out to the surface 0 Water can t remain in liquid form on the surface but may be liquid underground Spinorbit coupling 0 The orbital period of Mercury is about 90 days and the sidereal rotation period is about 60 days This 32 ratio is due to the tides of the Sun and Mercury s elliptical orbit The solar day is about 180 Earth days long The extreme temperature on Mercury come from the verylong solar day and the lack of an atmosphere 0 The spin of Venus sidereal rotation of Venus and its orbit of rotation are closely related Orbital period 225 sidereal period of 243 negative means backwards The solar day on Venus turns out to be 117 days long about 12 of its year Terrestrials 0 000000 Jovian 0 000000 0 Close to the sun High density Low mass Rock and metal Slow rotation weak magnetism No rings Few moons Far from the sun Low density High mass Helium and hydrogen gas Fast rotation Strong magnetism Rings Many moons Jovian Interiors 0 The interior of a jovian planet is very different that that of a terrestrial planet Erosaeemion Hey i tower manila I Ellitar are Hydrogen illEll M etalliin V hydrogen Hi Flush core I inner core Elli A rockymetallic core lies at the center Jupiter s core is thought to be 17 times the mass of earth still only 5 ofJupiter The next layer Jupiter amp Saturn only consist of metallic hydrogen Enormous pressure forces hydrogen into a metallic state 0 The large amount of liquid metal hydrogen spinning at high speeds gives rise to huge magnetic elds Above that is a layer of thick hydrogen amp Helium gas 0 This melds into the surface that we see Uranus and Neptune are not massive enough to produce the pressures needed for metallic hydrogen Instead of a mantle Uranus amp Neptune is thought to be a superheated super dense layer of ionized water The overall blue colors of Uranus amp Neptune come from a relatively large amount of methane gas All of the Jovian s are still hot inside due to their masses Even though they consist of gas 0 Heat from inside is more important for weather that light from the sun 0 Heat from inside rises and cooler gas sinks o Convection works far more ef ciently in a gas giant planet that a liquid rock planet 0 Hot gas wells up coo gas sinks and the rotation of the planet makes bands movie in opposite directions Jovian Upper Atmosphers 0 Each of the Jovian planets have a banded structure o Bands can exert torque that creates hurricanelike spots Jupiter s quotgreat red spotquot is the most famous


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