MU 2313 Ch 13
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
MU 2313 Ch 13 The Enlightenment 17001850 The Enlightenment a Bach lived during the Enlightenment but his music is Baroque in style b Concept of progress i Life could be better for future generations ii Faith in science human rights human reason and progress ii African Slave Trade American Revolution and French Revolution occurring v Increasingly secular society 1 Influence of politics and business has greater influence than organized religion in how society operates c New scientific discovery i Mineralogy botany and zoology developed d Enlightened despots monarchruler i Frederick II 1 Spirit ofAufkarung a Intellectualism in Berlin 2 Humanitarian patron of arts favored science Technology a Steam engine i James Watt patent 1769 ii Revolutionizes transportation and manufacturing iii Leads to industrial revolution 1800s b Improvements in metallurgy i Allows use of iron and steel as structural elements ii Architectural innovation Allows largertaller buildings c Precision toolsinstruments i Improved lenses better microscopes and telescopes ii Surveying equipment Economics and Politics a quotPhysiocratsquot i Saw nature as single source of all wealth 1 Natural resources in North America seemed endless 2 Thought it went on forever looked for a northwest passage to Asia ii Laissez faire 1 No government interference in economic endeavor b Frederick William I i King in Prussia AKA The quotSoldier King 1 Wellregulated disciplined and vast army a Tortured for misconduct 2 Military leaders determined by their achievements rather than family line ii Eccentric 1 Potsdam Giants a The tallest men in Prussia were recruited to a special military unit b Captured all tall men from outside of Prussia Made a breeding program between tall men and women for his unit d Members of the unit never went into battle they were merely for his entertainment iii Disdain for son Fritz 1 Shy child not interested in the military 2 Abused in public 3 Ran away with a friend but caught by his father s troops and charged with desertion 4 Rather than being killed himself his best friend was executed c King George III monarch in England and the American Revolution d French Revolution i Antimonarchy many beheadings of royals IV Frederick II of Hohenzollern a King in Prussia b Fritz son of Frederick William c AKA quotFrederick the Great and quotthe philosopher of Sans Souci country estate where he lived d Intense love of artsliterature humanities e Enlightened despot f Patron of the arts the Bach family V Concepts a Rationalism i Immanuel Kant 1 Critique of Pure Reason 1781 a We don t have direct knowledge of the material world and we can t gain it through reasoning ii Jean Jaques Rousseau 1 Social Contract 1762 a Humans are unhappy weak beings stuck in a construct of our own design b Can t be happy in any society with a power structure 2 quotNoble savages b Aesthetics i Immanuel Kant 1 Critique of Judgment 1790 a Subject of beauty things that distract us for a moment and take us away from our daytoday business b Beauty has no universal ideal c Humanitarianism i Raise up the downtrodden ii Philosophes 1 Produced the Encyclopedia a A catalog of all human knowledge d Classicism i Finesse replaced opulence ii Renewed interest in Greek art 1 Discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum 2 Art was preserved under ash for hundreds of years e Feminism i Seeks equal rights for women ii Mary Wollstonecraft VI Voltaire 16941778 a French writerphilosopher b Made habit of mockingcriticizing establishment c Used fame to speak out on social issues i Religious tolerance ii Material prosperity iii Human rights iv Abolition of torture d Exiled from France retires at Geneva VII Mary Wollstonecraft 17591797 a Pamphleteer and novelist b Thoughts on the Education of Daughters 1787 c A Vindication of the Rights of Women 1792 d Argues against the social value of female excellence e Women should be able to act as they please VIII Rococo Style a Decorative and nonfunctional b quotFussin pretty and superficial c Popular with the aristocracy d Rococo contentsubjects i Love ii Sexualitysensuality nudeseminude cherubs romance e Rococo artists i Antoine Watteau Embarkation for Cythera 1717 1 Cythera is an island of Venus goddess of love 2 ImpIies all these couples have a romantic relationship 3 Cherubs all around 4 Pastel colors nothing aggressive hazy creates a warm feeling ii JeanHonore Fragonard The Swing c 17689 1 Older man is pushing the swing but woman is preoccupied by the younger man below 2 Cherub sculptures 3 Angel statue with finger over its lips suggest modesty a Woman is kicking off her shoe while swinging 4 Depicts flirtation 5 Young man is conveniently positioned below so he can see up her skirt when she is swinging iii Francois Boucher Venus Consoling Love 1751 1 Surrounded by cherubs 2 Venus is holding onto Cupid holding a bow and arrows 3 Eye is not drawn to a specific spot it can wander freely around the painting Misdirection is intended 4 Pair of turtledoves in pond implies romance The English School a Counterbalance to Rococo style b Biting satire and social commentary c 3 types i Humanitarian satire ii Landscape iii Portraiture d William Hogarth The Harlot s Progress Arrival in London 1731 i Series of six images that depict a woman going to London to make her fortune ii Older woman is giving her a place to stay but is actually a Madame of a brothel iii Background owner of the brothel standing in the doorway with his hand in his pocket iv Girl brought a dead goose represents where the woman is going she will soon have her own price v Priest pays no attention to her situation church not concerned with fixing social ills e William Hogarth The Harlot s Progress Kept Woman to Common Prostitute 1731 i Girl has accumulated some wealth has a line of suitors out the door ii Witch hat and broomstick on wall imply the occult iii Names on the hatbox significant a man that was hung as a traitor implies the girl is dealing with unsavory people f William Hogarth The Harlot s Progress Dying of Syphilis 1731 i No one is concerned with her wellbeing they are digging through her belongings g William Hogarth The Rake s Progress The Orgy 17334 i Rake is a young man ii He has come to London to find his fortune iii Gambling and whores leave him penniless h Thomas Gainsborough The Honorable Mrs Graham 1777 i Less romantic than rococo ii Delicate brushwork lifelike i Thomas Gainsborough The Market Cart 17867 i English landscape ii Title implies focus on cart but the eye is drawn to the landscape X Genre a Presenting mundane daily objects in a sophisticated and beautiful manner i Stilllife paintings ii Explore shape texture color and relationship between items and the surrounding space b JeanBaptiste Simeon Chardin Menu de Gras 1731 i Daily menu ii Depicts a copper pot wooden spoon mushrooms and strawberries iii Compelling manner in which the artist treats the objects XI Neoclassicism a Inspired by i The discovery of PompeiiHerculaneum ii Winkleman History of Ancient Arts iii Baumgarten Aesthetica b Reinterprets GreekRoman classicism with an enlightened spin JacquesLouis David The Oath of the Horatii 17845 i Three young men preparing to take swords to defend the city and go into battle ii Young women are less enthusiastic spouses 1 Their husbands are going to fight their relatives either way they will lose loved ones iii Emotional appeal is enlightened spin iv Ideal human form seen in the detail of the calf and knee d JacquesLouis David The Death of Socrates 1787 i Philosopher charged with corrupting the youth sentenced to death and forced to drink hemlock tea ii Seen making a final proclamation iii Emotional scene disciples are distraught dramatic iv Classical element idealized form e EtienneMaurice Falconet Madame de Pompadour as the Venus of the Doves 1782 i Rococo style some neoclassical elements ii Sitting on a clam shell superficial iii Small sculpture able to be placed in the home of an aristocrat f Antonio Canova Pauline Borghese as Venus Victrix 1808 i Neoclassical lifesize X Art a Clodion Satyr and Bacchante c 1775 i Rococo ii Flirtatious engaged with one another b JeanAntoine Houdon George Washington 178892 i French sculpture ii Symbolism 1 13 rods under his left hand represent the 13 colonies 2 In his right hand is a walking stick while his sword is hanging from the rods diplomacy in favor of war c GH Krohne music room 174251 i Focus from architecture to interior design ii Space for entertainment iii Ornate detail chandelier paintings on every wall d Georg Wenzelaus von Knobelsdorff Sans Souci 17457 i Interior of music room Rococo style art on walls mirrors ii Garden front stepped terraces sophisticated e Thomas Jefferson Rotunda of the University of Virginia 181928 i Features Corinthian columns and dome ii Looks similar to Pantheon 1 Highlights Greek and Roman society which were the first democracies 2 He hopes his country will go in the same direction XIII Theater a Falls out of favor with the aristocracy and monarchy b Britain i Audiences primarily middle class ii Comedy to sentiment more satirical style iii Ballad opera 1 Beggar s Opera John Gay a Caricatures a bribery scandal c America i First recorded theater in Williamsburg Virginia 1716 ii British company in America iii The Prince of Parthia Thomas Godfrey d France i Beaumarchais 1 The Barber of Seville 2 Marriage of Figaro a Neoclassic style comedies b Conflict between several characters love triangle c Everyone is with the right person at the end marriages XIV Classical Music a Classical vs classical era and distinct time period vs style of art music b Improved instruments due to technological developments gt Industrial Revolution i Manufacturing of brass instruments become more precise c Pianoforte i quotsoft loud dynamic contrast ii Piano stringed percussion instrument d Ensembles i Establish instruments used in symphonyorchestra Role of the conductor f Firmly established tonalities major and minor XV Franz Joseph Haydn 17321809 Austrian a Leads to a clearer style of composition b Prolific excelled in every genre i Oratorios concertos string quartets sonatas etc ii Composed 340 hours worth of music c quotFather of the Symphony i Establishment of four distinct movements Choir boy gt Esterhazy family composer Considered greatest living composer in his day f Symphony no 94 Surprise i People get bored with a slow tune ii He throws in a burst of sound among the slower notes g Farewell Symphony Mvmt IV i Esterhazy family is releasing servants ii Haydn shows them what they ll be missing when all the servants are gone iii Musicians leave throughout the movement large exciting symphony is reduced to darkness and silence XVI Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 17561791 Austrian a Most influential classical composer b Child prodigy i Composed at the age of 4 began performing at age 5 ii Father was a violinist would have peers come over to rehearse iii One day Mozart is given a violin to replace a missing member age 7 iv Had never played before yet was able to sight read several lines c Konzertmeister at Salzburg court 17737 d Vienna 17811791 music capital of the world at the time i Baroque influence ii Worked with Haydn for a short time iii Freemasons iv Patronage ofJoseph II V Poverty and death e Compositions i 40 symphonies ii Concertos 27 for piano iii Chamber pieces iv Sonatas 18 for piano 1 Sonata in Bflat major K281 mvmt 1 Allegro 2 36 for violin v Masses 1 Including his quotRequiem Mass 2 Died before completion completed by students 3 Hear quotDies Irae quotDay of Wrath apocalypse vi 20 operas f Symphony 40 Mvmt 1 XVII XVIII i Written in sonata form ii Minor movement aggressive iii Followed by major movement gentle g Opera Queen of the Night aria Ludwig von Beethoven 17701827 Transitional Classical gt Romantic Early violinist then moves to composition Symphonies built on single theme Emotional bombastic harmonically advanced Student to Haydn 1792 Failing hearing beginning 1800 i Most of his greatest works were written when he s deaf ii Focuses on writing and conducting g Influenced composers from Brahms to Wagner h Symphony No 9 i Written later in his life almost completely deaf ii Has a sense of hope he has come to peace with his loss of hearing will overcome it iii Has chorus added in last movement Dance a Previously male dancers were featured more than women i Belief that their bodies were stronger and could handle the moves better b Camargo i Female dancer ii Male dancer misses his entrance she steps in and dances the steps better than him c Maria Salle i Embraces a graceful lyrical style d Georges Noverre i Letters on Dancing and Ballets 1 Dance theory 2 Argues that dance movements have meaning and must be connected to music 3 Favors Salle s style e Charles Didelot rhgbapoQJ i Introduced tights 1 Women would dance in anklelength gowns which would get in the way of dancing 2 Tights allow audience to see the movement of legs better makes the dance more impactful ii Flying ballerinas gt dancing en pointe 1 Suspended the dancers with ropes and pulleys to create a graceful movement 2 Leads to dancing on their toes to maintain that sense of suspension