Week 5 notes
Week 5 notes ANTH 171
Popular in Intro Monkeys & Apes >3
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Smargiassi on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 171 at University of Oregon taught by Ting N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro Monkeys & Apes >3 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Anth 171 102715 Keywords in bold blue font Primate Adaptation Sexual Selection male male competition and female choice in previous lecture Leads to sexual dimorphism which is the difference between males and females These differences are mainly expressed in body and canine size Correlates with a degree of male male competition EX Body size dimorphism and mate competition Gibbons are monogamous body size is similar between males and females and there is a lack of male male competition Gorillas are larger than females and live in a society with high levels in male male competition We can look within the fossil record to recognize sexual dimorphism and infer on their types of societies Sperm competition producing higher amounts of sperm which leads to greater chance of reproduction and testicle size also adds to dominance In multi male societies individuals have very large testicles but in single male societies they don t Allometry The study of the relationship between size to shape anatomy and physiology and behavior Size will affect morphology and behavior physiology and life history Size and Scaling Engineering You cannot double the size without exponentially increasing the volume Because of higher mass bones will need to be much larger and shaped differently for support Size and Scaling Ecology Body size effects locomotion Orangutans for example are suspensory but must distribute their weight to many branches unlike smaller suspensory primates Arboreal biomechanics The larger you are the harder it is to balance on the trees Primates have adapted to have grasping hands and feet hang upside down or decrease body size Physiology Kleiber s Law R a M34 R metabolism Mbodymass Basal metabolic rate energy use at rest minimum to sustain life EX Cat has 100x the mass of a mouse but only eats 32x more J arman Bell principal chart lawman E Bell Principle Wuhllemnray Erna516 purum uf requiresmil humpweight Lara Small abundant fuming lunar qud tr funds mmnul 5min Small Large animal me Fiaml ls hfglm quali zzd3 Large animals need more total food but less per unit of mass High energy foods tend to be rare low quality food is common Large animals tend to eat more low quality food ex leaves while smaller animals use time to find high quality food ex insects Diets and Dentition Animals are adapted to eat certain foods and you can see this re ected in their dentition Insectivores Smaller bodies Smaller digestive tracks Sharp pointy molar cusps Folivores Small incisors and developed molar cusps Larger body size Large and complex digestive tract Frugivores Larger rounded molars Large incisors Long small intestine Supplement diet with either insects or leaves Color Vision Trichromatic Dichromatic Monochromatic Brain size Is in scale with body size and more compleX neurological systems which results in grooves Brain size and social brain hypothesis neocorteX size is not related to ecological factors but very closely related to social factors Intermembral index IMI Arm lengtl leg length X 100 IMI lt 100 means legs are longer than arms Bipedalism vertical clinging and leaping IMI gt 100 means arms longer than legs Suspensory behavior IMI 100 Arboreal quadrapedalism or terrestrial quadrapedalism Thorax shape and shoulder blade location are indications of locomotion as well Anth 171 102915 Keywords in bold blue font Conservation biologv Primate susceptibilitv Large body size Slow reproductive rate Group size and sociality Dietary specializations Major threats to primates Habitat alteration Largest long term threat to non human primates Forests lost through agriculture harvesting fuel wood and logging Outcomes include forest loss and fragmentation Non human primates are isolated into these smaller forests Without the migration loss of resources and possible mates messes with gene flow and population size Interbreeding depression can begin and will lead to a loss of genetic diversity and in turn a loss of fitness Forest loss is huge on the only 2 places orangutans are found Borneo and Sumatra Habitat alteration leads to a loss of biodiversity loss of timber resources contribution to the greenhouse effect reduce local rainfall Hunting Major threat to non human primates A population can be destroyed before the forest does Humans hunt for food subsistence and money Monkey hunting is a global market Effects of hunting are extinction There are cases of extinction as recent as fifty years Hunters will take the full grown mother for the food trade and use the infant for the pet trade Pet trade Disease Monkeys began dying of human respiratory viruses in the 90 s Monkeys are susceptible to human disease because of their close genetic relation to us Ebola HIV How to do conservation Species based approach which species are in need Area based approach which eco regions are in need Strategies Protected areas Idea of excluding people from nature like national parks Community based conservation Involves livelihood of local people This method put the lives of the wildlife above others An example of ecotourism is people paying money to see gorillas and the money for that going back to the community Captive Breeding Captive breeding is like zoos Ideally the individuals can be rereleased into the wild Plays a large role in conservation education