Psych Personality notes
Psych Personality notes Psych 105
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Arig Aboulenein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Psych 105 Personality Personality an individuals unique and relatively 0 Personality theory attempts to explain how people are similar different and unique 0 Four major theoretical perspectives 1 1 Psychoanalytic perspective 2 Humanistic perspective 3 4 Trait perspective Social cognitive perspective Psychoanalytic Perspective founded by emphasizes the importance of the unconscious motivation as main cause of behavior 0 3 different levels of awareness Conscious fully awareEgo PreconsciousDSuperego Unconscious completely unawareld ld instincts that are driven since birth no able to distinguish between reality and fantasy lPleasure Principle motivated to obtain pleasure and avoid discomfort Ego partly conscious the center of reality and logic most in touch with the demands of the real world the quotgobetween between the Id and Superego Superego develops around 56 years old acts as internal parental voice responsible for guilt and praises Humanistic Perspective founded by emphasizes on freewill selfawareness and psychological growth people are good and have potential beieved that the basic human motive is actualizing tendency people are motivated by their selfconcept Actualizing tendency the inborn drive to maintain and enhance oneself Selfconcept the perceptions and beliefs you have about yourself 3 Social Cognitive Perspective founded by emphasizes conscious selfregulated behavior sense of self can vary depending on situations Ex with friends in school with parents 4 Trait Perspective Trait relatively stable enduring tendency to behave in a certain way 0 focuses on Identifying Describing Measuring individual differences in behavior 0 Two kinds of traits 0 Surface specific characteristics that you can pick up from observing behavior 0 Source broad basic traits thought to be universal Perspective Strengths Weaknesses Psychoanalytic first discussion of poor evidence small pessimistic unconscious mind sample sizes case human nature is ID the critical in uence study destructive of early experiences how to you study the unconscious mind Humanistic arge contribution to difficult to test optimistic psychotherapy concepts human nature is counseling education overly optimistic positive forward and parenting moving Social Cognitive rigorously tested ab experiments were behavior is driven by major impact on the simpepoor validity conscious goal and study of personality ony discussed the motive conscious mind Trait Perspective people can be described and compared too much on quantifying little to no explaining o Theorist of Trait Perspective gtUUl 39 l I Raymond Cattell Hans Eyesenck Cadjung McCrae and Costa Raymond Cattell beieved there are 16 different personality factors used factor analysis to narrow hundreds of personality traits until he has 16 left lDeveloped the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire personaity theorists though 16 was too many 2 Hans Eyesenck beieved that individual differences in personality are due to differences among people nature genetics vs nurture environment 0 Three main Source traits 1 2 3 IntroversionExtension NeuroticismStability Psychoticism personaity theorist thought 3 was too few 3 Cadjung beieved in 8 basic personality types 2 attitude 4 function 0 Attitude how you act or react in a speci c way ntroversion Extroversion world 0 Functions 1 Thinkingljrational logic 2 to rely internal subjective perspective to rely external objective perspective of the real recognizing true objective meaning of stimuli Feeling irrational jump to conclusion pacing a subjective internal vaue 3 Sensation rational taking in stimuli from the real world 4 lntuitionirrational data outside awareness MyersBriggs type Inventorybased on Jung s work four letter personality test ISTJISFJINFJ ect rst letter what your attitude is I vs E second letter do you focus on basic info vs interpret amp add meaning third letter when making decisions logic vs emotion fourth letter dealing with the outside world or go with the ow 4 McCrae and Costa five factor modelOCEAN Ipenness to experienceinventivecurious vs consistentcautious Ionscientiousnessefficientorganized vs easy goingcareless xtraversionoutgoingenergetic vs solitaryreserved greeablenessfriendlycompassionate vs analyticaldetached Ieuroticismsensitivenervous vs securecon dent lscores can range from high to low on each factor Trait Perspective Theorist Description Raymond Cattel 16 different personality factors deveoped the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Hans Eysenck believed personality is biologicalgenetic differences nature vs nurture l 3 main source traits Carl Jung believed in 8 basic personality types 2 attitude 4 functions Myer Briggs improved Jung s work McCrae and Costa five factor model OCEAN scores can range from high to low Psychological tests for personality 0 Goals accurately and consistently re ects a person s characteristic or traits predicts a person s future psychological function or behavior Two Major Types 1 Projective test 2 Selfreport inventories Projective tests having a person interpret an ambiguous or abstract picture used to access unconscious motives 0 Two famous test Rorschach lnkblot Testook at an inkblot say what you see Thematic Apperception Testook at picture say what is happening Selfreport any type of test that involves having people choose what best describes them Tests Strengths Weaknesses Projective Test qualitative highly subjective information faiure to produce consistent results bad at predicting future behavior info can help with psychotherapy and counseHng Selfreport standardization use to establish norms deiberate deception is always an issue litte exibility