New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 5 Notes

by: Taylor McAvoy

Week 5 Notes Com 201 A

Taylor McAvoy
GPA 3.5
Intro to comm 1
Ekin Yasin

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Week 5! As usual, two lectures, 3 article readings, and a quiz section activity with lots of helpful key terms! We had a great week with Ethan Raup, the general manager of Seattle's KEXP radio and ...
Intro to comm 1
Ekin Yasin
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to comm 1

Popular in Communication Studies

This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Com 201 A at University of Washington taught by Ekin Yasin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to comm 1 in Communication Studies at University of Washington.


Reviews for Week 5 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/30/15
Lecture 7 Monday October 26 2015 How what and why of media regulation Clicker Questions 1 Agenda setting refers to the ability of politicians to in uence the media39s agenda True Which one of the following world leaders would not qualify as a democratator Vladimir Putin Tayyip Erdogan Hugo Chavez onwgtl Does watching the news create a particular mood for viewers How and in what ways media organizations are regulated 1 In the US FCC Federal Communication Commission regulates US interstate and international communication by radio TV wire satellite and cable Film newspapers and magazines are not on the list Particular rules in ownership in newspapers and broadcast The four main media stations ABC CBS Fox and NBC cannot merge Changes in the FCC approach changes industry Ex Telecommunications act of 1996 Changes in FCC approach changes industry nsyn rules 2 The US copyright act is to protect writings of authors Due to changes in technology the copyright act now reaches architectural design software the graphic arts motion pictures and sound recordings Not covered by copyright are ideas not in tangible form The standard expiration for copyright is 70 years after the creator39s death lnclass conversation 1 1 Do you think there should be strict copyright laws 2 Who does the extension of copyright laws bene t Creators Large companies Popular franchises Documentary Copyright Criminals Music sampling using a part of someone else39s sound in your own recording One view is that it helps to create popular remixes and new pop culture sounds The other view is that it is copycat and lazy way to create music and it infringes on the original creator 3 In the US CARA at MPAA rates regulates the content of motion pictures CNN clip A documentary about a middle school kid39s experience with bullying was rated R by MPAA and this sparked debate because young audiences should be able to see the lm to educate them about the risks of bullying and raise awareness of suicide potentially saving lives The movie was changed to PG13 later World press freedom index 2015 decline on all fronts Clicker poll What do you think is the ranking of the US in the World Press Freedom Index A 14 B 22 C 8 D 49 Class results A 24 B 48 C 13 D 15 The US ranked 49 on the index Freedom of information threatened by abuse of espionage act 4 US has fewer regulations on media content than many of the nations around the world Cultural protectionism against cultural imperialism The quota of imported lms in China will open up in 2017 Three cases of media regulation 1 Pirate Radio FCC vs pirate radio activists Ex Prometheus radio project lnclass debate 1 The FCC argues that there are few radio waves to be distributed allowing and going after pirate radio broadcasters who broadcast without a license Pirate radio advocates argue that FCC39s worry about signals is a simple ploy by the media conglomerates to overtake the airwaves 1 Should pirate radio stations be allowed to broadcast without a license 2 What are the pros and cons for allowing pirate radio stations to broadcast without a license Pros Diversity of content Freedom of speech for those who can39t afford to compete with big companies Cons Big companies may lose audience and advertising customers 0 Little control of content there may be offensive stations Celebration for Prometheus radio project Senate joins house in passing the local community radio act 2 FCC Comcast Charter Bright house merger lnclass debate 2 The trade association said in its petition that if charter39s deals are approved then the top four payTV operators would control 79 of the nation39s subscribers making it harder for broadcasters to sell advertising and threatening the quotlifeblood of over theair freetoall TV servicesquot 1 Should the FCC approve or disapprove the merger between Comcast and Charter 0 Most of the class agreed that it should disapprove the merger 1 What are the pros and cons for the merger Cons Larger local internet monopolies Homogenization less diverse content Losing workforce lots of people laid off 0 Lose our agency Clicker Questions 1 Compared to most other industrialized nations US has had more regulation of media industry True 1 So called radio pirates have faced legal troubles because they A Operate without federal licenses Lecture 8 Wednesday October 28 2015 Regulation and framing Guest Ethan Raup General manager of broadcasting at KEXP KEXP 903 Kexporg Started in the Kane Hall basement on campus in 197119905 Paul Allen made a 3 million investment in KEXP and helped the station grow from there Now they have 50 staff and 45 part time DJs 100000 weekly downloads of their podcasts Mission to enrich the lives of their listeners through music and discovery DJs have the freedom to curate and choose what they want to play They are a nonpro t station so they don39t worry about ratings and that opens up the opportunity to try new things without too much restraint They help new artists and connect their audience to music they would not have otherwise heard because it takes out of the comfort zone In commercial stations you get a lot of the same songs because they play what is going to be safe and give them more listeners that stay The advertisements are pretty minimal in KEXP too because they limit them to 6 per hour and 2 of those are KEXP event ads Special shows highlight certain things like Tuesday nights feature global music and Saturday nights feature local artists and bands Not looking actively to break the mold of radio but they don39t care what other stations are doing and that gives them freedom EX they are sending a team to Iceland for a week to explore local music there and expand their mission Internship director susankexporg A few more cases about media regualtion 1 Pirate Bay and le sharing web sites complex networks that question copyright laws Video clip Court rules ban waste of effort lets Pirate Bay website sail free lnclass debate Should le sharing websites like Pirate Bay be legal or illegal Pirate Bay is a le sharing website Large media companies have taken Pirate Bay to court for copyright infringement They argued that the website generated income via ads place throughout the interface Pirate Bay founders defended that they were not involved in an illegal exchange as they were just providing the platform for the exchange 1 Do you think le sharing websites should be illegal 2 What are the pros and cons for le sharing 0 Pros Availability and accessibility of content Content not available in our country or not available in regular media sites Most content is from big conglomerates already making enough money Cons May be discouraging creative people to create content because they won39t be paid as much Creative people may not have the means to make their next thing without being paid enough Peter Sunde Cofounder of Pirate Bay was arrested and spend 8 months in a Swedish jail and 7 million ne Net Neutrality How to keep the internet neutral New York Times video on Net Neutrality Which companies get to have faster access If there was no net neutrality companies could pay for quicker access and speedier internet on their sites Freepressnet net neutrality discussion Court gives ISPs FCC two hours to make net neutrality case this is still getting stabilized today active issue What can you do Impact of news representation Framing and knowledge 1 should all ideas be represented during news coverage Fairness doctrine Have to report the other side of the argument to create a format for objectivity However today news is structured and overtly framed not bound by objective principles EX The ve on Fox 4 conservatives and 1 very nerdy stereotyped and satirical liberal video clip about occupy wall street Fairness doctrine was taken down because it pushed what to show and certain content lnclass debate ls fairness doctrine still relevant 1 Should the FCC regulate fair coverage of news allowing for opposite side of the debate to present their views 2 What are the advantages and disadvantages for the fairness doctrine Disadvantages Always assumes both sides are equally right Partisan view in which we identify issues by their opposing structure 0 Advantages Forces news to recognize the other side 1 How else can news organizations ensure that they offer diversity of opinions 2 Can we say anything about anyone Libel what stories you can use about a public gure EX jerry Falwell most public cases went to supreme court and the magazine won because of the satirical nature of the article 3 how do the ways in which a news story is represented impact audiences EX New York Post opinionated news magazine Headline Obamacare is a total and unmitigated disaster Sizing of the words and the picture they used EX Korean Airline ight and the Iran Air ight events were heavily framed in Newsweek39s two very different covers Framing Iran Air vs Korean Airlines Passive tense Choice of adjectives Choice of graphics Metaphors Moralization Some ideas but not all Question of agency Clicker questions 1 After the attacks last year in which nearly a dozen journalists were killed at Charlie Hebdo a satirical newspaper in France were killed the readership of the publication has declined True 1 Sesame Street39s new MuppetJulia presents an accurate representation of autism for the viewers True You can never really have an accurate representation of anything fully 1 The fairness doctrine is still in place ensuring balanced representation of news and inclusion of all opposing opinions True 1 Using the term climate change as opposed to global warming has no impact on how audiences perceive the issue True Article notes Keywords Framing the Real Messaging Enlightenment Reason Hypocognition Global Warming About the term quotclimate changequot instead of quotglobal warmingquot quotThe idea was that quotclimate had a nice connotation more swaying palm trees and less ooded out coastal cities quotChangequot left out any human cause of the change Climate just changed No one to blamequot Frames include semantic roles relation between roles and relations to other frames Frames connect to our emotions our political ideologies are characterized by systems of frames so ideological language will activate that ideological system quotReal reason is mostly unconscious 98 requires emotion uses the quotlogicquot of frames metaphors and narratives is physical in brain circuitry and varies considerably as frames vary And since the brain is set up to run a body ideas and language can39t directly t the world but rather must go through the bodyquot quotwhat actually happens is that the facts must make sense in terms of their system of frames or they will be ignoredquot quotWords are de ned relative to frames and hearing a word can activate its frame and the frames in its system in the brain of the hearer Conservatives can communicate a message with a few words while liberals have tons of explanation This is because conservatives spent decades building frames and better communication systems to their ideas out The conservative moral system has ideas that work against environmentalism and global warming 1 The idea that man is above nature in moral hierarchy nature for exploitation 2 Let the market decide ideology no authority higher than the market 3 Direct rather than systematic causation 4 Greed is good 5 Equivalent value metaphor monetary values think in terms of services 6 Views liberalism negatively Values of progressive moral system empathy responsibility personal and social and the ethic of excellence make the world better starting with yourself quotThe progressive moral system rejects market fundamentalism and sees government as necessary for improving environmental conditions These contradictory moral systems are at the heart of the political con ict over the environment in America We need to activate the progressive frames on the environment and inhibit conservative frames through language framing the truth effectively and experience experiences of the natural world Hypocognition is the lack of ideas we need we suffer hypocognition in the environment because it is tied up in issues like economics energy food health trade and security We treat nature like something totally apart from us yet we are so utter dependent on it Political action is more important than eating green and recycling quotThe economic and ecological meltdowns have the same cause namely the unregulated free market with the idea that greed is good and that the natural world is a resource for shortterm private enrichmentquot Localism is the idea that necessities of life like food housing energy etc can be made available in most of the world quotFrames can become reified made real in institutions industries and cultural practices Once rei ed they don39t disappear until the institutions industries and cultural practices disappearquot The environmental scientists view is material If enough people see the truth and are exposed to the facts the world should change Yet this is not powerful enough to move people to action Messaging 1 Progressives need a much better communications system spokes people 2 There needs to be cognitive policy in addition to material policy explaining longterm frames 3 Framing institutes are about much more than languagehow to ll framing gaps how to institutionalize the right frames 4 Everyday helpful hints Talk at the level of values and frame issues in terms of moral values 0 Provide a structured understanding of what you are saying Context matters be aware of what39s going on appearance matters Movements quotSuccessful social movements require the coherence provided by coherent framingquot Ex unions civil rights feminism environmentalism quotThe social movement approach is idealistic of necessity Idealism mobilizes And it throws a light on and presents a counterweight to moral compromise The media reports mainly on political compromisequot September lst 1983 Soviet ghter plane shot down Korean Air lines KAL Flight 007 killing 269 passengers and crew July 3rd 1988 US Navy ship the Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 killing 290 passengers and crew In both cases the nation claimed the planes as possible hostile targets and the officials claimed the shooting was justi able under the circumstances Frames are often dif cult to detect fully and reliably because many framing devices appear natural in word choice and image choice The news frames the literally quotcommon sensequot interpretation of events Framing on two levels 1 As mentally stored principles for information processing 2 Characteristics of the news text quotNews frames are constructed from and embodied in the keywords metaphors concepts symbols and visual images emphasized a news narrativequot Through repetition placement and reinforcing associations words and images make a frame that creates an interpretation that is more readily comprehensible and memorable than others Eventspeci c schema understanding of the reported event that guides interpretation of the initial information and the processing of all later information When a single frame thoroughly dominates a narrative politically impressive majorities will come to congruent understandings Newsmagazines in America have less frequent deadlines that usually allow them to canvass of cial sources thoroughly and distilling the results in a narrative re ecting the principal themes in the news quotOne could argue that by holding off nonetheless for two hours in hopes of identifying the plane positively the Soviets demonstrated moral sensitivity Or one could blame civilian air traf c control systems and international aviation organizations rather than either country39s governmentquot The essence of framing is sizing magnifying or shrinking elements of the depicted reality to make them more or less salient The event39s Importance is framed The KAL ight was portrayed as more important than Iran Air quotThe judgment of importance likely made a political difference A continuing high degree of mass awareness of KAL pressured potential elite opponents to the Reagan administration to remain silent or hop on the quotEvil Empirequot bandwagon In the second case lower mass awareness of the Iran Air incident diminished a political resource White House foes might otherwise have used to convince other elites to abandon the administration39s Persian Gulf policy quot Discursive Domain A series of idea clusters that form a way of reasoning about a matter that is familiar to audiences form other cultural experiences Four aspects of the text that created moral or technical frame 1 Consistent use of words and images the portrayed responsibility for the action agency 2 Encouraging or discouraging identi cation 3 Categorization of the act 4 Stimulating or suppressing a broad generalization Agency who did it KAL active construction of words quotMurder in the Airquot quotShooting to Killquot quotA Ruthless Ambush in the Skyquot implying that the entire USSR government was to blame Iran Air passive construction of words quotWhy it happenedquot quotWhat Went Wrong in the Gulfquot KAL texts attributed guilty knowledge of military leaders which was avoided in Iran Air texts the US of cials faced a tough choice and didn39t know it was nonthreat Cover art and graphics also participate in framing KAL ex quotThe predomination of the hammer and sickle symbolism suggests that by associating the event with the central most familiar symbol of communism the incident was traceable to the Soviet system itself And by showing the KAL logo the CBS story subtly con rmed that the Soviets knew the plane was civilianquot Iran Air ex quotTime coverquot quotshowed a man sitting before numerous control panels holding his head in apparent exasperation and confusion The illustration supported the agency attribution contained in the technical frame implying that the incident was traceable not to moral failure but to inadequacies of technology and of humans to cope with itquot quotThe contrasting ways that victims were identi ed encodes and exempli es the difference in discursive domainsquot Iran Air deemphasized victims and made it a technical story The graphics of the KAL story made it one of moral empathy quotThe striking difference between a fullpage drawing of an exploding KAL plane and a tiny dot representing the Iranian plane offers a powerful demonstration of how thoroughly the frame suffused the visual dimension and promoted moral evaluation in one case but not the otherquot The US media encourage more empathy with American than foreign victims of disaster or violence quotOn CBS and in the magazines about half of the words reminded the audience that the KAL victims were human beings but only about one fth of the words did so for the Iran Air victimsquot quotThe discursive domain also inhered in the choice of label for the incidents which tended to place them in categories that conventionally either elicit or omit moral evaluationquot KAL as attack and Iran Air as tragedy Moral accusation was far more noticeable in KAL than Iran Air Greater volume of accusation in TV than print and suggests TV39s greater independence quotThe moralizing frame in the KAL reports but not in the Iran Air coverage was also reinforced by the degree of generalization from the attacks to the nature of the two political systemsquot KAL larger generalization of the truths about the Soviet government and culture Political outcomes KAL congress authorized the production of the MX missile and nerve gas as messages to the Soviets Iran Air contain the possibility of unraveling support for American policy Gulf policy persisted Three topics of future research 1 Need for more research on audience autonomy 2 More research on media autonomy 3 Frames are composed of ve traits importance judgments agency identi cation categorization generalization F The far east has moved closer to the Paci c Rim in a cultural and political sense People are now more likely to see countries as important unimportant friendly hostile cooperative obstructive democratic authoritarian advanced underdeveloped Most American39s are not heavily in uenced by foreign affairs Production of information Most newspapers now get newsagency from satellite feeds which puts hard copy sources at a disadvantage because they have to be transcribed Daily news beyond national borders is declining contributing to the high costlow return nature of international coverage News sources and resources are not evenly distributed Reporters often y from one story to the next and this kind of reporting leaves little time to develop expertise in any single country The most important sources for foreign news are the agencies of government like the White House the State Department and the Pentagon which are likely to have the media report in their interest quotAn international crisis adds to their ability to manage the news flow about foreign countriesquot Administrations like the White house state department or the pentagon highlight certain dangerous events to advance their own agendas Media organizations use quotes and references from scholars travelers witnesses to enliven their reports quotmost foreign news available to Americans has become essentially a homegrown product put together by the mainstream media with a content more or less in line with the policy needs of their governmentquot Only a tiny bit of foreign information actually makes it to the news most of it is only released if it is in the company39s own interest TV networks have given more attention to foreign news than the press in terms of time devoted NBC and CBS expanded their nightly newscasts to 30 minutes in 1963 and began to build foreign coverage Foreign coverage was much more popular during the Vietnam War and the Iranian hostage crisis and the Gulf War TV more than press but still press is driven by crisis con ict and disaster Some countries are more newsworthy than others mainly Russia Europe Middle East Newscasts don39t usually lead with the same story on any night Large national newspapers set the agenda for local newspapers because local editors take cues from national editors quotHow do such policyrelated perspectives insinuate themselves into a nominally free media system As already indicated major suppliers of television footage and of news over the wire usually turn rst to government sources with which they have an established working relationship and whose view they can illafford to ignore These same sources typically get lead billing ahead of the alternative views needed for a 39fair39 balance Then as a dispatch moves down the line from international and national media to local outlets the original text usually at the end is often truncated in order to t the available space or time thereby magnifying any initial biasquot Television has been the most used source of world news for Americans but online sources have tripled between 1995 and 1998 Internet however serves mainly for conventional news Weather drew the largest audience 64 of online news consumers followed by technology entertainment and business News viewers who rely on TV are less informed than those who rely more on print media who also have higher levels of comprehension of the news quotNo more than 12 percent of the public according to the Pew Research Center 1998 make up the 39serious news audience with a relatively high interest in politics international affairs and science technology39 Being more educated they look beyond news to information from national public radio major newspapers periodicals and the astounding variety of specialized journals newsletters and books on foreign affairs that toll of the presses every year and most recently on the internet They are also more male more Republican and more interested in following the ups and downs of the global marketplacequot quotconstraints on time and poor language skills still prevalent make it unlikely that the dominance of domestic sources has been diminished by the arrival of new mediaquot Refraction of images 1 The American public relies on the news for information about the rest of the world because there is no other way to get that information with most not being able to travel to these places 2 The American public expresses less interest in news about other countries than local and national news 3 Perceptions outweigh geographical proximity 4 The public has a limited staying power short attention span 5 Focus on America39s role can leave and inaccurate impression about foreign events and policies 6 Images of other countries derive equally from feeling of cultural political af nity that take time to develop but also contribute to their ability 7 The lower the level of knowledge about another nation the more easily does its imagery change 8 The images of countries less prominent in the news are more volatile 9 The perceptions of the more educated and better informed are more complex differentiated and better grounded and more conducive to liberal views on foreign policy The Knowledge de cit Americans are not interested in political developments in other countries nor well informed about them Flow of information through four levels 1 The organized activities involved in the production of world news 2 The selective distribution of the products that constitute world news 3 Their utilization by various consumers 4 The process through which they are constructed into the images Americans have of other countries The news has an 39episodic39 format of quick moving events have little context and historical perspective that creates another problem quotwho within this information rich society will take responsibility for increasing public knowledge about an increasingly interdependent world Quiz section activity 4 Friday October 30 2015 Next Friday take a look at the study guide before section and come to class with questions Describelocate the de nition of the following terms from your readings for this week with your group Use your readings to include detailed descriptions of each concept Regarding the timeline please also provide important dates and events that relate to the particular item Fairness doctrine Reporting on both viewpoints of a topics so the public can get every side of the story This doctrine was revoked because it collided with free speech and with the expansion of television channels and more news broadcasts because the public could now get any side of a story with other channels Timeline Introduced in 1949 and revoked in 1987 FinSyn Rules Financial Interest and Syndication Prevented ABC NBC CBS and Fox from merging to avoid a monopoly of big television companies Prevent a con ict of interest around syndication Syndication When a show allows other networks to air it Timeline lmposed by FCC in 1970 The 1996 Telecommunications act lmposed to allow smaller media companies to enter the media world easier but it also made it easier for big conglomerates to buy out smaller companies A company39s control over 25 of American audiences and since has experienced further deregulation Timeline Started in 1996 in 2001 companies could control 30 of American audiences Copyright Term Extension Act Nicknamed the Mickey Mouse Act because Walt Disney corporation lobbied for the extension from 50 years after the creator39s death to 70 years after the creator39s death 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication whichever is shorter Timeline Started in 1998 extends the Copyright Act of 1976


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.